22) سورة الحج
يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيْءٌ عَظِيمٌ (الحج: 1).
يَوْمَ تَرَوْنَهَا تَذْهَلُ كُلُّ مُرْضِعَةٍ عَمَّا أَرْضَعَتْ وَتَضَعُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمْلٍ حَمْلَهَا وَتَرَى النَّاسَ سُكَارَى وَمَا هُمْ بِسُكَارَى وَلَكِنَّ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ شَدِيدٌ (الحج: 2).
وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَانٍ مَرِيدٍ (الحج: 3).
كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ مَنْ تَوَلاَّهُ فَأَنَّهُ يُضِلُّهُ وَيَهْدِيهِ إِلَى عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ (الحج: 4).
يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِنْ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ مُضْغَةٍ مُخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلاً ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُتَوَفَّى وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُرَدُّ إِلَى أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلاَ يَعْلَمَ مِنْ بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا وَتَرَى الأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنْبَتَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ (الحج: 5).
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّهُ يُحْيِ الْمَوْتَى وَأَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (الحج: 6).
وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ (الحج: 7).
وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَابٍ مُنِيرٍ (الحج: 8).
ثَانِيَ عِطْفِهِ لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَنُذِيقُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ (الحج: 9).
ذَلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاكَ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلاَّمٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ (الحج: 10).
وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَى حَرْفٍ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انقَلَبَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةَ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ (الحج: 11).
يَدْعُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ يَضُرُّهُ وَمَا لاَ يَنْفَعُهُ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلاَلُ الْبَعِيدُ (الحج: 12).
يَدْعُوا لَمَنْ ضَرُّهُ أَقْرَبُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِ لَبِئْسَ الْمَوْلَى وَلَبِئْسَ الْعَشِيرُ (الحج: 13).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ (الحج: 14).
مَنْ كَانَ يَظُنُّ أَنْ لَنْ يَنصُرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ بِسَبَبٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ لِيَقْطَعْ فَلْيَنظُرْ هَلْ يُذْهِبَنَّ كَيْدُهُ مَا يَغِيظُ (الحج: 15).
وَكَذَلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يُرِيدُ (الحج: 16).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالصَّابِئِينَ وَالنَّصَارَى وَالْمَجُوسَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ (الحج: 17).
أَلَمْ تَرَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْ النَّاسِ وَكَثِيرٌ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ الْعَذَابُ وَمَنْ يُهِنْ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ مُكْرِمٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يَشَاءُ (الحج: 18).
هَذَانِ خَصْمَانِ اخْتَصَمُوا فِي رَبِّهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قُطِّعَتْ لَهُمْ ثِيَابٌ مِنْ نَارٍ يُصَبُّ مِنْ فَوْقِ رُءُوسِهِمُ الْحَمِيمُ (الحج: 19).
يُصْهَرُ بِهِ مَا فِي بُطُونِهِمْ وَالْجُلُودُ (الحج: 20).
وَلَهُمْ مَقَامِعُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ (الحج: 21).
كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا مِنْ غَمٍّ أُعِيدُوا فِيهَا وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ (الحج: 22).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَلُؤْلُؤًا وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌ (الحج: 23).
وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنْ الْقَوْلِ وَهُدُوا إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْحَمِيدِ (الحج: 24).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ الَّذِي جَعَلْنَاهُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَاءً الْعَاكِفُ فِيهِ وَالْبَادِي وَمَنْ يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ (الحج: 25).
SURAH AL-HAJ AYAH NO 1 TO 25
This Surah takes its name from v. 27.
Period of Revelation
As this Surah contains the characteristics of both the Makki and the Madani Surahs, the commentators have differed as to its period of revelation, but in the light of its style and themes we are of the opinion that a part of it (vv. 1-24) was sent down in the last stage of the
Makki life of the Holy Prophet a little before migration and the rest (vv. 25-78) during the first stage of his Madani life. That is why this Surah combines the characteristics of both the Makki and the Madani Surahs.
The sudden change of the style from v. 25 shows that probably vv. 25-78 were sent down in the month of Zul-Hijjah in the very first year after Hijrah. This is indicated by vv. 25-41 and confirmed by the occasion of the revelation of vv. 39-40. It appears that the month of Zul- Hijjah must have brought to the immigrants nostalgic memories of their homes in Makkah and naturally they must have thought of their Sacred City and of their Hajj congregation there, and grieved to think that the mushrik Quraish had debarred them from visiting the Sacred Mosque. Therefore, they might even have been praying for and expecting Divine permission to wage war against those tyrants who had expelled them from their homes and deprived them of visiting the House of Allah, and made it difficult for them to follow the way of Islam. It was at this psychological occasion that these verses were sent down. That is why the purpose for which Masjid-al-Haram was built has been specifically mentioned. It has been made plain that Hajj(pilgrimage) had been enjoined for the worship of One Allah.
But it is an irony that afterward it had been dedicated to the rituals of shirk and the worshipers of One Allah had been debarred from visiting it. Therefore, permission for waging war against those tyrants has been given to oust them from there and to establish a righteous way of life for establishing virtue and eradicating evil. According to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Urwah bin Zubair, Zaid bin Aslam, Mugatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah, and other great commentators, v. 39 is the first verse that grants the Muslims permission to wage war.
Collections of Hadith and books on the life of the Holy Prophet confirm that after this permission actual preparations for war were started and the first expedition was sent to the coast of the Red Sea in Safar A.H. 2, which is known as the Expedition of Waddan or AI- Abwa.
Subject Matter and Theme
This Surah is addressed to (1) The mushriks of Makkah, (2) the wavering Muslims, and (3) the True Believers. The mushriks have been warned in a forceful manner to this effect: “You have obdurately and impudently persisted in your ideas of ignorance and trusted in your
deities instead of Allah, though they possess no power at all and you have repudiated the Divine Messenger. Now you will meet the same end as has been the doom of those like you before. You have only harmed yourselves by rejecting Our Prophet and by persecuting the
best element of your own community; now your false deities shall not be able to save you from the wrath of God”. At the same time, they have been admonished time and again for their creed of shirk and sound arguments have been given in favor of Tauhid and the Hereafter.
The wavering Muslims, who had embraced Islam but were not prepared to endure any hardship in its way, have been admonished to this effect: “What is this faith of yours? On the one hand, you are ready to believe in Allah and become His servants provided you are given peace and prosperity but, on the other, if you meet with afflictions and hardships in His Way, you discard your Allah and cease to remain His servant. You should bear in mind that this wavering attitude of yours cannot avert those misfortunes and losses which Allah has ordained for you.”
As regards the true Believers, they have been addressed in two ways: (1) in a general way so as to include the common people of Arabia also, and (2) in an exclusive way:
1. The Believers have been told that the mushriks of Makkah had no right to debar them from visiting the Holy Mosque. They had no right to prevent anyone from performing Hajj because the Holy Mosque was not their private property. This objection was not only justified but it also acted as an effective political weapon against the Quraish. For
it posed this question to the other clans of Arabia: Were the Quraish mere attendants of the Holy Mosque or its owners? It implied that if they succeeded in debarring the Muslims from Hajj without any protest from others, they would feel encouraged in future to debar from Hajj and Umrah the people of any other clan, who happened to
have strained relations with the Quraish. In order to emphasize this point, the history of the construction of the Holy Mosque has been cited to show that it was built by Prophet Abraham under the Command of Allah and he had invited all the peoples to perform Hajj there. That is why those coming from outside had enjoyed equal rights
with the local people from the very beginning. It has also been made clear that that House had not been built for the rituals of shirk but for the worship of One Allah.
Thus it was sheer tyranny that the worship of Allah was being forbidden there while the worship of idols enjoyed full license.
2. In order to counteract the tyranny of the Quraish, the Muslims were allowed to fight with them. They were also given instructions to adopt the right and just attitude as and when they acquired the power to rule in the land. Moreover, the Believers have been officially given the name of “Muslims”, saying, “You are the real heirs to Abraham and
you have been chosen to become witnesses of the Truth before mankind. Therefore you should establish salat and pay the zakat dues in order to become the best models of righteous life and perform Jihad for propagating the Word of Allah.” (vv. 41,77, 78.)
It will be worthwhile to keep in view the introductions to Chapters II (Al-Bagarah) and VIII (Al Anfal).
(22:1) O mankind, fear the (wrath of) your Lord! Indeed, the earthquake of the Hour (of Judgement) will be an awesome thing.1
1. According to the early commentators, this earthquake will be a prelude to the Resurrection.
This will probably take place when the earth will begin to rotate in reverse order, and the sun will rise in the west. In a lengthy tradition reported by Ibn Jarir, Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatim from Abu Hurairah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has stated that when the
first Trumpet will be blown, there will be general confusion. At the second all people will die and at the third, they will be brought back to life and presented before Allah. At the first blowing of the Trumpet, the earth will begin to rock like a boat that is beaten about by huge waves, or like a hanging lamp that is moved from side to side by a strong wind.
This condition has been depicted in the Quran at several other places. For instance (Surah Al-Wagiah, Ayat 6); (Surah Al-Haqqa, Ayats 13-14); (Surah Al-Muzzammil, Ayats 14,17-18); (Surah An-Naziat, Ayats 6-9) and (Surah Al-Zalzalah, Ayats 1-3).
According to other commentators, this earthquake will occur when the dead will be brought back to life and presented before their Lord. Though this is supported by some traditions, we prefer the first interpretation (in spite of the fact that the tradition reported by Abu
Hurairah is weak) because that is supported by clear verses of the Quran.
(22:2) On the Day when you witness it, the suckling woman shall utterly neglect the infant she suckles,2 and every pregnant woman shall cast her burden, and you will see people as though they are drunk when they are not drunk; but dreadful shall be Allah’s chastisement.3
2. This is to show the intensity and horror of the earthquake. At that time there will be so much confusion and terror that mothers will forsake their dear children at the very time they will be suckling them.
3. It should be noted that it is not meant to depict here the condition of the Resurrection but to impress upon the people the dreadful torment of the Hour in order to admonish them to mend their ways. This is supported by the subsequent passage.
(22:3) Among people there are some who wrangle about Allah without knowledge 4 and follow every rebellious devil,
4. They do not indulge in discussions or disputes about the being or existence of Allah but about His rights and powers and His Revelations, as is evident from the succeeding passage.
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) tried to convince them of Tauhid and Resurrection, inevitably the dispute arose whether there is One Allah, the sole Sovereign or there were other partners as well in His Godhead and whether He has the power to bring about Resurrection, etc.
(22:4) although it is decreed about him that he shall lead into error whosoever takes him for a friend and will direct him to the torment of the Fire.
(22:5) O mankind! If you have any doubt concerning Resurrection, then know that it is surely We Who created you from dust, then from a drop of sperm,5 then from a clot of blood, then from a little lump of flesh, some of it shapely and other shapeless.6 (We are rehearsing this) so that We may make the reality clear to you. We cause (the drop of sperm) that We please to remain in the wombs till an appointed time. We bring you forth as infants (and nurture you) so that you may come of age. Among you is he that dies (at a young age) and he who is kept back to the most abject age so that after once having known, he reaches a stage when he knows nothing.7 You see the earth dry and
barren and then no sooner than We send down water upon it, it begins to quiver and swell and brings forth every kind of beauteous vegetation
5. “We have created you from dust, then from a drop of sperm”: The first man Adam was created directly from clay and after him the process of procreation started by means of sperm-drop. This has been stated in Surah AsSajda, Ayats 7-8 as well. It may also mean that man is created from sperm-drop but his body is made of those elements which are all available on the earth.
6. This refers to the different stages of development of the child in the womb of its mother.
This description is based on observation and not on scientific research, and there was no need for it for the purpose for which reference to this has been made here.
7. That is, in old age, man is again reverted to the same condition in which he was in childhood. He loses his senses and knows little or nothing like a child.
(22:6) All this is because Allah, He is the Truth, 8 and because He resurrects the dead, and because He has power over everything,
8. The Arabic text may mean three things: (1) Allah is telling the truth and you are wrong in presuming that there is no possibility of life after death. (2) Allah’s existence is not merely a supposition but is a reality. He is not only the first cause but has supreme authority, and is conducting every affair in the universe according to His Will, Knowledge and Wisdom. (3) All His designs and works are based on truth and are, therefore, serious, meaningful and full of wisdom.
(22:7) (all of which shows that) the Hour shall surely come to pass – in this, there is no doubt – and Allah shall surely resurrect those that are in graves.9 9. In (Ayats 5-7), the effects of rain on the earth and the growth of vegetation, and different stages of the life of man have been cited as pointers to five realities
9. In (Ayats 5-7), the effects of rain on the earth and the growth of vegetation, and different stages of the life of man have been cited as pointers to five realities.
(1) Allah alone is the truth.
(2) He brings the dead to life.
(3) He has power over everything.
(4) The Day of Resurrection and the end of the world is inevitable.
(5) Most surely Allah will bring back to life all the people who have died.
Let us now consider how these signs point to the above five realities.
(1) Allah is the truth: In order to prove this, let us first take the case of man. All the stages of his development are clear proof that Allah has designed them with wisdom. He takes his birth from a sperm drop which itself is produced in a wonderful manner. The food, which a
man takes, turns into hair, flesh, and bones, and a part of it is turned into semen, which is potentially capable of producing millions of human beings. It is the Wise and True God Who decides which of these millions of seeds from the semen should be utilized to make a woman pregnant by mixing the seed with the egg cell. This insignificant thing turns into a living child in nine months in the womb of the mother. If we consider the different stages of the child’s birth, we come to the inevitable conclusion that all of these have been designed by the True, Ever Living Designer. For it is He Who decides whether it should be a male or a female, seeing or blind, etc. Then it is He Who decides how long a child is destined to live.
All these things are clear proof that Allah alone is the Truth.
(2) He brings the dead to life: Even a little thinking on the right lines will convince every sensible and honest man that this process of bringing the dead to life is continuously going on before our eyes. Every human being has been created from a dead sperm drop. Then he gets life from dead things like food containing dead matter like coal, iron, lime, salts, and gases, which help make him a living human being. Then let us consider our surroundings. Seeds of different things which had been scattered here and there by the wind and birds, and the roots of different kinds of vegetation that lay rotten and dead in the soil, spring up to life as soon as there occurs a sprinkling of rainwater. This process of the dead coming to life is observed during every rainy season year after year.
(3) Allah has power over everything: There are people who believe that no doubt Allah created everything and is governing the universe, but He cannot do anything in the future in addition to or apart from this. This is because they do not observe the phenomena of His powers which have been and are appearing every moment. They do not realize that if man, His creation can perform wonderful feats of science that could not even be dreamed of in the former ages, why should Allah alone be held as having only limited powers?
(4-5) “The Day of Resurrection is inevitable” and “Most surely Allah will bring back to life all the people who have died”: These two are the rational corollaries of the preceding three premises. Allah is All-Powerful and therefore can bring about Resurrection at any moment
He wills. He can also bring back to life all the dead people just as He brought to life human beings out of nothing in the first instance. As He is All-Wise, He has not created human beings without any object and purpose. He will judge their worldly lives in accordance with the object and purpose for which He created them. He will call them to account for everything He entrusted to them. This is very simple, even human beings ask one another to render an account of the property, etc. they entrust to others. Likewise, Allah’s wisdom requires calling every human being to account for the things entrusted to him. Then human
nature also demands that there should be a differentiation between good and bad, and it expects the reward of good works and dreads the punishment of bad deeds. That is why the people have set up judicial courts. Thus man cannot imagine that the Creator will not call
him to account for the things, powers, and faculties, etc. which He has entrusted to him.
Therefore common sense confirms that Allah will hold the Last Judgment so that everyone should get his due reward and his due punishment.
(22:8) And among people are those that wrangle”10 about Allah without knowledge, 11 without any true guidance,12and without any scripture to enlighten them.13
10. That is, they are so proud, arrogant, obdurate, and obstinate that they do not pay any heed to admonition.
11. Knowledge: That personal information that is gained directly through observation and experience.
12. Guidance: That information that is gained by reasoning or through another person who has knowledge.
13. Book with light: Source of information gained from divine revelation.
(22:9) They wrangle arrogantly, intent on leading people astray from the Way of Allah.“ 14 Such shall suffer disgrace in this world and We shall cause them to taste the chastisement of burning (in the Next).
14. Verse 3 mentioned those people who have themselves gone astray, but verse 9 mentions those who have not only deviated from the right way themselves but are also bent upon misleading others from it.
(22:10) That is the outcome of what your own hands have wrought, for Allah never wrongs His creatures.
(22:11) And among people is he who worships Allah on the borderline; if any good befalls him,15 he is satisfied; but if a trial afflicts him, he utterly turns away.16 He will incur the loss of this world and the Hereafter. That indeed is a clear loss.17
15. This type of man is a time server, who stands on the boundary line between Islam and kufr so that he may join the winning side whether it be Islam or kufr.
16. As this type of man has a weak character and wavers between kufr and Islam he becomes his slave of himself. He accepts Islam for the sake of self-interest. He is faithful to it if all his wishes are fulfilled and he has a life of ease and comfort, he is well-pleased with his Allah and is firm in his faith. On the contrary, if his faith demands some sacrifice from him, or he is visited by some affliction, or encounters some hardship and loss in the way of Allah, or he does not have his way, he begins to waver about the Godhead of Allah and the The prophethood of the Messenger and becomes skeptical about everything of the faith. Then he is ready to bow down before any power from which he expects some benefit and security from loss.
17. This is a great moral proposition that has been stated concisely. The fact is that the wavering man remains a loser in this world as well as in the next world, and fares worse even than an unbeliever. The unbeliever applies himself exclusively to the benefits of this world and becomes more or less successful in his object because he is not handicapped by the fear of Allah, accountability of the Hereafter, and restrictions of divine law. Likewise, a true believer follows the way of Allah with fortitude and perseverance and may as well become successful in this world. Still, even if he loses it altogether, he is assured of success in the next world. But the wavering Muslim becomes a loser both in this world and in the next world because he is handicapped by doubt and indecision and cannot make his choice between the two worlds. As he cannot decide whether there is Allah and the Hereafter, he cannot apply himself exclusively to worldly affairs with that single-mindedness that the unbeliever enjoys. And when he thinks of Allah and the Hereafter, the allurements of this world and the fear of the disadvantages here and the abhorrence of observing the divine
restrictions do not let him apply himself exclusively to the demands of the Hereafter. This conflict between God’s worship and world worship makes him a loser in this world as well as in the next.
(22:12) He invokes, instead of Allah, those who can neither harm nor benefit him. That indeed is straying far away.
(22:13) He invokes those who are more likely to cause him harm than benefit.18 Such is surely an evil patron and an evil associate.
18. (Verses 12-13 )clarify two things about the deities whom the mushriks invoke. Firstly, they can do a person neither any good nor any harm. Nay, it is more probable that they do harm rather than good. For when the mushrik invokes other deities than Allah, he loses his faith forthwith. Secondly, the mushrik himself knows that there is no guarantee or probability of any good from his god who is utterly helpless and powerless. As regards the occasional grant of his request through his god, this is done by Allah merely to test his
19. That is, the one, who leads a person to the way of shirk is the worst guardian and the worst comrade, whether he be a human being or a satan.
(22:14) (In contrast) Allah will assuredly cause those who believe and act righteously? 20 to enter Gardens beneath which rivers flow. For, most certainly, Allah does whatever He pleases.21
20. “Those who believed and did righteous deeds” are quite different from the wavering Muslims, for they have a firm belief in Allah, His Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Hereafter. Therefore they follow the way of truth both in prosperity and in adversity.
21. That is, Allah’s powers are unlimited. He may bestow anything on anyone He wills in this world or in the Hereafter or in both, and bar anything from anyone. None has the power to interfere with what He wills and does.
(22:15) Anyone who fancies that Allah will not support him in this world and in the Hereafter, let him reach out to heaven through a rope, and then make a hole in the sky and see whether his device can avert that which enrages him.”22
22. There is a great divergence of opinion about the exact meaning of this verse. Some of the interpretations are:
(1) One who presumes that Allah will not help him (Muhammad: peace be upon him), he should hang himself by a rope from the ceiling.
(2) One who presumes that Allah will not help him (Muhammad: peace be upon him), he should ascend to the sky by a rope and try to stop Allah’s help.
(3) One who presumes that Allah will not help him (Muhammad: peace be upon him), he should ascend to the sky and stop the process of revelations.
(4) One who presumes that Allah will not help him (Muhammad: peace be upon him), he should ascend to the sky and stop his provisions.
(5) The one who presumes that Allah will not help him (the presumer himself), should hang himself by a rope from the ceiling of his house.
(6) The one who presumes that Allah will not help him (the presumer himself), should try to ascend to the sky to seek help.
The first four interpretations are obviously irrelevant to the context, and the last two, though they might fit in with the context, do not explain the real meaning of the verse. If we consider this in the context, it becomes obvious that the one who presumes is the one who
serves Allah standing on the borderline. This is to rebuke him as if to say: You may do whatever you can to change the decrees of Allah, but you will see that no device of yours can succeed, whether these decrees are favorable to your designs or unfavorable to them.
Obviously, “so let him stretch a rope up to the sky, then cut it off” has not been used in the literal but in the figurative sense.
(22:16) Even so We have revealed the Qur’an with Clear Signs. Verily Allah guides whomsoever He wills.
(22:17) On the Day of Resurrection Allah will most certainly judge among those who believe,23 and those who became Jews,24 and Sabaeans,25 and Christians,26 and Magians, 27 and those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity.28 Surely Allah watches over everything.29
23. This means the Muslims of every age who believed in the Prophets of Allah and His Books up to the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him): they included both the sincere Muslims and the wavering Muslims.
24. See(E.N. 72 of Surah An-Nisa).
25. Sabaeans: In ancient times two sects were known by this title:
(1) The followers of Prophet John, who was found in upper Irag in large numbers and practiced baptism.
(2) The worshipers of stars, who ascribed their creed to Prophets Sheath and Idris (peace be upon them) and believed that the elements were governed by the planets and the planets by the angels. Their center was at Harran with branches spread all over Iraq. These people have been well known for their knowledge of philosophy and science and their achievements in medicine. Probably here the first sect is referred to, because the second sect was not known by this name at the time the Quran was revealed.
26. See (E. N. 36 of Surah Al-Maidah).
27. That is, the fire worshipers of Iran, believed in two gods, one of light and the other of darknesses, and regarded themselves as the followers of Zoroaster. Their creed and
morals were so corrupted by Mazdak that a brother could easily enter into matrimony with
28. That is, the mushriks of Arabia and of other countries, who had no special name like those mentioned above.
29. That is, Allah will pass His judgment on the Day of Resurrection in regard to all the differences and disputes which take place between different people and different religions and will decide which of them was right and which was wrong.
(22:18) Have you not seen that all those who are in the heavens and all those who are in the earth prostrate themselves before Allah;30 31 and so do the sun and the moon, and the stars and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts, and so do many human beings,32 and even many of those who are condemned to chastisement?33 And he whom Allah humiliates, none can give him honour.34 Allah does whatever He wills.35
30. See (E.N. 25 of Surah Ar-Ra‘d) and (E.N. 41 of Surah An-Nahl).
31. That is, “Angels, stars, planets, etc. and all the creation that exists in other parts of the universe, whether it is rational and possesses freedom of will and choice like man, or irrational like animals, vegetation, solid matter, air, and light.
32. That is, “A large number of the people bow down before Allah not by compulsion but willingly. On the other hand, there are many other people who bow down before Him under compulsion along with everything else in the universe, but they deserve punishment because they refuse to obey Allah in those spheres of life in which they have the choice to obey or not to obey.
33. That is, though the Final Judgment will be passed on the Day of Resurrection, a discerning eye can see even today those “who have already deserved the torment.” For instance, the man who rejects the Message of the open book of Nature and the Message of the Prophets and adopts self-made false creeds and then disputes about them with the Believers, proves himself to be in manifest error in this world as well.
34. In this verse “honor” and “disgrace” mean the acceptance of the Truth and its rejection. It is obvious that the one who does not see manifest realities is doomed to disgrace: for Allah lets him attain what he desires and works for, and when Allah does not bestow on anyone
the honor of following the Truth, there is none else who can bestow it on him.
35. Here it is obligatory to perform a sajdah (prostration), which is agreed upon by all Jurists. For further details please see (E.N. 157 of Surah Al-A’raf)
(22:19) These two groups (the believers and unbelievers) are in dispute about their Lord.36 As for those that disbelieve, garments of fire have been cut out for them;37 boiling water shall be poured down over their heads,
36. Here all the disputants about Allah have been divided into two main categories in spite of their large numbers.
(1) Those who believe in the message of the Prophets and adopt the righteous way of life.
(2) Those who reject their message and follow different ways of disbelief, though they may have countless differences and disputes among themselves.
37. See (Ayat 50 and E.N. 58 of Surah Ibrahim) for an explanation.
(22:20) causing (not only) their skins but all that is in their bellies as well to melt away.
(22:21) There shall be maces of iron to lash them.
(22:22) Whenever they try, in their anguish, to escape from Hell, they will be driven back into it, (and shall be told): “Now taste the torment of burning.”
(22:23) (On the other hand), Allah will cause those who believed and acted righteously to enter the Gardens beneath which rivers flow. They shall be decked in them with bracelets of gold and pearls:38 and their raiment shall be of silk.
38. This is to show that they will be honored like the kings and chiefs who used to wear ornaments of gold and jewelry in the period the Quran was revealed.
(22:24) They were guided (to accept) the pure word; they were guided to the Way of the Praiseworthy (Lord).
39. “Purest of the speeches”: though it may imply every pure thing, here it refers to the basic articles of the faith.
40. As already stated in the introduction, the portion of the Surah, which was revealed at Makkah, comes to an end here. Though its style is clearly that of the Makki Surahs and there is nothing to indicate that any part (or the whole) of it was revealed at Al-Madinah, the words, “these are the two parties”, have given rise to the misunderstanding that this verse was revealed at Al-Madinah. Some commentators are of the opinion that the two parties referred to were the parties who met in the Battle of Badr, but there is nothing in the context to support this opinion. On the other hand, from the context in which these words occur, it becomes obvious that the two parties referred to were the believers and the disbelievers. For the conflict between belief and disbelief has always been going on ever since the creation of man and will go on up to the Day of Resurrection.
Incidentally, this latter view helps prove that the Quran is a continuous whole and every part of it is closely connected with the other: whereas the comments mentioned earlier would imply that there is no continuous theme in the Quran but different parts of it have been put together without rhyme or reason.
(22:25) Indeed those who disbelieve41 and who (now) hinder people from the Way of Allah and hinder them from the Holy Mosque42 which We have set up (as a place of worship) for all people, equally for those who dwell therein and for those who come
from outside,43 (they surely deserve punishment). Whosoever deviates therein from the Right Way and acts with iniquity,44 We shall cause him to taste a painful chastisement.
41. “Those who disbelieved” were the people who rejected the message of the Prophet
(peace be upon him). The subsequent theme clearly shows that they were the disbelievers of Makkah.
42. That is, they debarred the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his followers from performing Hajj and Umrah.
43. That is, this is not exclusively the property of any person or family or clan but is meant for all mankind alike. Therefore none has any right to debar others from it.
In this connection, two questions have arisen among the Jurists of Islam:
(1) What is meant by the Sacred Mosque? Does it mean the mosque itself or includes the whole Inviolable Place of Makkah?
(2) What is meant by equal rights of its dwellers and the outsiders?
According to some jurists, it means the Sacred Mosque itself and not the whole of Inviolable Makkah. They base this opinion on the apparent wording of the Quran and say that equal rights are meant to equal rights only in regard to worship in it. They cite a tradition of the
Prophet (peace be upon him) to support their opinion. He said: O children of Abd Manaf, those of you who will have authority over the affairs of the people, should not stop anybody from moving round the Kabah or from offering prayers in it at any time of the day or night.
Imam Shafai and others who support this view are of the opinion that it is wrong to conclude from this verse that the rights of the dwellers and the outsiders are equal in every respect, but they are equal only in regard to the right of worship and in nothing else, for the people of Makkah owned the lands and the houses of Makkah before Islam and also after it. So much so that during the time of Caliph Umar, the house of Safwan bin Umayyah was actually purchased from him for the purpose of making a prison in Makkah.
The others who hold that the Sacred Mosque refers to the whole of the Inviolable Place of Makkah derive their authority from (verses 196 and 217 of Surah Al-Bagarah). They argue that Hajj is not performed only in the Kabah (the Sacred Mosque), but the pilgrim has to visit Mina, Muzdalifah, Arafat, etc. for the performance of Hajj rites. Thus, they hold that equality is not merely in regard to worship in the Sacred Mosque, but in regard to all other rights in Makkah. As this place has been appointed for Hajj by Allah for all alike, none has any right of ownership in it. Anyone can stay anywhere he likes and none can prohibit him from doing so. They cite many traditions in support of their opinion.
(1) Abdullah bin Umar reports that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Makkah is the place where travelers have to stay: therefore its lands cannot be sold nor can anyone charge rent for its houses.
(2) According to Ibrahim Nakhai, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Makkah has been made an Inviolable Place by Allah: therefore selling its land and charging rent for its houses is unlawful. Mujahid has also reported a tradition almost in similar words.
(3) Algamah says: During the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), and of the first three Caliphs, the lands of Makkah were regarded as common property and one could live there or allow others to live therein.
(4) Abdullah bin Umar says: Caliph Umar had ordered that no resident of Makkah should close the door of his house during the Hajj season. According to Mujahid; Caliph Umar had ordered that the people of Makkah should not put doors to enclose their courtyards but
keep them open so that anyone who liked them might come in and stay there. The same has been related by Ata with the addition that Suhail bin Amr was the only exception to this rule, who was allowed to put a door in his courtyard in order to safeguard his camels in
connection with his trade.
(5) Abdullah bin Umar also says that the one who receives rent for his house in Makkah fills his belly with fire.
(6) Abdullah bin Abbas says that Allah has made the whole of Makkah the Sacred Mosque where all have equal rights. Therefore the people of Makkah have no right to charge rent.
(7) Umar bin Abdul Aziz sent an order to the governor of Makkah to this effect: No rent should be charged for the houses of Makkah because it is unlawful.
On the basis of the above traditions, quite a few of the followers of the companions and also, Imams Malik, Abu Hanifah, Sufyan Tauri, Ahmad bin Hanbal, and Ishaq bin Rahawayah from among the Jurists, are of the opinion that it is unlawful to sell a piece of land and to charge rent, at least during the Hajj season, in Makkah. However, the majority of the Jurists are of the opinion that people can own houses in Makkah and can sell them as buildings but not as land. In my opinion, this last view seems to be the right one because it conforms with the Quran and the Sunnah and the practice of the rightly guided Caliphs. It is obvious that Allah has not made Hajj obligatory for the Muslims of the whole world in order to provide a means of income for the people of Makkah. As Allah has set apart the Inviolable Place for the benefit of all the believers, that land is not the property of anyone and every pilgrim has the right to stay anywhere he can find room for himself.
44. It does not imply any specific act but means every act that deviates from righteousness and falls under the definition of iniquity. Though all such acts are sins at all times and places; their commission in the Inviolable Place makes them all the more heinous; so much so that the commentators are of the opinion that even taking an unnecessary oath brings it under the same category.
Besides common sins, there are certain other things whose commission in the Inviolable Place brings them under the same category. For instance.
(I) It is prohibited to take legal action even against a murderer, etc. who takes shelter within the Inviolable Place: so much so that he cannot be arrested as long as he retrains therein. This sanctity of the Inviolable Place is being observed since the time of Prophet Abraham
(peace be upon him). The Quran says: Whoso even enters it, he becomes safe and secure. (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayat 97).
(3.97)In it there are clear signs and the station of Abraham;80 whoever enters it becomes secure.81 Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to Allah by all who can make their way to it. As for those who refuse to follow His command, surely Allah does not stand in need of anything)
(2) The consensus of opinion is that there can be no retribution within the Inviolable Place for the crimes committed outside it. Hadrat Umar, Abdullah bin Umar, and Abdullah bin Abbas declared: We will not take any action in it even against the murderer of our fathers.
(3) It is unlawful to wage war or shed blood within it. On the second day of the conquest of Makkah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared: O people, Allah has made Makkah a Sanctuary since the very creation of this world, and it will remain so by Allah’s ordinance
up to the Day of Resurrection; therefore, it is not lawful for any man, who believes in Allah and the Day of Resurrection, to shed blood here. Then he added: Suppose a man legalizes bloodshed here on the basis of the precedent that I waged war here, tell him, Allah made it
lawful for His Messenger and not for you. It was made lawful for me for a short interval of the day. Then it was again made Inviolable as before.
(4) It is unlawful to cut naturally growing trees or uproot the grass which has grown there. It is also prohibited to hunt birds and animals within the boundary or to drive them out from the Inviolable Place for hunting. It is, however, lawful to kill a serpent, a scorpion, and other harmful animals and to uproot dry grass and izkhir which is a kind of grass.
(5) It is prohibited to pick up anything that has fallen to the ground. In a tradition, reported by Abu Dawud, the Prophet (peace be upon him) prohibited people to pick up, anything belonging to a pilgrim that had fallen to the ground.
(6) It is unlawful for a pilgrim who comes with the intention of performing Hajj or Umrah to enter therein without Ihram. However, there is a divergence of opinion in regard to the entry of others than the pilgrims without Ihram. According to Abdullah bin Abbas, no one is
allowed to enter therein without Ihram in any case, and this has been supported by a saying each of Imam Ahmad and Imam Shafai. According to other sayings of Imams Ahmad and Shafai, those people who have to visit the Inviolable Place frequently in connection with
trade and business, are excepted. Imam Abu Hanifah, however, holds the view that the person who lives within the limits of the appointed Migats can visit Makkah without [hram but the outsiders cannot enter it without Ihram.