SURH AL HAJ AYAH NO 26 TO 55
وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا ِلأَبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَنْ لاَ تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ (الحج: 26).
وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالاً وَعَلَى كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِنْ كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ (الحج: 27).
لِيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَهُمْ مِنْ بَهِيمَةِ الأَنْعَامِ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ (الحج: 28).
ثُمَّ لِيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَلْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا بِالْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ (الحج: 29).
ذَلِكَ وَمَنْ يُعَظِّمْ حُرُمَاتِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ وَأُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ الأَنْعَامُ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاجْتَنِبُوا الرِّجْسَ مِنْ الأَوْثَانِ وَاجْتَنِبُوا قَوْلَ الزُّورِ (الحج: 30).
حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ (الحج: 31).
ذَلِكَ وَمَنْ يُعَظِّمْ شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ (الحج: 32).
لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ مَحِلُّهَا إِلَى الْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ (الحج: 33).
وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنْسَكًا لِيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَهُمْ مِنْ بَهِيمَةِ الأَنْعَامِ فَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَلَهُ أَسْلِمُوا وَبَشِّرْ الْمُخْبِتِينَ (الحج: 34).
الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَهُمْ وَالْمُقِيمِي الصَّلاَةِ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ (الحج: 35).
وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُمْ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرْنَاهَا لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ (الحج: 36).
لَنْ يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلاَ دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنْكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرْ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (الحج: 37).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدَافِعُ عَنْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ خَوَّانٍ كَفُورٍ (الحج: 38).
أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ (الحج: 39).
الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ وَلَوْلاَ دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ (الحج: 40).
الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوْا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنْ الْمُنْكَرِ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الأُمُورِ (الحج: 41).
وَإِنْ يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وَثَمُود (الحج: 42).
وَقَوْمُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ (الحج: 43).
وَأَصْحَابُ مَدْيَنَ وَكُذِّبَ مُوسَى فَأَمْلَيْتُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ (الحج: 44).
فَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا وَهِيَ ظَالِمَةٌ فَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِهَا وَبِئْرٍ مُعَطَّلَةٍ وَقَصْرٍ مَشِيدٍ (الحج: 45).
أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا فَإِنَّهَا لاَ تَعْمَى الأَبْصَارُ وَلَكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ (الحج: 46).
وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَنْ يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَإِنَّ يَوْمًا عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ كَأَلْفِ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ (الحج: 47).
وَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَمْلَيْتُ لَهَا وَهِيَ ظَالِمَةٌ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهَا وَإِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ (الحج: 48).
قُلْ يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُبِينٌ (الحج: 49).
فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ (الحج: 50).
وَالَّذِينَ سَعَوْا فِي آيَاتِنَا مُعَاجِزِينَ أُوْلَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ (الحج: 51).
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ وَلاَ نَبِيٍّ إِلاَّ إِذَا تَمَنَّى أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنْسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ (الحج: 52).
لِيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ (الحج: 53).
وَلِيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَيُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ فَتُخْبِتَ لَهُ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهَادِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ (الحج: 54).
وَلاَ يَزَالُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْهُ حَتَّى تَأْتِيَهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابُ يَوْمٍ عَقِيمٍ (الحج: 55).
SURH AL HAJ AYAH NO 26 TO 55
(22:26) Call to mind when We assigned to Abraham the site of the House (Kabah), directing him: “Do not associate aught with Me” and “Keep My House pure for those who walk around it,45 and for those who stand and who bow down and who prostrate themselves (in worship),
45. Some commentators opine that the address to Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) ends with (verse 26) and say that the command contained in (verse 27) was addressed to the Prophet (peace be upon him); but this opinion does not fit in with the context. For it is obvious that this command was also addressed to Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) when he built the Kabah. Moreover, the command implies that the House of Allah had been built for the worship of One Allah and there was general permission from the very first day for all worshipers to visit it for performing Hajj.
(22:27) and publicly proclaim Pilgrimage for all mankind so that they come to you on foot and mounted on lean46camels47 from every distant point 46. The expression lean camels have been deliberately used to depict the picture of the camels of pilgrims coming from far-off places to perform Hajj.
47. In my opinion the address to Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) comes to an end with (verse 27, and verses 28- 29) have been added to emphasize and give further instructions for the performance of Hajj. We have based this opinion on the use of the epithet Ancient House of the Kabah. It could not have been used at the time when Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) built it. (For further details about the construction of the Kabah see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 125-129); (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayats, 96-97); and (Surah Ibrahim, Ayats 35-41).
(22:28) to witness the benefits in store for them,48 and pronounce the name of Allah during the appointed days over the cattle that He has provided them.“ 49 So eat of it and feed the distressed and the needy.
48. “The benefits” include both religious and worldly benefits. It was due mainly to the Kabah that during the period of 2500 years between the times of Prophet Abraham and the Prophet (peace be upon them), the Arabs, in spite of their tribal life, remained attached to one central place and continued to visit it from all parts of Arabia for performing Hajj year after year. This in turn preserved their language, their culture, and their Arab identity. Then during the course of the year, they were afforded at least four months of perfect peace when anybody and everybody could safely travel alone or in trade caravans; thus the ritual of Hajj was directly beneficial to the economic life of the country as well. For details see (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayat 97 and E.Ns 80, 81) thereof, and (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayat 97 and_E.N. 113 )thereof.
49. “The cattle” here imply the camel, cow, sheep, and goat as has been clearly mentioned in (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 142-144), “they should mention the name of Allah over the cattle”, implies that they should slaughter the cattle for Allah’s sake and in His name, as is clear
from the subsequent sentences. Allah’s name should be recited at the time the cattle are slaughtered to show that the Muslims are to slaughter and sacrifice animals in Allah’s name alone so as to distinguish them from the disbelievers who slaughtered animals without mentioning Allah’s name or by mentioning other names than that of Allah.
As regards “the appointed days”, there is a difference of opinion as to their exact identity. Some of the opinions as to what the appointed days mean are.
(1) The first ten days of Zil-Hajj. This view is supported by Ibn Abbas, Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Nakhai, Qatadah, and several other companions and their followers. Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafai and Ahmad bin Hanbal have also favored this view.
(2) The tenth of Zil-Hajj and the three days following it. This view is supported by Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Ibrahim Nakhai, Hasan and Ata. Imams Shafai and Ahmad are also reported to have favored this in a saying each.
(3) The tenth day of Zil-Hajj and the two following days. This view has been supported by Umar, Ali, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Hurairah, Said bin Musayyab and Said bin Jubair. Sufyan Tauri, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Yusuf, and Imam Muhammad from among the jurists have also adopted it, and the Hanafites and the Malikites are also generally agreed on this.
50. The imperative mood of the verb has given rise to the misunderstanding that it is obligatory to eat their flesh and also to give of it to the needy people, Imams Shafai and Malik opine that it is good to eat of it and it is obligatory to give of it to others. According to
Imam Abu Hanifah, both these things are permitted but are not obligatory. It is good to eat of it, for the people in the days of ignorance considered it unlawful to eat sacrificial meat of their own animals, and it is good to give of it to the poor by way of help. Ibn Jarir has cited instances from Hasan Basri, Ata, Mujahid, and Ibrahim Nakhai to prove that the imperative mood does not always imply a command, for example in (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayat 2) Thus, “give of it to the indigent” does not mean that the flesh cannot be given to a rich person for the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to give of it to their friends, neighbors, relatives whether they were rich or poor. According to Ibn Umar, one-third of the flesh may be consumed at home, one-third may be given to the neighbors, and the remaining one-third distributed among the needy.
(22:29) Thereafter, let them tidy up 51 and fulfill their vows52 and circumambulate the Ancient House.”53
51. It means that after performing the essential Hajj rites, one should put off Ihram, have a shave, bath, etc. for one is free from the restrictions of Ihram after Hajj. However, one is not allowed to have sexual relations with his wife till one has performed the Tawaf of Ziyarah or Ifadah.
52. That is, the vow one has made for that occasion.
53. The Arabic word Atiq, which has been used for the Kabah, is very meaningful for it implies.
(2) Free from the sovereignty and ownership of anyone.
(3) Honored and revered. I am of the opinion that here the word Tawaf refers to the circumambulation that was performed on the tenth day of Zil-Hajj after setting aside Ihram, as the last ritual of Hajj, and is called Tawaf of Ifadah or Ziyarah (visit).
(22:30) Such (was the purpose of building the Kabah). Whosoever, then, venerates Allah’s sanctities will find it to be good for him in the sight of his Lord. Cattle have been made lawful for you except those mentioned to you (as unlawful).5¢ So shun the abomination of idols and shun all words of falsehood.
54. Though the command is of a general nature, here it refers particularly to the prohibitions which are connected with the Sacred Mosque, Hajj, Umrah, and Makkah. Incidentally, there is a subtle hint in it to the Quraish; who had driven out the Muslims from Makkah and
debarred them from Hajj and violated the sanctity of the Ancient House by associating indecent, filthy, and ungodly rites with Hajj and the House in contradiction to the ways of Abraham.
55. “And the cattle have been made lawful for you” has been cited here for two objects.
(1) It is to refute the custom of the Quraish under which certain cattle, bahirah. saibah, wasilah and ham, were considered unlawful. They are being told that these are also lawful like other cattle.
(2) It is not unlawful as was held by the Quraish to eat the flesh of the cattle even in the state of [hram.
56. This refers to (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 145) and (Surah An-Nahal, Ayat 115) in which Allah has forbidden the Muslims to eat what dies of itself, blood, the flesh of swine, or what has been slaughtered in any name other than Allah’s.
57. That is, refrain from and guard against the worship of idols just as you avoid filthily and dirty things.
58. Though the expression “false speech” is general and implies lies, false evidence, calumny, etc., here it particularly refers to those false creeds, rites, rituals, and superstitious things on which kufr and shirk have been founded. It is obvious that there is no greater lie than
associating others with Allah in His Being, Attributes, Powers and Rights. It was a falsehood to make Tahirah, etc. unlawful. See also (Surah An-Nahal, Ayat 116).
To take a false oath and give false evidence also come under this commandment. A tradition from the Prophet (peace be upon him) says:
False evidence is equal to shirk with Allah. That is why according to Islamic Law, a false witness should be punished and disgraced. Imams Abu Yusuf and Muhammad have expressed the opinion that a person who brings a false witness to the court should be publicly exposed and sentenced to long imprisonment. This was the actual practice in the
time of Umar. According to Makhul, he said:
Such a person should be whipped, his head shaved, and his face blackened and he should be sentenced to long imprisonment.
Abdullah bin Amir reported from his father that a person’s false evidence was established in Umar’s court, whereupon the Caliph kept him exposed to the public for a day, saying that he was so and so and a false witness so that people might recognize him, and then he imprisoned him. These days this can be done by publishing the culprit’s name in the newspapers, etc.
(22:31) Become exclusively devoted to Allah, ascribing Divinity to none other than Him. Whoso ascribes Divinity to aught beside Allah, it is as though he fell down from the sky whereafter either the birds will snatch him away, or the wind will sweep him to a distant place®. (causing him to be shattered to pieces).
59. In this parable heaven means the original human nature. A man by nature is the servant of none else but Allah and inherently accepts the doctrine of Tauhid. That is why the one who follows the guidance of the Prophets becomes firm in these dictates of his nature and soars
higher and higher. On the other hand, the one who rejects Allah or associates a partner with Him falls down from the heaven of his nature. Then he either becomes a victim of Satan and evil leaders like the birds of the parable, which snatch away the fallen man, or he becomes a slave of his lusts, passions, whims, etc., which have been likened to the wind in the parable. They lower him down from one wrong position to the other till he falls into the deepest abyss of degradation.
(22:32) Such is the fact. And whoso venerates the sanctity of all that has been ordained as symbols of Allah surely does so because it is part of the true piety of the hearts.
60. “Symbols of Allah”: the performance of Salat, Hajj, Fasting, etc., or things like a Mosque or sacrificial offerings, etc. See (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayat 2 and E.Ns 5-7) thereof).
61. That is, the observance of the sanctity of the symbols by a man is proof that there is piety in his heart. On the other hand, the man who violates their sanctity proves himself to be void of piety and fear of God. It shows that he either does not believe at all in Allah or
adopts a rebellious attitude against Him.
(22:33) You may derive benefit (from sacrificial animals) until an appointed time.62 Thereafter their place (of sacrifice) is near the Ancient House.63
62. This is to remove the misunderstanding about getting any benefit from the animals dedicated to sacrifice as they were also included in the symbols of Allah. This was necessitated because the Arabs believed that it was unlawful to get any benefit from them.
One could neither ride on them nor carry any load on them nor consume their milk after they had been dedicated for sacrifice during Hajj. In this verse that misunderstanding has been removed. Abu Hurairah and Anas have reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw a man walking in a miserable condition on foot leading his camel by the nose string.
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him to ride on it, he replied that it was his sacrificial offering. The Prophet (peace be upon him) again urged him to ride on his camel.
There is a divergence of opinion in regard to the interpretation “of an appointed term”. Some commentators, particularly Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, Mujahid, Dahhak, and Ata are of the view that it refers to the time of the dedication of the animals for sacrifice. Obviously, this is
not the correct view, because in that case, the permission to get benefit from them becomes meaningless. There are other commentators including Urwah bin Zubair and Ala bin Abi Rabah, who are of the view that “appointed term” means the time of sacrifice and one can get benefit from them up till then. One may ride on them, drink their milk, take their young ones for use, and shear their hair, wool, etc. Imam Shafai has adopted this view. The Hanafites are of the opinion that one can get benefit from them if need be, though it is
preferable not to do so.
63. It does not mean that the sacrifice is to be made in the precincts of the Ancient House of the Kaah. The Quran uses the House of Allah or Masjid-i-Haram for the whole of the Inviolable Place of Makkah and not for that particular building. (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayat 95).
(22:34) For every people We have laid down a ritual of sacrifice (- although the purpose of the ritual is the same -) that they pronounce the name of Allah over the cattle He has provided them. Your Lord is One God; so submit yourselves to Him alone. And give, (O Prophet), glad tidings to those that humble® themselves (before Allah),
64. This verse implies two things.
(1) Sacrifice has been an essential part of the worship of One Allah in all the revealed religions. In order to inculcate Tauhid, Allah prohibited sacrifice for anyone other than Himself. This was in keeping with the other prohibitions which were made for others than Allah. For instance, prostration before anyone other than Allah, making vows for others
then Allah, visiting holy places other than those prescribed by Allah, fasting in the name of others than of Allah, etc., were all prohibited.
(2) The other thing which has been common in all the revealed religions was the object of the sacrifice in the name of Allah though its details have been different in different religions, times, and countries.
65. The Arabic word mukhbitin (الْمُخْبِتِينَ) has no equivalent in English. It includes those who;
(1) Give up pride, and arrogance and adopt humility before Allah.
(2) Surrender themselves to His service and slavery.
(3) Accept His decrees sincerely.
(22:35) whose hearts shiver whenever Allah is mentioned, who patiently bear whatever affliction comes to them, who establish Prayer, and who spend (for good purposes) out of what We have provided them.
66. It means that righteous people spend their lawful provisions in the way of Allah to meet their own and their dependents’ lawful needs, to help their relatives, neighbors, and other needy people, on public works and propagation of the word of Allah. It does not include expenditure in unlawful ways for unlawful purposes. The Quranic term Infaq implies neither overspending nor being miserly and stingy, but spending one’s wealth on himself and others according to his means and status in society.
(22:36) (22:36) We have appointed sacrificial camels67 among the symbols of (devotion to) Allah. There is much good in them for you.68 So make them stand69 (at the time of sacrifice) and pronounce the name of Allah over them,70 and when they fall down on their sides71(after they are slaughtered), eat and also feed them who do not ask and those who ask. Thus have We subjected these animals that you may give thanks.72
67. Seven persons can become partners in the sacrifice of one camel and likewise in the sacrifice of one cow and the like, as enjoined by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in a tradition reported by Jabir bin Abdullah in the collection of Hadith by Muslims.
68. That is, you should sacrifice animals because you get many benefits from them to show your gratitude to Allah, the Giver, and also to acknowledge His Supremacy and Sovereignty.
69. “Mention the name of Allah over them” implies that animals should be slaughtered by pronouncing the name of Allah over them, because without that their flesh would be unlawful to eat. This shows that in Islamic Law there is no conception of slaughtering an animal without pronouncing the name of Allah over it. According to traditions, there are different wordings for pronouncing the name of Allah over the animals at the time of their slaughter. Some of these are:
(I) Bismillahi Allahu Akbar; Allahumma minka wa laka: In the name of Allah, Allah is most Great! O Allah, this is Thine and is presented to Thee.
(2) Allahu Akbar- La ilaha ill-Allahu; Allahumma minka wa laka: Allah is most Great: There is no god but Allah: O Allah, this is Thine and is presented to Thee.
(3) Inni wajjahtu wajhiya lillazi fatar-as-sama wati wal-arda, hanif-an-wa ma ana min-al-mushrikin. Inns Salati wa nusuki wa mahyaya wa mamati lillahi Rabb-il-alamin. La sharika lahu wa bi-zalika umirtu wa ana min-al-Muslimin. A Ilahumma minks wa laka. I have turned my face sincerely towards the Being Who created the heavens and the earth, and I am not from among the idolatrous people. My Salat and my rites of worship and my life and my death are all for Allah, the Lord of the universe, Who has no partner with Him. This is what I have been enjoined and I am the first to surrender to Him. O, Allah! This is Thine and is presented to Thee.
70. It should be noted that a camel is sacrificed while it is standing. This was enjoined by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and is supported by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Dahhak, etc. Muslim and Bukhari have reported a tradition from Ibn Umar, who saw a man slaughtering his camel in the sitting position. He said to him: Tie one foot of your camel and make it stand because that is the way of Abu Qasim (peace be upon him). According to a tradition reported by Jabir bin Abdullah, in Abu Dawud, the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions would tie the left foot of the camel and would make it stand on three feet, then they would slaughter it.
71. “Then, when they are down on their sides (after slaughter)” means till they die completely, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited cut off a piece of flesh if there is still any sign of life in the slaughtered animal. If this is done, the piece of flesh would be
72. This is another reason why animals should be sacrificed: “Thus have We made them (animals) subject to you, that you may give thanks”.
(22:37) Neither their flesh reaches Allah nor their blood; it is your piety that reaches Him.73 He has subjected these animals (to you) that you may magnify Allah for the guidance He has bestowed upon you. Give glad tidings,74 (O Prophet), to those who do good
73. This prescribes a very important condition for the sacrifice made in the worship of Allah.
A sacrifice is acceptable to Allah only if it is accompanied by piety and sincerity. Though sacrifice is a symbol of Allah, it has been made plain that it is accepted only if it is accompanied by piety, saying: “Neither their meat that reaches Allah nor their blood, but what reaches Him is the piety from you”. This was also meant to condemn the ritual of the
days of ignorance, when the Arabs took the flesh to the Kabah and smeared its walls with the blood of the sacrificed animal.
74. “That you may glorify Allah” at the time of sacrifice verbally also in order to acknowledge that the animals really belong to Allah and to no one else. One of the sentences uttered at the time of sacrifice is Allahumma minka wa laka (O Allah, this animal is Thine and is presented to Thee).
It should be noted that the command of sacrifice as contained in (verses 36 and 37) is not for the pilgrims alone and that the performance of sacrifice is not confined to Makkah on the occasion of Hajj. It is a general command for all those Muslims who are well off. They have been enjoined to be grateful to Allah because He has subjected these animals for the good of all human beings. Therefore they are required to sacrifice the animals during these days so that they may spiritually join those who go to Makkah to perform Hajj.
There are many authentic traditions to the effect that the Prophet (peace be upon him) made a sacrifice on this occasion, while he was personally at Al-Madinah.
(1) The one who does not perform sacrifice even though he can, should not join us in the Eid Prayer. (Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah).
(2) According to a tradition reported by Ibn Umar, the Prophet (peace be upon him) dwelt at Al-Madinah for ten years and performed sacrifices every year. (Tirmizi).
(3) According to Anas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
The one who sacrificed an animal before the Eid Prayer should offer another sacrifice; but the one who sacrificed his animal after the Eid Prayer did the right thing and followed the way of the Muslims. (Bukhari).
In this connection, it is noteworthy that no Eid Prayer is held on the tenth of Zil-Hajj in Makkah: therefore the injunction was meant for all Muslims and not only for those performing Hajj at Makkah.
Thus, it is clear that the sacrifice on the occasion of Eid which is observed in the entire Muslim world is a Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and has been enjoined by him. The only dispute is whether it is obligatory in nature or only a Sunnah. [brahim Nakhai,
Imams Abu Hanifah, Malik, Muhammad, and, according to a tradition, Imam Abu Yusuf too, are of the opinion that it is obligatory in nature. On the other hand, Imams Shafai and Ahmad bin Hanbal regard it only as a Sunnah of the Muslims, and Sufyan Thauri has also agreed with them, saying that there will be no harm if a person does not offer a sacrifice. It is, however, an irony that some of the learned Muslims of our time, who follow neither the Quran nor the Sunnah and are only guided by personal whims, has declared that if there is a consensus of opinion of the Muslims, they can give up the practice of sacrifice on the occasion of Eid.
(22:38) Surely75 Allah defends those who believe.76 Certainly Allah has no love for the perfidious, the thankless.77
75. From here the address for the first time prepares the Muslims for Jihad. In order to understand this, we should keep in view the preceding portion (verses 19-24) in which the ideological conflict between the two parties (believers and disbelievers) and the result
thereof have been described. This naturally serves as a prelude to the armed conflict between the two parties. That is why in (verses _26- 37) the immediate causes which necessitated war have been stated to serve as an introduction and justification for war with the disbelievers of Makkah.
After the migration to Al-Madinah, when the first Hajj season approached, it naturally brought along with its anguish and anger both for the Muhajirs and the Ansar, who had been debarred froth visiting Makkah and performing Hajj, That is why in this passage (verse 26-
37), the rituals and the objects of Hajj have been described to bring home to the disbelievers that they had no right to debar anyone from Hajj. On the other hand, the Muslims are being prepared to fight not with the intention of wreaking vengeance but for the sake of reform.
At the same time sacrifice on the occasion of Hajj has been prescribed as a permanent rite to enable them (and the Muslims of the whole world) to commemorate Hajj and the rites connected with it, so that they might refrain from wreaking vengeance on the people of Makkah for the persecution to which they had been subjected. They have, therefore, been enjoined to fight to bring about better conditions and not to take revenge on their persecutors.
76. The Arabic word mudflat implies two things.
(1) To fight with the enemy to ward off his aggressive attack.
(2) To fight with the enemy not just once but whenever the need arises. Allah has assured the believers that He will defend them against the enemy every time there is a conflict between Islam and kufr. This is to encourage the believers that they will not be left alone in their defense, but Allah Himself will be a party with them and will help them to frustrate the cunning designs of the enemy and to ward off their attacks. Indeed this verse is a great encouragement for the believers, for it imbues their hearts with spirit and strength that nothing else can.
77. Allah becomes a party with the believers because they are justified in waging war against the disbelievers who are treacherous and ungrateful to Allah in spite of His many blessings and favors to them.
(22:39) Permission (to fight) has been granted to those for they have been wronged.78 Verily Allah has the power to help them:79
78. This (verse 39) is the first verse of the Quran in which permission to tight was given in the month of Zil-Hajj in the first year after Hijrah according to our research. Then the command to fight was given in (verses 190, 191, 193, 216, and 244 of Surah Al-Bagarah) in Rajab or Shaban of A.H. 2.
79. “Allah surely has Power over giving them victory”: this assurance was urgently needed by the persecuted Muslims whose fighting strength at that time was very meager, not even a thousand including all the migrants and the Muslims of Al-Madinah. On the other hand, the fighting strength of the Quraish by themselves was much greater. Besides, they had all the other mushrik clans of Arabia at their back and were joined later by the Jews as well.
Therefore, this assurance was most opportune and the challenge to the disbelievers was very significant, for it meant to say that they were not fighting against a small number of the Muslims but against Allah. Therefore, “You are welcome to fight if you dare”.
(22:40) those who were unjustly expelled from their homes80 for no other reason than their saying: “Allah is Our Lord.”81 If Allah were not to repel some through others, monasteries and churches and synagogues82 and mosques wherein the name of Allah is much mentioned, would certainly have been pulled down.83 Allah will most certainly help those who will help Him. Verily Allah is Immensely Strong, Overwhelmingly Mighty
80. The mention of their expulsion from their homes in (verse 40) is clear proof that this portion of Surah Al-Hajj was revealed at Al-Madinah.
81. In order to have an idea of the severe persecution of Muslims, a few instances of this are cited.
(1) Suhaib Rumi was deprived of everything when he was about to migrate to Al-Madinah. When he reached there, he had nothing with him except the clothes he was wearing.
Though he had earned all that through his own labors, he was deprived of everything by the disbelievers of Makkah.
(2) When Abu Salmah was about to leave Makkah with his wife and a suckling child, his in-laws forcibly separated his wife from him, and then the people of his own family took away the child from them. Thus the poor woman had to pass one whole year in sorrow and grief.
After a year, she secured the child somehow and journeyed from Makkah to Al-Madinah with it all alone on a dangerous route.
(3) Ayyash bin Rabiah was a half-brother of Abu Jahl. When he migrated to Al-Madinah, he was followed by Abu Jahl and another brother of his, and they told him the lie: Your mother has taken the oath that she will not move from the sun to the shade nor comb her hair until she should see you (Ayyash). You should therefore go back with us to Makkah, show her your face and then come back. He was taken in by this trick. When they were journeying back the two brothers made him a prisoner, took him to Makkah with his hands and feet tied, and proclaimed: O people of Makkah, this is how these lads should be treated and set right. He remained in that state for a long time and was at last rescued by a brave Muslim.
82. Saumah (pl. Swami), Biya, and Salawat in the original text are the places of worship of the monks who have left the world, the Christians and the Jews respectively. Salawat was Salauta in Aramaic, which might be the origin of the English words salute and salutation.
83. In this sentence, a divine principle has been stated:
Allah does not let a group of people or a community have authority forever. Every now and then He repels one group by means of another.
If this had not been the case, the permanent dominator would have created chaos not only in the political and economic spheres but would have encroached upon the places of worship as well. This principle has also been stated in Ayat 251 of Surah Al-Bagarah.
(22:41) (Allah will certainly help) those84 who were We to bestow authority on them in the land, will establish Prayers, render Zakah, enjoin good, and forbid evil.85 The end of all matters rests with Allah.8
84. Those who help Allah are the people who invite mankind to Tauhid and exert their utmost to establish true faith and righteousness. For further explanation see (E.N. 50 of Surah Aal-Imran).
85. “If We give them authority”: In this one sentence, the real aim of the Islamic State and the characteristics of those who conduct its affairs have been stated concisely but comprehensively. Those who help Allah and deserve His succor behave righteously, establish Salat, make arrangements for the collection of Zakat and use their power and authority to propagate good and eradicate evil.
86. That is, it is Allah Who decides whom to give power in the land and when. This is meant to remove the misunderstanding of the proud and arrogant people who think that the destiny of the land and its dwellers is in their hands, and there is none to depose them from power. But Allah dethrones the most haughty ruler in supernatural ways and gives power to the most humble in order to show that He is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.
(22:42) (O Prophet), if they 87 give the lie bs you, then before them the people of ‘Ad and Thamud, also gave the lie (to the Prophets),
87. The disbelievers of Makkah.
(22:44) and so did the dwellers of Midian, and Moses too was branded a liar. Initially, I granted respite to the unbelievers for a while and then seized them.’8 How dreadful was My punishment 88
88. The instances of some peoples who rejected their Prophets have been cited to impress that they were given respite to reform themselves before they were punished. Therefore: O people of Makkah, you should not be deluded by the delay in your punishment. When the term of respite comes to an end, you shall also be punished like the former people, if you do not mend your ways in the meantime.
89. The Arabic word nakeer is very comprehensive and implies two meanings:
(1) Displeasure at the evil conduct of the other.
(2) A terrible punishment that disfigures the culprit so badly that he cannot even be recognized. The sentence therefore will mean: Just see when I seized them for this evil conduct, how terrible was My chastisement.
(22:45) How many towns have We destroyed because their people were steeped in iniquity:90 so they lie fallen down upon their turrets! How many wells lie deserted; and how many towering palaces lie in ruins
90. In Arabic a well is synonymous with a habitation. Thus “many wells” means “many a habitation has been destroyed”.
(22:46) Have they not journeyed in the land that their hearts might understand and their ears might listen? Indeed it is not the eyes that are blinded; it is rather the hearts in the breasts that are rendered blind.
91. The words “blinded are the hearts” have been used in the metaphorical and not in the literal sense. Since the heart is regarded as the center of emotions, feelings, and of mental and moral qualities, these words have been used to imply that their obduracy has inhibited them from feeling and acting rationally.
(22:47) They ask you to hasten the punishment. Allah shall most certainly not fail His promise, but a Day with your Lord is as a thousand years of your reckoning.
92. This refers to the oft-repeated challenge by the disbelievers: Well, if you are a true prophet, why does not that chastisement come with which you have been threatening us, for we have been rejecting your claim of being a true Prophet of Allah.
93. That is, the decisions of Allah do not follow your time and calendar, nor do the consequences of your wrong attitudes appear immediately after the deeds. Therefore it will be very foolish for the part of a people to argue that the threat of punishment was empty just because a decade or a century had passed since they had adopted a wicked attitude and conduct with impurity.
(22:48) How many towns did I respite at first thought they were steeped in iniquity, and then I seized them! To Me are all cause to return.
(22:49) Say (O Muhammad): “O people! I have been sent to you only as a plain warner (before the Doom strikes you). 94”
94. That is, 1 am merely a warner and not the maker of your destinies. It is Allah Who passes judgment and decides about the punishment.
(22:50) So those who believe and act righteously shall be granted forgiveness and honourable sustenance,
95. The believers shall have forgiveness’ means that Allah will overlook their faults, weaknesses, and acts of omission and commission. They will have honorable provisions means that they will have excellent supplies which will be given to them in an honorable way.
(22:51) whereas those who strive against Our Signs, seeking to profane them, they are the aa of the Fire!
(22:52) Never did We send a Messenger or a Prophet96 before you (O Muhammad), but that whenever he had a desire,97 Satan interfered with that desire.98 Allah eradicates the interference of Satan and strengthens His Signs.99Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 100
96. For the distinction between Nabi and Rasul, refer to (E. N. 30 of Surah Maryam).
97. The Arabic word Tamanna has two meanings: “desire” and “to recite” something.
98. If the first meaning is taken, it will imply: that Satan tried to prevent the fulfillment of his desire. If the second meaning is taken, it will imply: When the Prophet recited the Revelations, Satan created different sorts of doubts about its truth and meanings in the minds of the people.
99. If the first meaning is adopted, it will imply: that Allah fulfills the Prophet’s desire and makes his mission successful in spite of the obstacles of Satan and confirms the truth of His revelations by fulfilling His promises to the Prophet. In the case of the second meaning, it will
imply: that Allah eradicates all the doubts and objections inspired by Satan in the hearts of the people and clarifies the confusion created about any verse of the Quran in subsequent revelations.
100. “Allah is All-Knower” and has full knowledge of the mischief worked by Satan and of its effects, and being All-Wise, He counteracts every mischief of Satan.
(22:53) (He does this) in order that He may make the evil caused by Satan a trial for those in whose hearts there is sickness (of hypocrisy), whose hearts are hard (and vitiated). Surely these wrong-doers have gone too far in their dissension
(22:54) (He also does this) in order that those endowed with knowledge may know that it is the Truth from your Lord and that they may have faith in it and their hearts may humble themselves before Him. Verily Allah always directs those that believe to the Right Way.101
101. That is, Allah lets Satan work such mischief to put to the test both the righteous and the wicked people. The people with a perverted mentality deduce wrong conclusions from these and deviate from the right way, while those, who think on the right lines, realize that
all these things are the mischief of Satan and that the message of the Prophet is based on the truth. They conclude that the very fact that Satan has been so much agitated and become active against it is clear proof of its being the truth. It is very important to understand the
real significance of this passage (verses 52-54) for this has given rise to a grave misunderstanding.
If we consider it in the context in which it occurs, it becomes obvious that it was sent down to refute the wrong appraisal of the casual observers that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had failed to achieve his desired object. This was because he had striven for thirteen long
years to persuade his people to accept his message but the apparent result was that he had not only failed in this but he and the small band of his followers had been forced to leave their homes. As this exile contradicted his claim that he was a Prophet of Allah and had His
approval and succor with him, some people became skeptical about it. Moreover, they became doubtful about the truth of the Quran, because they were not being visited by the scourge, which was inflicted on those who treated the Prophet as false. His antagonists
scoffed at him, saying: Where are that succor of Allah and the scourge with which we were threatened? The answer to these doubts of the disbelievers was given in the preceding passage, and in this passage, the addressees were those who were influenced by this propaganda. Briefly, the whole answer was to this effect.
It is not a new thing that the people of a Messenger have treated him as an impostor for it has always been happening like this. You can see from the remnants of those peoples who treated their Messengers as impostors how they were punished for their mischief. You can learn a lesson from them if you will. As regards the delay in the coming of the scourge, the Quran never threatened the disbelievers with immediate punishment, nor is it the job of the Messenger to inflict punishments. The scourge is sent by Allah, but He is not hasty in sending His torment. He gives respite to the people to mend their ways as He is giving you now. Therefore, you should not be under any delusion that the threats of scourge are empty threats.
It is also not a new thing that the desires and wishes of a Prophet meet with obstacles or that false propaganda is made against his message for the same has already happened with regard to the messages of the former Prophets. But ultimately Allah eradicated the mischief worked by Satan and made the message successful. Therefore you should take a warning from the past history of Satan’s mischief and its ultimate failure. You should note well that the obstacles and the mischief of Satan are a trial and means that help attract the righteous people towards Islam and winnow the dishonest people away from it.
It is a pity that in spite of the above clear and simple meaning of the passage which fits in well with the context, a grave misunderstanding has arisen because of a tradition which has not only changed its meaning entirely and rendered it irrelevant in the context but has
helped make doubtful the very basic articles of the faith. Therefore we are making a critical appraisal of the tradition in order to show how to make the right use of traditions for the correct interpretation of the Quran.
According to this tradition, the Prophet (peace be upon him) had a strong longing and desire to this effect: I wish some revelations were sent down to tone down the abhorrence of the mushrik Quraish against Islam so as to bring them nearer to it, or at least the criticism
against their creed may not be so severe as to arouse their enmity.
While he was cherishing this desire, it so happened that one day when he was sitting in a big gathering of the Quraish, Surah An-Najm was revealed and he began to recite it. When he came to (verses 19, 20): Have you ever considered about this Lat and this Uzza, and a third (goddess) Manat, all of a sudden he recited, “These are exalted goddesses; indeed their intercession may be expected”. After this, he continued to recite Surah An-Najm up to the last verse and then fell down in prostration and all the Muslims and the mushriks of the Quraish also did the same, for the latter said: Now we have no difference with Muhammad.
We also profess that Allah is the Creator and the Provider and that these deities of ours are merely our intercessors with Him. After this, when in the evening Angel Gabriel came, he said: What have you done? I did not bring these two sentences. At this, the Prophet (peace be upon him) became very sad and Allah sent down (verse 73-75 of Surah Bani Israel): O Muhammad, these people have left no stone unturned to tempt you away from that which We have revealed to you so that you might fabricate something in Our name. Had you done
that, they would have made you their friend. It was just possible that you might have inclined a little towards them if We had not given you strength. But if you had done so, We would have made you taste double chastisement in this world as well as in the Hereafter, then you would have found no helper against Us.
But in spite of this, he continued to be grieved till Allah sent down (verse 52 of this Surah Al-Hajj) in which Allah consoled him, saying that the same had been happening to the former Prophets.
Another thing that happened in the meantime was that the story reached the migrants to Habash that there had been a reconciliation between the Prophet and the disbelievers of Makkah. Accordingly, many of them returned to Makkah only to learn that the news of
reconciliation was wrong and the conflict between Islam and kufr was raging as furiously as before.
Now let us make a critical study of this story which has been cited by Ibn Jarir and many other commentators and is even contained in many collections of traditions.
(1) None of its reporters, except Ibn Abbas, is a companion.
(2) There are many major discrepancies and variations in its details.
(3) The wording ascribed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in praise of the idols in each tradition is different from that of others.
Moreover, these words have been attributed to different sources according to different traditions: (a) These words were put in by Satan during the revelation and the Prophet (peace be upon him) imagined that they were revealed by Gabriel. (b) He himself uttered these words inadvertently, being urged by his own desire. (c) He was dozing when he uttered these words. (d) He intentionally uttered these words but in a manner as to question their veracity. (e) Satan interpolated these words into the revelation, giving an impression that the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself had recited them. (f) It was one of the mushriks who had recited these words.
Yet scholars of tradition like Hafiz Ibn Hajar and jurists like Abu Bakr al Jassas and rationalists like Zamakhshari and commentators like Ibn Jarir accept this story as true and consider it as a commentary on (verse 52) of this Surah. Ibn Hajar argues like this:
“Even though the links by which this tradition has been related are either weak or broken, except in one case, the very fact that it has been related through so many links is proof that there is some truth about it. The one which has strong links is by Said bin Jubair who has related it from Ibn Abbas and the reporters of two more traditions (which have been cited by Tabari) have been declared authentic by Bukhari and Muslims.
On the other side, there are other eminent scholars who declare this story to be utterly baseless. Ibn Kathir says: All the links of this tradition are unauthentic and I have found no correct version of this with continuous links. Baihaqi says: This story has not been proved to be correct by the rules of reporting. When Ibn Khuzaimah was asked about it, he said: This story has been invented by heretics. Qazi Ayad says: The very fact that this tradition is neither contained in any of the six authentic collections of Hadith nor has it been related in an authentic way by authentic reporters shows its weakness. Besides them, Imam Razi, Qazi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, Alusi etc. have rejected it altogether.
It is a pity that even those who reject this story have not done full justice to their cases. There are some who reject it because its links are weak. In other words, they would have accepted it, if its links were strong. Then there are others who reject it because its acceptance makes the whole faith doubtful. This kind of reasoning may satisfy the believers but it cannot satisfy those who are already skeptical or intend to make research into it with a view to making a correct appraisal of Islam. They will rather say: When a story is related by an eminent companion and is contained in the collections of traditions, there is no reason why we should reject it just because it makes your faith doubtful.
Now let us consider the story critically and rationally to prove that it is unacceptable.
(1) Its internal evidence proves it to be wrong: (a) According to the story the incident happened after the first migration to Habash, for according to it some of the migrants returned to Makkah after hearing the story. Now the fact is that the migration took place in the month of Rajab of the fifth year of Prophethood and some of the migrants returned to Makkah three months later, i.e. in Shawwal of the same year. (b) (Verses 73-75 of Surah Al- Isra) in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) was reproved for this incident were revealed in the eleventh or twelfth year of Prophethood. In other words, he was reproved by Allah five or six years after the incident. (c) This (verse 52) in which the interpolation by Satan was abrogated was sent down in the first year of Hijrah, i.e. about two years after the reproof.
Can a person in his senses believe that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was reproved for the interpolation after six years, and it was abrogated after nine years?
(2) According to the story, this interpolation was made in Surah An-Najm. When the Prophet was reciting the words, “And a third (goddess) Manat”; he also recited the interpolated sentence, and then continued the recital up to the end of the Surah. It is said that the disbelievers of Makkah were so pleased with the interpolation that they declared:
The differences between us and Muhammad (peace be upon him) have now come to an end.
Let us now read (verses 19-23 of An-Najm) along with the alleged interpolation (in italics):
Have you ever considered the reality of this Lat and Uzza and a third (goddess) Manat? These are exalted goddesses; indeed their intercession may be expected. What, do you have sons for yourselves and daughters for Him (Allah)? This is indeed an unfair division. They are nothing but mere names which you and your forefathers have invented.
Allah has sent down no authority in regard to them. They follow only conjectures and the whims of their own minds, although the right guidance has come from their Lord.
Even a casual reader will detect an obvious contradiction in the passage. Immediately after praising the goddesses, there is a hard hit on their worshipers, as if to say: O foolish people!
How is it that you have ascribed daughters to Allah and sons to yourselves? All this is your own invention which has no authority from Allah. On the face of it, the interpolation makes the passage absurd which cannot be assigned even to a rational person not to speak of Allah.
Then the story presumes that all the Quraish who were listening to it must have lost their senses; otherwise, they could not have declared that their differences with Muhammad (peace be upon him) had been made up from thence.
From this internal evidence, it has become clear that this story is absurd and meaningless.
(3) Now let us consider whether the occasions, ascribed by the commentators to the revelation of the verses under discussion, fit in with the chronological order of the Quran.
According to the story, the interpolation in Surah An-Najm was made in the fifth year of Prophethood. The reproof was made in (verses 73-75 of Bani Israel) and then the interpolation was annulled and the incident was explained in (verses 52-54 of Surah Al-Hajj).
Now there could be only two possibilities about the time of their revelation. Either the verses containing the reproof and the abrogation were sent down in the period in which the interpolation took place, or the verse containing the reproof was sent down along with Surah Al-Hajj. In the first case, the question arises: Why were these verses (Surah Bani-Israel 73-75) not inserted in Surah An-Najm? Why were they held in abeyance for six long years and then inserted in Surah Bani Israel, when it was revealed, and (verses 52-54) (containing the abrogation) inserted in Surah Al-Hajj after a further delay of more than two years? Does it mean that the verses were sent down on one occasion and inserted years later haphazardly in one Surah or the other? In the second case, the question would arise: Does it stand to reason that the verses containing the reproof (Surah Bani-Israel, 73-75)were sent
down six years after the interpolation, and the verse of abrogation (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayat 52) nine years after the incident? Still, another question arises: What was the occasion of the revelation of the verses of reproof and abrogation in Surahs Surah Bani-Israel and Al-Hajj in
the context in which they occur?
(4) Now let us turn to the third principle of correct appraisal of the Quran.
For a correct appreciation of the Quran, it is essential to consider whether a particular commentary fits in with the relevant context of the Quran or not. If we make even a cursory study of (Surah Bani Israel, verses 71-73), it will become obvious that there was no occasion
for the alleged reproof in (verse 73) and that there is no tinge of reproof in it, for the words of the verse refute the allegation that the Prophet was taken in by the mischief of the disbelievers. Then in Surah Al-Hajj, if we make a critical study of the verses that precede (verses 52-54 )and follow them, it will become obvious that there was no occasion to console the Prophet for the interpolation and to annul it after nine years.
(5) We reiterate that no tradition, however strong links it might have, can be accepted when the text itself is clear evidence against it, and when it does not fit in with the wording, the context, the order, etc. of the Quran. When the incident is considered in this background, even a skeptical research scholar would be convinced that the tradition is absolutely wrong. As regards a believer, he can never accept it, when he knows that it contradicts not only one verse but a large number of other verses of the Quran. He would rather believe that the reporters of the tradition might have been deluded by Satan and not the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). He would never believe that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) could interpolate even a single word in the Quran under the influence of a desire of his own:
or that there could ever occur such a desire in his mind that he should make a compromise with the disbelievers by associating shirk with Tauhid: or that he could ever wish that Allah might not say anything to displease the disbelievers: or that the revelation was made in such
an unsafe and doubtful manner as to enable Satan to mix with it even a word in a manner as if it was also brought by Gabriel. Each of these things is contradictory to the clear revelation of the Quran and the basic articles of the faith which we have learned from the Quran and
the Prophet (peace be upon him). God forbid that we should accept any such tradition that might lead to the above-mentioned presumptions just because the tradition seems to be authentic in every way.
It will be worthwhile to consider the question: How is it that so many reporters of traditions have related this story? Does it not show that there must have been some reality about it? Otherwise, so many reporters, who included many authentic and eminent scholars, could not have made such heinous slander against the Quran and the Prophet (peace be upon him). Its answer is contained in the authentic collections of traditions by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai, and Musnad Ahmad. The reality of the incident is this.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) recited Surah An-Najm and performed prostration at the end of it. At this, all the hearers, both the Muslims and the mushriks, fell down in prostration. This was what really happened and there is nothing strange about it. Let us depict the occasion: The Prophet (peace be upon him) was reciting a forceful piece of the eloquent Quran in a very impressive manner. Naturally, the occasion produced an emotional effect and all the listeners instinctively fell down in prostration along with him. It was because of such ecstasies produced by the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) recital of the Quran as this that the disbelievers dubbed him a sorcerer. As regards the story that the Prophet (peace be upon him) praised the deities of the disbelievers, it appears that the Quraish concocted the story to hide their defeat. Probably someone or another of them
explained away their defeat, saying: We ourselves heard Muhammad praising our deities.
Therefore we also fell down in prostration along with him. As regards the migrants to Habash, they returned to Makkah when they heard the concocted story that there had been a compromise between the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Quraish. It appears that some of those people who had seen the Muslims and the mushriks falling down together in prostration, presumed that peace had been made between them, so the story traveled to the migrants in Habash who had no means to verify it, and thus thirty-three of them returned to Makkah.
Naturally these three things, prostration by the Quraish, their explanation of it, and the return of the migrants from Habash, combined to evolve that story. So much so that some authentic people were also deluded by it, for to err is human, and the pious and intelligent people are no exception to it. However, the error of the latter proves to be more harmful, because their credulous followers accept with closed eyes their misconceptions along with their right conclusions. On the other hand, mischief mongers collect all such errors of the righteous people and exploit them to prove that all the collections of traditions are false and should be rejected forthwith.
(22:55) The unbelievers will not cease to be in doubt about it until the Hour suddenly comes upon them, or the chastisement of an ominous day102 overtakes them
102. The epithet “barren” has been applied to the day in its metaphorical and not literal sense. : A day is barren if all the plans, hopes, and devices remain unproductive in it, or it does not bring forth its night. For instance, the days on which the people of Prophet Noah,
the tribes of Aad and Thamud, the people of Lot and of Midian met with their destructionby scourge from Allah, were barren days in this sense, because those days did not bring
forth any tomorrow for them, and no device of theirs could avert their doom.
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