25) سورة الفرقان
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا (الفرقان: 1).
الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا (الفرقان: 2).
وَاتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ آلِهَةً لاَ يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ وَلاَ يَمْلِكُونَ ِلأَنفُسِهِمْ ضَرًّا وَلاَ نَفْعًا وَلاَ يَمْلِكُونَ مَوْتًا وَلاَ حَيَاةً وَلاَ نُشُورًا (الفرقان: 3).
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَذَا إِلاَّ إِفْكٌ افْتَرَاهُ وَأَعَانَهُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ آخَرُونَ فَقَدْ جَاءُوا ظُلْمًا وَزُورًا (الفرقان: 4).
وَقَالُوا أَسَاطِيرُ الأَوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمْلَى عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً (الفرقان: 5).
قُلْ أَنزَلَهُ الَّذِي يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا (الفرقان: 6).
وَقَالُوا مَالِ هَذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشِي فِي الأَسْوَاقِ لَوْلاَ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُ نَذِيرًا (الفرقان: 7).
أَوْ يُلْقَى إِلَيْهِ كَنزٌ أَوْ تَكُونُ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ يَأْكُلُ مِنْهَا وَقَالَ الظَّالِمُونَ إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ رَجُلاً مَسْحُورًا (الفرقان: 8).
انظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوا لَكَ الأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوا فَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلاً (الفرقان: 9).
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي إِنْ شَاءَ جَعَلَ لَكَ خَيْرًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ وَيَجْعَلْ لَكَ قُصُورًا (الفرقان: 10).
بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِالسَّاعَةِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِمَنْ كَذَّبَ بِالسَّاعَةِ سَعِيرًا (الفرقان: 11).
إِذَا رَأَتْهُم مِنْ مَكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ سَمِعُوا لَهَا تَغَيُّظًا وَزَفِيرًا (الفرقان: 12).
وَإِذَا أُلْقُوا مِنْهَا مَكَانًا ضَيِّقًا مُقَرَّنِينَ دَعَوْا هُنَالِكَ ثُبُورًا (الفرقان: 13).
لاَ تَدْعُوا الْيَوْمَ ثُبُورًا وَاحِدًا وَادْعُوا ثُبُورًا كَثِيرًا (الفرقان: 14).
قُلْ أَذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ أَمْ جَنَّةُ الْخُلْدِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَزَاءً وَمَصِيرًا (الفرقان: 15).
لَهُمْ فِيهَا مَا يَشَاءُونَ خَالِدِينَ كَانَ عَلَى رَبِّكَ وَعْدًا مَسْئُولاً (الفرقان: 16).
وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَقُولُ أَأَنْتُمْ أَضْلَلْتُمْ عِبَادِي هَؤُلاَءِ أَمْ هُمْ ضَلُّوا السَّبِيلَ (الفرقان: 17).
قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ مَا كَانَ يَنْبَغِي لَنَا أَنْ نَتَّخِذَ مِنْ دُونِكَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءَ وَلَكِنْ مَتَّعْتَهُمْ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّى نَسُوا الذِّكْرَ وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا بُورًا (الفرقان: 18).
فَقَدْ كَذَّبُوكُمْ بِمَا تَقُولُونَ فَمَا تَسْتَطِيعُونَ صَرْفًا وَلاَ نَصْرًا وَمَنْ يَظْلِمْ مِنْكُمْ نُذِقْهُ عَذَابًا كَبِيرًا (الفرقان: 19).
وَما أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنْ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلاَّ إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الأَسْوَاقِ وَجَعَلْنَا بَعْضَكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ فِتْنَةً أَتَصْبِرُونَ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ بَصِيرًا (الفرقان: 20).
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا لَوْلاَ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْمَلاَئِكَةُ أَوْ نَرَى رَبَّنَا لَقَدْ اسْتَكْبَرُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ وَعَتَوْا عُتُوًّا كَبِيرًا (الفرقان: 21).
يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلاَئِكَةَ لاَ بُشْرَى يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ وَيَقُولُونَ حِجْرًا مَحْجُورًا (الفرقان: 22).
وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاءً مَنْثُورًا (الفرقان: 23).
أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ مَقِيلاً (الفرقان: 24).
وَيَوْمَ تَشَقَّقُ السَّمَاءُ بِالْغَمَامِ وَنُزِّلَ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ تَنزِيلاً (الفرقان: 25).
الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ لِلرَّحْمَنِ وَكَانَ يَوْمًا عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ عَسِيرًا (الفرقان: 26).
وَيَوْمَ يَعَضُّ الظَّالِمُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ يَقُولُ يَالَيْتَنِي اتَّخَذْتُ مَعَ الرَّسُولِ سَبِيلاً (الفرقان: 27).
يَاوَيْلَتِي لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أَتَّخِذْ فُلاَنًا خَلِيلاً (الفرقان: 28).
لَقَدْ أَضَلَّنِي عَنْ الذِّكْرِ بَعْدَ إِذْ جَاءَنِي وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِلإِنسَانِ خَذُولاً (الفرقان: 29).
وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَارَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا (الفرقان: 30).
25. Surah Al Furqan (The Criterion)
The Surah takes its name “Al-Furgan” from the first verse. Though it is symbolic like the names of many other Surahs, it has a close relation to its subject matter.
Period of Revelation
It appears from its style and subject matter that, like Surah Al- Mu’minun, it was also revealed during the third stage of Prophethood at Makkah. Ibn Jarir and Imam Razi have cited a tradition of Dahhak bin Muzahim that this Surah was revealed eight years before
Surah An Nisa. This also confirms our opinion as to its period of revelation. (Ibn Jarir, Vol. XIX, pp. 28-30, and Tafsir Kabir, Vol. VL,p. 358).
Subject Matter and Topics
The Surah deals with the doubts and objections that were being raised against the Qur’an, the Prophethood of Muhammad (Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), and his teachings by the disbelievers of Makkah. Appropriate answers to each and every objection have been given and the people have been warned of the consequences of rejecting the Truth. At the end of the Surah, a clear picture of the moral superiority of the Believers has been depicted as at the beginning of Surah Al-Mu’minun, as if to say, ‘Here is the criterion for distinguishing the genuine from the counterfeit. This is the noble character of those
people who have believed in and followed the teachings of the Holy Prophet and this is the kind of people that he is trying to train. You may yourselves compare and contrast this type of people with those Arabs, who have not as yet accepted the Message, and who are
upholding “ignorance” and exerting their utmost to defeat the Truth. Now you may judge for yourselves as to which you would like to choose.” Though this question was not posed in so many words, it was placed before everyone in Arabia in a tangible shape. It may be
noted that during the next few years, the practical answer given to this question by the whole nation, with the exception of a small minority, was that they chose Islam.
(25:1) Most blessed is He1 Who sent down this Criterion2: on His servant, to be a warner to all mankind;
1. The Arabic word Tabarka is very comprehensive, and cannot be understood fully and completely by “blessed”, not even by a sentence. However, its meanings may be grasped by keeping in view the remaining portion of (verses 1-2). Here it has been used to convey the following meanings:
(1) He is the most Beneficent: that is why He has bestowed the great blessing of Al-Furqan by degrees on His servant so that he may admonish all mankind.
(2) He is the most Exalted and Great: for the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Him.
(3) He is the most Holy, Pure and Perfect: He is free from every tinge of shirk and has neither a partner in His Godhead nor needs a son to succeed Him; for He is Ever- Lasting.
(4) He is the Highest and the Most Supreme in rank: the Kingdom and the Dominion wholly and solely belong to Him, and there is none who has any share in His Authority and Powers.
(5) He is the sole Creator of the universe and has created each and everything in it and predetermined its destiny. For further details, see (E.N. 14 of Al-Mominoon) and (E.N. 19 of Al-Furqan).
2. Al-Furgan: The Criterion. The Quran has been called Al-Furqan because it is the Criterion for judging right and wrong virtue and vice, truth and falsehood.
3. The word nazzala implies the revelation of the Quran piecemeal by degrees. The wisdom of this introductory remark will be explained in the study of verse 32, where the objection of the disbelievers of Makkah as to why the Quran has not been sent down all at once has
been dealt with.
4. “Warner to all mankind”: To warn all mankind of the evil consequences of their heedlessness and deviation. The warner may be Al-Furgan or the Prophet (peace be upon him) to whom it was revealed. In fact, both were the warners because they were both sent
for one and the same purpose. The message of the Quran and Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) was not meant for any particular country but for the whole world; and not for their own time, but for all times to come. This has been stated at several places in the Quran. For instance: O Muhammad, say, O mankind, I am a Messenger to all of you from Allah (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 158). And this Quran has been revealed to me so that I should thereby warn you all and to whom it may reach. (Surah Al Anaam, Ayat 19). We have sent
you only as a bearer of good news and as a warner to all mankind. (Surah Saba, Ayat 28).
We have sent you as a mercy to all mankind. (Surah Al Anbiya, Ayat 107). The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself has stated this clearly in the Hadith. For instance, he said: I have been sent to all men, the red and the black. Before me, a Prophet was sent only to his own people, but 1 has been sent to all mankind. (Bukhari, Muslim). I have been sent to all mankind, and I am the last of the Prophets. (Muslim).
(25:2) He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth;3 Who has taken to Himself no son nor has He taken any partner in His kingdom; Who created everything and then determined its destiny.’
5. “To Him belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth.” That is, He alone has an exclusive right to it, and no one else has any right to it nor any share in it.
6. That is, He has neither any relation of direct parenthood to anyone nor has He taken anyone as a son. Therefore, none else in the universe is entitled to worship. He is Unique and there can be no partner in His Godhead. Thus all those who associate with Him angels or jinns or saints as His offspring, are ignorant. Likewise, those who believe that someone is His son, are also ignorant. They have no true conception of the Greatness of Allah and consider Him to be weak and needy like human beings, who require someone to become their inheritor. It is sheer ignorance and folly. For further details, see (E.Ns 66 to 68 of Surah Younus).
7. The Arabic word mulk means Sovereignty, Supreme Authority, and Kingship. Thus the sentence will mean: Allah is the Absolute Ruler of the whole universe and there is none other who may have any right to authority; therefore He alone is God. For, whenever a man takes anything else as his lord, he does so under the presumption that his deity has the power to do good or bring harm and make or mar his fortune; nobody will like to worship a powerless deity. Now when it is recognized that none but Allah has the real power and authority in the universe, nobody will bow before anyone other than Him in worship, nor will sing anybody else’s hymns, nor commit the folly of bowing in worship before anything else except his real God, or recognize any other as his ruler, because “To Allah belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and to Him alone.”
8. There may be other translations of this also: He has ordained it in due proportion, or He has appointed an exact measure for everything. But no translation can convey its real meaning, which is: that Allah has not only created everything in the universe but also determined its shape, size, potentialities, characteristics, term of existence, the limitations and extent of its development, and all other things concerning it. Then, He created the means and provisions to enable it to function properly in its own separate sphere.
This is one of the most comprehensive verses of the Quran with regard to the doctrine of Tauhid. According to traditions, the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself taught this verse to every child of his family as soon as he was able to speak and utter a few words. Thus, this verse is the best means of impressing the doctrine of Tauhid on our minds, and every Muslim should use it for educating his children as soon as they develop understanding.
(25:3) Yet people have taken, instead of Him, other deities; those that create nothing but are themselves created;9 who do not have the power to hurt or benefit even themselves; who have no power over death, nor over life, nor over the resurrection of the dead.10
9. The words are comprehensive and cover all the false gods whom the mushriks worship whether they are angels, jinns, Prophets, saints, the sun, the moon, the stars, trees, rivers, animals etc., which have been created by Allah, or those which have been created by man, as
the idols of stone, wood, etc.
10. That is, Allah has sent down Al-Furgan on His servant so that he may invite the people to the truth, which they have forsaken due to heedlessness and waywardness, and warn them of the evil consequences of their folly. The Furqan is being revealed piecemeal so that he may distinguish right from wrong and the genuine from the counterfeit.
(25:4) Those who disbelieve in the Message of the Prophet say: “This (Criterion) is nothing but a lie which he has forged with the help of others.” Such has indeed resorted to a grievous wrong and sheer falsehood.“
11. Another translation may be: a great injustice.
(25:5) They say: “These are merely fairy tales of the ancients which he has got inscribed and they are then recited to him morning and evening.”
(25:6) Say to them (O Muhammad): “It is He Who knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth12 Who has sent down this Book. Indeed, He is Most Forgiving, Most Compassionate.13
12. This is the same objection that the modern orientalists have raised against the Quran, but strange as it may seem, no contemporary of the Prophet (peace be upon him) ever raised such an objection against him. Nobody, for instance, ever said that Muhammad (peace be
upon him) as a boy had met Buhairah, the monk, and had attained religious knowledge from him, nor did anybody claim that he had obtained all that information from the Christian monks and Jewish rabbis during the trade journeys in his youth. In fact, they knew
that he had never traveled alone but in the caravans and if they said such a thing, it would be refuted by hundreds of their own people from the city.
Then, one could ask, if he had gained all that knowledge from Buhairah when he was about 12, and during trade journeys when he was 25, why did he keep it secret from the people till he became 40? Whereas he did not leave his country even for a single day but lived for
years among his own people in the same city. That is why the people of Makkah dared not bring such an impudent and baseless charge against him. Their objections related to the time when he claimed to be a Prophet (peace be upon him) of Allah and not to the time preceding that claim. Their argument was like this: This man is illiterate and cannot obtain any knowledge through books. He has lived among us for forty years, but we have never heard from him anything that might have shown that he had any acquaintance with what he is preaching; therefore he must have had the help of other people who copied these things from the writings of the ancients for him: he learns these things from them and recites them as divine revelations: this is a fraud. So much so that according to some traditions, they named some of his helpers, who were the people of the Book, were illiterate and lived in Makkah. They were: (1) Addas, a freed slave of Huvaitib bin Abdul Uzza. (2) Yasar, a freed slave of Ala bin Al Hadrami. (3) Jabr, a freed slave of Amir bin Rabbiah.
Apparently, this is a weighty argument. For there can be no greater proof of the fraud of Prophethood than to specify its source. But it looks strange that no argument has been put forward to refute this charge except a mere denial as if to say: Your charge is an impudent
lie: you are cruel and unjust to bring such a false charge against Our Messenger; for the Quran is the Word of Allah Who knows all the secrets in the heavens and the earth. Had their charge been based on facts, it would not have been rejected with contempt, for in that
case, the disbelievers would have demanded a detailed and clear answer. But they realized the strength of the arguments and did not make such a demand. Moreover, the fact that the weighty argument failed to produce any doubt in the minds of the new Muslims, was a
clear proof that it was a lie.
The enigma is clearly explained if we keep in view the prevalent circumstances.
(1) The disbelievers of Makkah did not take any decisive steps to prove their charge, although they could, had there been any truth in their charge. For instance, they could have made raids on the houses of the alleged helpers and on the house of the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself and taken hold of the whole material which was being used in this fraud and made it public to expose his Prophethood. And this was not difficult for them because they never hesitated to resort to anything to defeat him, including persecution, as they were not bound by any moral code.
(2) The alleged helpers were not strangers. As they lived in Makkah, everyone knew well how learned they were. The disbelievers themselves knew that they could never have helped to produce a unique and sublime Book like the Quran which had the highest literary
excellence and merit. That is why none of them challenged the answer to the charge. That is why even those people, who did not know them, considered this frivolous. Then if the alleged helpers were such geniuses, why did they not claim to be prophets themselves?
(3) Then, all the alleged helpers have freed slaves who were attached to their former masters even after their freedom according to the customs of Arabia; therefore they could not have become willing accomplices of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in this fraud of false
prophethood because their former masters could have coerced them to expose it. The only reason for them to help the Prophet (peace be upon him) in his claim could have been some greed or interest which, under the circumstances, could not even be imagined. Thus, apparently, there was no reason why they should have offended those whose protection and patronage they needed and enjoyed, and become accomplices in the fraud.
(4) Above all, all these alleged helpers embraced Islam. Could it be possible that those very persons, who had helped the Prophet (peace be upon him) to make his fraud successful, could have possibly become his devoted followers? Moreover, if, for the sake of argument, it be admitted that they helped him, why was not any of them raised to a prominent rank as a reward for his help? Why were not Addas and Yasar and Jabr exalted to the same status as Abu Bakr and Umar and Abu Ubaidah? Another odd thing is that if the fraud of prophethood was being carried on with the help of the alleged helpers, how could it remain hidden from Zaid bin Harithah, Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Bakr, and other people, who were the Prophets (peace be upon him) closest and most devoted companions? Thus the charge was not only frivolous and false, but it was also below the dignity of the Quran to give any
answer to it. The charge has been cited merely to prove that those people had been so blinded by their opposition to the truth that they could say anything.
13. “He is All Forgiving and All Merciful” is very meaningful here. It means that Allah is giving full respite to the enemies of the truth, for He is Forgiving and Merciful; otherwise, He would have sent down a scourge to annihilate them because of the false charges they were bringing against the Messenger. It also contains an admonition, as if to say: O unjust people, if even now you give up your enmity and obduracy and accept the truth, We shall forgive your previous misdeeds.
(25:7) They say: “What sort of a Messenger is this: he eats food and walks about in the markets? Why was an angel not sent down to him so that he may remain with the Messenger and warn those that do not believe in him?
14. That is, he cannot be a Messenger of Allah because he is a human being like us. Had Allah willed to send a Messenger, He would have sent an angel, and if at all a human being was to be sent, he should have been a king or a millionaire, who would have resided in a castle and been guarded by attendants. A Messenger could not be an ordinary person who has to move about in the market places like the common people, for it is obvious that such a human Messenger cannot attract the attention of the people. In other words, they thought that a Messenger was not meant to guide the people to the right path but to coerce them to obedience by show of worldly power and grandeur. For details, see (E.N. 26 of Surah Al- Mominoon).
15. That is, if a human being was to be sent as a Messenger, an angel should have been appointed to accompany him to proclaim: If you do not believe in him, I will scourge you. But what kind of a Messenger is he, who has to suffer from abuse and persecution?
(25:8) Why was a treasure not bestowed upon him, or a garden whereof he might obtain his sustenance?” The evil-doers say: “You are simply following a bewitched man.16
16. That is, if nothing else, Allah should at least have made extraordinary arrangements for his livelihood. But this man has no treasure and no gardens, yet he claims to be a Messenger of the Lord of the universe.
17. The disbelievers of Makkah made the false propaganda against the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he had been bewitched by some jinn or by the sorcery of an enemy or by the curse of some god or goddess for his insolence. But it is strange that they also admitted that
he was a clever man who could make use of extracts from the ancient writings for the sake of his prophethood, could practice sorcery and was also a poet.
(25:9) See what specious arguments they put forth before you: they are so strayed that they will not find their way to anything sound.18
18. As these objections were frivolous and meaningless like others, the Quran has ignored them, saying: Your objections are irrelevant, unreasonable, and void of sense. You bring no sound argument to prove your doctrine of shirk, or to refute the doctrine of Tauhid put
forward by him, whereas the Messenger gives such proofs of the doctrine of Tauhid that you cannot refute them except by saying: He is bewitched. The same is true of the doctrine of the life-after-death and of the moral system of the Quran, which has produced men of
high character. You cannot deny these things; you reject them, saying, He is a human being like us, etc.
(25:10) Most blessed? is He Who, if He wills, can grant you even better than what they propose: Gardens beneath which rivers flow, and stately mansions.
19. Here again the word Tabarka has been used and in the context, it means: Allah has full control over everything and has unlimited powers: if he wills to favor somebody, He can do so as and when He wills without let or hindrance.
(25:11) Nay, the truth is that it is the Hour20, 21 to which they give the lie.1 We have kept a Blazing Fire ready for him who denies the Hour.
20. The word as-saat, meaning the time or the Hour, has been used in the Quran as a term for the promised Hour of Resurrection, when all human beings of all ages will be raised from the dead and gathered together before Allah Almighty to account for their beliefs and deeds, right or wrong, and rewarded or punished accordingly.
21. That is, the objections they are raising are not due to the reason that they doubt the authenticity of the Quran on some rational ground, or that they do not believe in you for the reason that you eat food and walk about in the streets like the common people, or that they did not accept your message of truth only because you were not escorted by an angel, or were not given a treasure. But the real reason why they are putting forward all sorts of absurd arguments to reject your message is that they do not believe in life after- death, and this denial has made them free from all moral obligations. For when one denies life- after death, there remains no need for him to consider and decide what is true or false, or what is right or wrong, etc. Their argument is like this: There is going to be no life after this one on the earth when we will be called to account for our deeds before God. Death will be the end of everything, and it will therefore make no difference whether one was a worshiper of God or a disbeliever or a mushrik or an atheist. When the ultimate end is to become one with the dust, there is no need of judging what is right and what is wrong except by the criterion of success and failure in this life. Those who deny the Hereafter also see that worldly success or failure does not entirely depend upon one’s faith or conduct; nay, they very often see that the righteous and the wicked persons meet with the same end
irrespective of their faith for which there is no ordained punishment or reward in this life; one righteous person may be living a life of hardship while another enjoying all the good things of life; one wicked person may be suffering for his misdeeds while the other enjoying a life of pleasure and plenty. As such, as far as the worldly consequences of adopting a particular moral attitude are concerned, the disbelievers in the Hereafter cannot be satisfied with whether it is right or wrong. In view of this, those who deny the Hereafter, do not see any need to consider an invitation to faith and morality even if it is presented in a most forceful Way.
(25:12) When it sees them from a place afar, they will hear its raging and roaring,
22. “The Fire sees them” The words used in the text may be metaphorical, or they may mean that the Fire of Hell will be endowed with the faculties of seeing, thinking, and judging.
(25:13) and when they are flung, chained together, into a narrow place in it, they will fervently call there for annihilation.
(25:14) (They will then be told): “Do not call for a single annihilation, but for many an annihilation.”
(25:15) Ask them: “Is this state better or the Garden of Eternity which the God-fearing have been promised?” It shall be their recompense and the end-point of their journey;
(25:16) the Garden wherein whatever they desire will be fulfilled. In it, they shall abide for ever. This is a promise whose fulfillment Your Lord has made incumbent on Himself.23
23. Literally: It is a promise whose fulfillment can be demanded (from Allah).
Here one may ask the question: How can the promise of the Garden and the threat of the Fire produce any effect on the attitude of a person who denies resurrection and the existence of Paradise and Hell? In order to understand the wisdom of this method of admonition, one
should keep in view that it is meant to appeal to the self-interest of an obdurate person, who does not otherwise listen to such arguments. This is as if to say: Even if for the sake of argument, there is no proof of the reality of the life-after-death, there is also no proof that such an event will not occur at all, and there is a possibility for both. In the latter case, the believer and the disbeliever both will be in one and the same position, but if there is life in the Hereafter, as the Prophet asserts, then the disbelievers will be doomed to utter ruin.
Therefore, such an approach breaks the stubbornness of the disbelievers and proves to be highly effective when the entire scene of resurrection gathering of the people, their accountability and of Hell and Heaven is presented in a vivid manner as if the Prophet
(peace be upon him) had himself seen it with his own eyes. For further explanation, see (Surah HaMim Sajdah, Ayat 52 and E. N. 69) thereof, and (Surah Al-Ahgaf, Ayat 10).
(25:17) On the Day when He will muster together all the unbelievers as well as the deities that they worship beside Allah,24 and He will ask them: “Was it you who caused these servants of Mine to stray away, or did they themselves stray away from the Right Path?”25
24. Here, deities do not mean idols but the angels, the prophets; the saints, the martyrs, and the pious men, whom the mushriks of different communities have made their deities.
25. Such dialogues between Allah and the gods of the disbelievers occur at several places in the Quran. For instance, in Surah it has been stated: On the day when He will gather them all together, He will ask the angels, Did these people worship you? They will answer, Glory be to Thee! Thou art our Patron and not they: they in fact worshiped the jinns (that is, satans); most of these believed in them. (verses 40-41). Similarly in Surah Al- Maidah, it is said: And when Allah will say, O Jesus, son of Mary, did you ever say to the people: Make me and my mother gods instead of Allah? He will answer, Glory be to Thee! It did not behoove me to say that which I had no right to say. I told them only that which Thou didst bid me: Worship Allah, Who is my Lord as well as your Lord. (verses. 116, 117).
(25:18) They will say: “Glory be to You! It did not behoove us to take any other than You as our guardians, but You lavished the pleasures of life upon them and their forefathers until they forgot the Admonition and became doomed to destruction.”26
26. That is, they were mean people: You gave them all the provisions of life so that they may show gratitude to You, but they became ungrateful and ignored all the admonitions given by the Prophets.
(25:19) Thus will those deities give the lie to all what you now say,27 and you will not be able to avert your doom, nor obtain any succor. We shall cause whoever of you commits wrong”28 to taste an enormous chastisement.
27. That is, on that day your religion, which you now believe, to be true, will prove to be false and even your gods, whom you yourselves have set up, will declare it to be a lie; for none of them ever asked you to make them your deities and worship them as such. Consequently, instead of interceding on your behalf; they will bear witness against you.
28. They will be guilty of iniquity. They will be unjust to the reality and the truth and guilty of disbelief and shirk. The context shows that those who reject the Prophet (peace be upon him) and set up other deities instead of Allah and deny life in the Hereafter, are guilty of zulm (iniquity).
(25:20) (O Muhammad), We never sent any Messengers before you but they ate food and walked about in the markets.29 We made some of you a means test each by the other? to see whether you remain patient.*! Your Lord is All-Seeing.30
29. This is an answer to the objection of the disbelievers of Makkah that Muhammad (peace be upon him) could not be a Messenger of Allah because he ate food and moved about in the streets. They have been told that all the Messengers of Allah who came before Muhammad, like Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Moses, and many others (peace be upon them all) whom they knew and acknowledged as Prophets and Messengers of Allah also ate food and walked about in the streets. Nay, even Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him), son of Mary,
himself, whom the Christians had made the son of God (and whose image had also been placed in the Kabah by the disbelievers of Makkah) ate food and walked about in the streets like a common man even according to the Gospels themselves.
30. It is obvious that the Messenger and the believers were a test for the disbelievers as to whether they would believe even after hearing the divine message and seeing their pure character. On the other hand, the disbelievers were a test for the Messenger and his followers in the sense that they were a means of proving and trying their true faith by their persecution. For it is this test alone that helps to discriminate the true believers from the hypocrites. That is why, at first, only the poor and the helpless but sincere people embraced Islam. Had there been no persecution and hardships but prosperity, wealth, and grandeur,
the worshipers of the world and the selfish people would have been the first to embrace Islam.
31. That is, now that you have understood the wisdom of the test by persecution, it is hoped that you will endure all kinds of hardships without complaint, and willingly undergo the persecutions that are inevitable.
32. It probably means two things: First, the way your Lord is conducting your affairs, is according to His will and nothing that happens is without His knowledge. Second: He is fully aware of your sincerity and righteousness in serving His cause under all kinds of
hardships. You should, therefore, rest assured that you will have your full reward. He also sees the persecution and iniquity of the disbelievers; therefore they will not escape the consequences of their wickedness.
(25:21) Those who do not look forward to meeting Us say:33 “Why should angels not be sent to us, or why do we ourselves not observe our Lord? 34 Surely they are too proud of themselves: and have gone beyond all limits in their rebellion.
33. That is, if Allah had really intended to convey His message to us, He would not have chosen a prophet and sent an angel only to him, but to each one of us individually with guidance, or He should have sent a deputation of angels to appear before the people with the message. The same objection has been stated in Surah Al-Anaam thus: When a
revelation comes before them, they say: We will not believe in it unless we are given the like of what has been given to the Messengers of Allah. Allah knows best whom to entrust with His mission and how it should be enforced. (verse 124).
34. That is, Allah Himself should appear before us and make the appeal.
35. Another translation could be: They have formed a very high opinion of their own selves.
(25:22) On that Day – the Day when they will behold angels – there will be no good news for those immersed in evil,36and they will cry out: “We seek refuge (in Allah).”
36. This very theme has been expressed in much greater detail in (Al-Anaam, Ayat 8); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 7-8 and 51-64); and in (Surah Banilsrail, Ayats 90-95.
(25:23) And We shall turn to their deeds and shall reduce them to scattered dust. 37. For explanation, see (Surah Ibrahim, Ayat 18 and E.Ns 25, 26) thereof.
(25:24) On that Day it is the inmates of Paradise that will be graced with a better abode and a fairer resting place.38
38. In contrast to the miserable plight of the disbelievers on the Day of Resurrection, the believers will be protected from the hardships of that Day. They will be treated with honor and will have a blissful place for midday rest. According to a tradition, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I declare on oath by Allah, in Whose hand is my life, that the long, horrible Day of Resurrection will be made very short and light for a believer, as short and light as the time taken in offering an obligatory Prayer. (Musnad Ahmad).
(25:25) On that Day the sky shall be rent asunder by a cloud and a whole cavalcade of angels will be made to descend.
(25:26) On that Day the true kingdom will belong only to the Merciful Lord. That will be a hard day for those that deny the Truth;
39. That is, on that Day all other kingdoms, which deluded man in the world, will come to an end, and there will be only the Kingdom of Allah, Who is the real Sovereign of the universe. In (Surah Momin, Ayat 16), the same thing has been stated thus: On that Day when all the people will stand exposed, and nothing of them will be hidden from Allah, it will be asked: Whose is the Sovereignty today? The response from every side will be: Of Allah, the Almighty. According to a tradition, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah will take the heavens in one hand and the earth in the other, and will declare: I am the Sovereign: I am the Ruler. Where are the other rulers of the earth? Where are those tyrants? Where are the arrogant people? (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Daud, with slight variations).
(25:27) a Day when the wrong-doer will bite his hands, saying: “Would that I had stood by the Messenger!
(25:28) Woe is me! Would that I had not taken such a one for a friend!
(25:29) He led me astray from the Admonition that had come to me. Satan proved to be a great betrayer of man.”40
40. Satan has proved very treacherous to man. It may also be a part of the disbelievers’ lament, or it may be a remark by Allah, in which case the meaning will be: And Satan is indeed the one who always deceives man.
(25:30) And the Messenger will say: “My Lord! My own people had made this Qur’an an object of laughter.”41
41. The Arabic word Mahjur is capable of several meanings. As such, the sentence may mean:
these people did not regard the Quran as worthy of their consideration: they neither accepted it nor followed it. Or they considered it to be nonsense or the delirium of insanity. Or they made it the target of their ridicule and mockery.