وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا ِلأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ قَالَ أَأَسْجُدُ لِمَنْ خَلَقْتَ طِينًا (الإسراء: 61).
قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 62).
قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَوْفُورًا (الإسراء: 63).
وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الأَمْوالِ وَالأَولاَدِ وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمْ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا (الإسراء: 64).
إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 65).
رَبُّكُمُ الَّذِي يُزْجِي لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ فِي الْبَحْرِ لِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا (الإسراء: 66).
وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فِي الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَنْ تَدْعُونَ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاكُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ وَكَانَ الإِنْسَانُ كَفُورًا (الإسراء: 67).
أَفَأَمِنتُمْ أَنْ يَخْسِفَ بِكُمْ جَانِبَ الْبَرِّ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 68).
أَمْ أَمِنتُمْ أَنْ يُعِيدَكُمْ فِيهِ تَارَةً أُخْرَى فَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ قَاصِفًا مِنْ الرِّيحِ فَيُغْرِقَكُمْ بِمَا كَفَرْتُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ تَبِيعًا (الإسراء: 69).
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلاً (الإسراء: 70).
يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ فَمَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ يَقْرَءُونَ كِتَابَهُمْ وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً (الإسراء: 71).
وَمَنْ كَانَ فِي هَذِهِ أَعْمَى فَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ أَعْمَى وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 72).
وَإِنْ كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ عَنِ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ لِتَفْتَرِيَ عَلَيْنَا غَيْرَهُ وَإِذًا لاَتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 73).
وَلَوْلاَ أَنْ ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدْتَّ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 74).
إِذًا لَأَذَقْنَاكَ ضِعْفَ الْحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ الْمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيْنَا نَصِيرًا (الإسراء: 75).
وَإِنْ كَادُوا لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنْ الأَرْضِ لِيُخْرِجُوكَ مِنْهَا وَإِذًا لاَ يَلْبَثُونَ خِلاَفَكَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 76).
سُنَّةَ مَنْ قَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا وَلاَ تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحْوِيلاً (الإسراء: 77).
أَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا (الإسراء: 78).
وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَكَ عَسَى أَنْ يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَحْمُودًا (الإسراء: 79).
وَقُلْ رَبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَأَخْرِجْنِي مُخْرَجَ صِدْقٍ وَاجْعَلْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ سُلْطَانًا نَصِيرًا (الإسراء: 80).
وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا (الإسراء: 81).
وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنْ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلاَّ خَسَارًا (الإسراء: 82).
وَإِذَا أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَى الإِنسَانِ أَعْرَضَ وَنَأَى بِجَانِبِهِ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ كَانَ يَئُوسًا (الإسراء: 83).
قُلْ كُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ عَلَى شَاكِلَتِهِ فَرَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ هُوَ أَهْدَى سَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 84).
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 85).
وَلَئِنْ شِئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ بِالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُ لَكَ بِهِ عَلَيْنَا وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 86).
إِلاَّ رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ إِنَّ فَضْلَهُ كَانَ عَلَيْكَ كَبِيرًا (الإسراء: 87).
قُلْ لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ لاَ يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا (الإسراء: 88).
وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلاَّ كُفُورًا (الإسراء: 89).
وَقَالُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَرْضِ يَنْبُوعًا (الإسراء: 90).
أَوْ تَكُونَ لَكَ جَنَّةٌ مِنْ نَخِيلٍ وَعِنَبٍ فَتُفَجِّرَ الأَنهَارَ خِلاَلَهَا تَفْجِيرًا (الإسراء: 91).
أَوْ تُسْقِطَ السَّمَاءَ كَمَا زَعَمْتَ عَلَيْنَا كِسَفًا أَوْ تَأْتِيَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةِ قَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 92).
أَوْ يَكُونَ لَكَ بَيْتٌ مِنْ زُخْرُفٍ أَوْ تَرْقَى فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لِرُقِيِّكَ حَتَّى تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا كِتَابًا نَقْرَؤُهُ قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنتُ إِلاَّ بَشَرًا رَسُولاً (الإسراء: 93).
وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَى إِلاَّ أَنْ قَالُوا أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَسُولاً (الإسراء: 94).
قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ فِي الأَرْضِ مَلاَئِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَسُولاً (الإسراء: 95).
قُلْ كَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا (الإسراء: 96).
وَمَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَنَحْشُرُهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلَى وَجُوهِهِمْ عُمْيًا وَبُكْمًا وَصُمًّا مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ كُلَّمَا خَبَتْ زِدْنَاهُمْ سَعِيرًا (الإسراء: 97).
ذَلِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالُوا أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَئِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا (الإسراء: 98).
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ قَادِرٌ عَلَى أَنْ يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُمْ وَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ أَجَلاً لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ فَأَبَى الظَّالِمُونَ إِلاَّ كُفُورًا (الإسراء: 99).
قُلْ لَوْ أَنتُمْ تَمْلِكُونَ خَزَائِنَ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّي إِذًا لَأَمْسَكْتُمْ خَشْيَةَ الإِنفَاقِ وَكَانَ الإِنْسَانُ قَتُورًا (الإسراء: 100).
QURAN-SURAL AL ISRA ,BANI ISRAEIL AYYAh 61 To 100
(17:61) And recall when We asked the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam; all prostrated themselves except Iblis,74 who said: “Shall I prostrate myself before him whom You created of clay?”
74. Please also refer to (Surah Al-Bagarah, Ayats 30-39); (Surah An-Nisa, Ayats 117-122); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 11- 25); (Surah Ibrahim, Ayat 22); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 26-43). This story has been cited here to impress upon the disbelievers that their attitude of arrogance and indifference towards Allah is exactly the same as was adopted by Satan. As a matter of fact, they were following Satan who is the avowed enemy of man and were being entangled in the snare spread by him who had challenged the progeny of Adam at the very beginning of a human history that he would allure and ruin them.
(17:62) He then continued: “Look! This is he whom You have exalted above me! If you will grant me respite till the Day of Resurrection I shall uproot the whole of his progeny except only a few.75
75. That is, I will uproot them from the high position of divine vicegerency which demands steadfastness in obedience. Their removal from that high position is just like the tearing of a tree from its roots.
(17:63) Thereupon He retorted: “Be gone! Hell shall be the recompense – and an amplest one of whosoever of them who follows you.
(17:64) Tempt with your call all whom you wish.76 Muster against them all your forces – your cavalry and your foot soldiers;77 shares with their riches and offspring,78 and seduce them with rosy promises and Satan’s promise is nothing but a deception79
76. The literal meaning of the Arabic text is: You may sweep away those whom you find superficial and weak-minded.
77. Here, Satan has been likened to that robber who assaults a habitation with cavalry and infantry and orders them to rob. The cavalry and the infantry of Satan are those jinns and human beings who are engaged in numerous forms and positions in carrying out his
78. This is a very meaningful sentence that depicts a true and perfect picture of the relationship between Satan and his followers. On the one hand, Satan becomes a partner with the one who follows him in the earning and spending of his money without putting any labor into it. On the other hand, he does not become a partner in bearing the consequences of his error, crime, and sin. But his foolish dupe follows his instructions as if he were a partner, nay, a stronger party. Again in regard to the children of such a man, the father himself bears the whole burden of bringing them up but under the misguidance of Satan he trains them in wrong and immoral ways as if he alone was not their father but Satan as well was a partner in it.
79. Satan entices them with false promises of success and entangles them in the snare of false expectations.
(17:65) but know well that you will have no power against My servants. 80Your Lord suffices for them to place their trust in.81
80. It has two meanings: (1) You will have no power over human beings to force them to follow your way. What you are allowed to do is that you may delude them with false counsel and entice them with false promises, but they will have the option to follow or not to follow
your counsel. You will not have the power over them to force them to follow your way against their will. (2) You will not succeed in alluring My righteous people. Though the weak-minded will be enticed by you. My righteous people who are steadfast in My obedience will not succumb to you.
81. That is, those who will trust in Allah and believe in His guidance and help, will not stand in need of any other support in their trial by Satan for Allah will guide them, protect them and help them to be safe from his allurements. On the other hand, those people, who will place their trust in their own power or that of any other than Allah, will not come out successful in their trial by Satan.
(17:66) Your Lord is He Who steers your vessels across the seas82 that you may seek of His Bounty.83 He is ever Merciful towards you.
82. This passage (Ayats 66-72) is closely connected with the previous one. It tells the man that if he wants to protect himself from the allurements, temptations, and false promises of Satan who has been his avowed enemy from the day of his creation, he should recognize his real Lord and be steadfast in His obedience. Satan intends to prove that man is not worthy of the honor with which Allah has blessed him. Therefore if he follows any other way he cannot escape the snares of Satan. In this passage, arguments of Tauhid have been put forward in order to make man steadfast in his faith and refrain from shirk.
83. That is, try to avail of the economic, social, educational, and intellectual benefits which are provided by the sea voyages.
(17:67) When a calamity befalls you on the sea, all those whom you invoke forsake you except Him.* But when He delivers you safely to the shore you turn away from Him, for man is indeed most thankless.
84. That is, this is proof of the fact that your real nature knows no other Lord than Allah, and you feel in the depths of your hearts that He alone possesses the real power of every gain or loss. Had it not been so, man would never have invoked Allah at the time when he realized that no other helper could remove his misfortune.
(17:68) Do you, then, feel secure against His causing you to be swallowed up by a tract of the earth, or letting loose a deadly whirlwind charged with stones towards you, and there you will find none to protect you?
(17:69) Or do you feel secure that He will not cause you to revert to the sea, and let a tempest lose upon you and then drown you for your ingratitude whereupon you will find none even to inquire of Us what happened to you?
(17:70) Indeed, We honored the progeny of Adam, and bore them across land and sea and provided them with good things for their sustenance, and exalted them above many of Our creatures. 85
85. That is, it is an obvious fact that the superiority man enjoys over all other beings on the earth and all that is in it, has not been bestowed upon him by a jinn or an angel or a prophet. Most surely that is Allah’s blessing and favor. Is it not then the height of folly and ignorance
that after having achieved such a high rank, man should bow down before any creature of Allah instead of Him?
(17:71) Then think of the Day We shall summon every community with its leader. Those who are given their Record in their right hand shall read the Record of their deeds* and shall not be wronged a whit.
86. We learn from the Quran that on the Day of Resurrection, the righteous people will be given their records in their right hands and they will be overjoyed to have a look at them and will show it to others. As regards to the wicked people, they will get their records in their left hands in their shame and will try to hide it behind their backs. Please refer to (Surah Al- Haaqqa, Ayats 19-28), (Surah Al-Inshigqaq, Ayats 7-13).
(17:72) Whoever lived in this world as blind shall live as blind in the Life to Come; rather, he will be even farther astray than if he were (just) blind.
(17:73) (0 Muhammad), they had all but tempted you away from what We have revealed to you that you may invent something else in Our Name. 87 Had you done so, they would have taken you as their trusted friend.
87. In order to understand the significance of this verse, we should keep in view the circumstances through which the Prophet (peace be upon him) had been passing at Makkah during the preceding decade or so. The disbelievers of Makkah were exerting their utmost to turn the Prophet (peace be upon him) away, somehow or other, from his message of Tauhid, which he was presenting, and to force him to make a compromise with shirk and the customs of ignorance. In order to achieve this end, they tempted him in several ways.
They practiced deception upon him, tempted him with greed, held out threats, raised a storm of false propaganda against him, persecuted him, and applied economic pressure and social boycott against him. In short, they did all that could be done to defeat his resolve.
(17:74) Indeed, had We not strengthened you, you might have inclined to them a little,
(17:75) whereupon We would have made you taste double (the chastisement) in the world and double (the chastisement) after death, and then you would have found none to help you against Us.88
88. This review implies two things: (1) If you had compromised with falsehood after recognizing the truth, you might have pleased your degenerate people but would have incurred the wrath of Allah and would have received double chastisement both in this world and in the Hereafter. (2) No man, not even a Messenger of Allah, can fight
singlehanded against the deceitful methods of falsehood unless he receives the succor of Allah. It was the fortitude that Allah had bestowed upon the Prophet (peace be upon him), which helped him to retrain steadfast on the right position he had taken, so that no
persecution, howsoever great, could turn him away in the least from that position.
(17:76) They were bent upon uprooting you from this land and driving you away from it. But were they to succeed, they would not be able to remain after you for more than a little while.89
89. This was a clear prophecy that was made at the time when it appeared to be no more than a mere threat, but it was fulfilled literally in a decade or so. A year after the revelation of this Surah, the disbelievers of Makkah compelled the Prophet (peace be upon him) to
leave his home. Then within eight years, he entered Makkah as a conqueror, and within two years after this, entire Arabia was totally freed from mushriks. Then whosoever stayed in that country, he remained there as a Muslim and not as a mushrik.
(17:77) This has been Our Way with the Messengers whom We sent before you.90 You will find no change in Our Way.
90. That is, this is how Allah has always dealt with the people who killed or exiled His Messengers. They never survived in the land after this. They were either annihilated by the scourge of Allah or were brought under the sway of an enemy or were subdued by the followers of the Messenger.
(17:78)Establish Prayer91 from the declining of the sun92 to the darkness of the night;93 and hold fast to the recitation of the Qur’an at dawn,94 for the recitation of the Qur’an at dawn is witnessed.95
91. The Muslims have been commanded to establish Salat immediately after the mention of obstacles and adversities. This implies that the perseverance required to face adverse circumstances is obtained by the establishment of Salat.
92. We have translated the words of the Arabic text into “the declining of the sun.” Though some of the companions and their followers are of the opinion that it means “the sunset”, the majority of them are of the opinion that it means “the declining of the sun from its zenith.” Umar, Ibn Umar, Anas bin Malik, Abu Barza-tal-Aslami, Hasan Basri, Shaabi, Ata, Mujahid, and, according to a tradition, Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them all) are of this opinion and Imam Muhammad Bagqir and Imam Jaafar Sadiq also are of the same opinion. Besides this, there are some traditions from the Prophet (peace be upon him) to the same effect, though they are not so authentic.
93. According to some, the original words of the Arabic text mean “darkness of the night”, while others take it to mean “midnight”. If the first opinion is accepted, it will imply “the beginning of the time of the salatul-isha, the isha prayer” and according to the other it will
mean “the last limit of the time of salatul-isha.”
94. The literal meaning of the word fajr is dawn, that is, “the beginning of the morning after the darkness of night.”
Here the “recital of the Quran in the morning” stands for the salatul-fajr, the morning prayer. In some places, the Quran has used the word salat for prayer and in other places a particular part of salat for prayer as a whole, e.g. tasbih, hamd, zikr, qayam, ruku, sajud etc. Likewise,
here “recital of the Quran at dawn” does not mean the mere recital of the Quran but its recital during the salatul-fajr. Thus, the Quran has also incidentally referred to the different parts of which salat is composed and these guided the Prophet (peace be upon him) to
prescribe the definite form of salat in which it is performed by the Muslims.
95. The recital of the Quran at dawn is witnessed by the angels of Allah to testify it as has been explained in the traditions. Though the angels witness each prayer and each good deed, the special mention of their being witnesses at the time of the recital of the Quran during the
salatul-fajr gives it particular importance. That is why the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to recite long passages from the Quran during the salatul-fajr. His example was followed by his companions, and the succeeding Muslim scholars held it to be a desirable
thing. In this verse, it has been briefly stated how to establish salat which was made obligatory at the prescribed timings on the occasion of Miraj. It has been ordained that the first prayer is to be offered before sunrise and the remaining four after the decline of
the sun till the darkness of the night. Afterward, Angel Jibril was sent to the Prophet (peace be upon him) to define the limits of the timings of each prayer. According to a tradition of Abu Daud and Tirmizi related by Ibn Abbas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Jibril led me in the five prayers twice near the Kaabah. On the first day, he offered the Duhr prayer just after the decline of the sun, when the shadow of everything was the shortest. Then he offered the Asr prayer when the shadow of each thing was equal to its own length, then the Maghrib prayer at the time when one breaks his fast, and the Isha prayer was offered just at the time when twilight had disappeared, and Fajr prayer at the time when it becomes unlawful to eat and drink anything for the one who intends to observe a fast. The next day he offered the Dhuhr prayer at the time when the shadow of each thing became equal to its
own length and the Asr prayer when the shadow had doubled. The Maghrib prayer was offered as on the previous day and the Isha prayer when one-third of the night had passed away, and the Fajr prayer when light had spread all over. After this Jibril turned towards me and said: O Muhammad, these are the timings of salat of the Prophets and the right tunings are between these two extreme limits.
The Quran has also pointed to these five times of Salat on different occasions:
(1) And listen; establish salat at the two ends of the day and in the early parts of the night (Surah At-Tauba, Ayat 114).
(2) And glorify your Lord with His praise before the sunrise (Fajr) and before sunset (Asr) and then glorify Him during the night (Isha) and then at the ends of the day (Fajr, Dhuhr and Maghrib). (Surah Taaha, Ayat 130).
(3) So glorify Allah when it is an evening for you (Maghrib), and when it is morning (Fajr). Praise is only for Him in the heavens and the earth and glorify him in the later part of the afternoon (Asr) and in the afternoon (Dhuhr). (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 17-18).
There is great wisdom in this system of the timings of salat. One of these is to avoid the timings of the worship of the sun worshipers. This is because the sun has always been in every age one of the greatest deities of the mushriks, who worshiped it, especially at the time
of sunrise and sunset. Therefore, these two times have totally been forbidden for salat. Besides this, they worshiped the sun at the time of its zenith. That is why Islam has ordained that Muslims should offer their two prayers during the daytime after the sun has declined and the Fajr prayer before the sunrise. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself has stated this wisdom of the timings of prayer in several traditions. For instance, in the tradition related by Amar bin Abasah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have replied to a question to this effect: Offer your morning prayer, but refrain from it when the sun is about to rise until it has risen high. For the sun rises between the horns of Satan and the unbelievers fall prostrate before it at that time. Then after mentioning the Asr prayer, he said: after Asr prayer, refrain from any prayer until the sunset, for during that time the sun sets between the horns of Satan and the unbelievers fall prostrate before it.
The rising and the setting of the sun between the horns of Satan is a symbolic expression that has been used in this tradition. This implies that both these times are used by Satan as temptations for the people. This is as if to say: that Satan is so pleased with the worship of the unbelievers at the time of sunrise and sunset that he appears to carry the sun on his head as a mark of approval. This interpretation of the tradition is based on this remark of the Prophet (peace be upon him): The unbelievers fall prostrate before it.
(17:79) And rise from sleep during the night as well96 this is an additional Prayer for you.97 Possibly your Lord will raise you to an honored position.98
96. The literal meaning of tahajjud is to rise up by breaking sleep. Therefore, it means: Rise up from sleep after the passing of a part of the night and then offer your prayer.
97. Naf] literally means: Something done in addition to an obligatory duty. This shows that the tahajjud prayer is in addition to the five prescribed prayers.
98. “Will raise you to an honored position”. You may attain such a high position in this world and in the next world that people from everywhere may be full of praise for you, and you may become a praiseworthy personality. This is as if to say: Now your opponents are
engaged in calling you names and are trying to defame you throughout the country and have raised a storm of false accusations against you but that time is not far when the world will ring with the echoes of your praise and in the Hereafter, you will become worthy of
praise by all creatures. The exaltation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to the high position of intercession on the Day of Resurrection is also a part of that honored position.
(17:80) And pray: “My Lord! Cause me to enter wherever it be, with Truth, 99and cause me to exit, wherever it be, with Truth,“ and support me with authority from Yourself.”100
99. This prayer clearly shows that the time of Hijrah (Migration) had come near. That is why Allah has instructed the Prophet (peace be upon him) to this effect: You should follow the truth wherever and in whatever condition you be. If you migrate from a place, you should
migrate for the sake of the truth, and wherever you go, you should go for the sake of the truth.
100. That is, either grant me power and authority or make some government my helper so that I may use its power to reform the corrupt world. This is because power is required to check indecency and sin and to enforce the law of justice.
Hasan Basri and Qatadah have made the same interpretation of this verse, and great commentators like Ibn Jarir and Ibn Kathir have adopted the same. This is supported by a tradition of the Prophet (peace be upon him): Allah eradicates by the power of government
those evils, which are not eradicated by the teachings of the Quran. This is clear proof that according to Islam, political power is also required to introduce reform, for admonition alone is not enough for this. Besides this, when Allah Himself has taught this prayer to His
Prophet (peace be upon him) for the establishment of His way and enforcement of His law, it is not only lawful but desirable to acquire power, and those, who consider this to be a worldly thing, are obviously in the wrong. What is really worldliness is that one should
desire and acquire power for his own interest. On the contrary, the desire for power for the sake of Allah’s way is not the worship of the world but the worship of God.
(17:81) And proclaim: “The Truth has come, and falsehood has vanished.101 Surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish.1022
101. At the time of this declaration, the persecution of Muslims was at its height. A large number of them had emigrated to Habash, and those who had remained behind were suffering from untold hardships at Makkah and its suburbs: so much so that the life of the Holy Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore, to all appearances, falsehood was prevailing everywhere and there was no sign to show that the truth would ever overpower falsehood. That is why the disbelievers took it for a boastful talk and scoffed at it when this
declaration was traded. But this prophecy of victory did come out true in less than a decade when the Holy Prophet entered the same city of Makkah as a conqueror and entered the Ka’abah where he made the same declaration while he was breaking the three hundred and
sixty idols. According to a Tradition of Bukhari, related by Hadrat ‘Abdullah bin Mas*ud, “On the day of the conquest of Makkah, the Holy Prophet went on striking idols and uttering these words: “The Truth has come and falsehood has vanished; for falsehood is a thing that must by its nature vanish. The Truth has come and falsehood will never reappear nor return.”
(17:82) What We are sending down in the course of revealing the Qur’an is a healing and a grace for those who have faith, but it adds only to the ruin of the wrong-doers.102
102. That is, those people who make the Quran their guide and their book of the law, are favored with the blessing of Allah and are cured of all their mental, psychological, moral, and cultural diseases. On the other hand, those wicked people who reject this and turn their back on its guidance, in fact, are unjust to themselves. Therefore, the Quran does not allow them to remain even in that bad condition in which they were before its revelation or its knowledge but involves them in a greater loss than before. This is because before the the revelation of the Quran or their acquaintance with it, they suffered from ignorance alone but when the Quran came before them and made distinct the difference between truth and falsehood, no excuse was left with them to remain in their previous condition of ignorance.
After this, if they reject its guidance and persist in their deviation, it is clear proof that they are not ignorant but workers of iniquity and worshipers of falsehood, which are averse to the truth. For then their position is of the one who, when presented with both poison and elixir,
makes a choice of poison. Therefore, they themselves are in that cast fully responsible for their deviation, and whatever crimes they commit after that, shall incur their full punishment. It is obvious that the consequent loss of wickedness must be far greater than the loss of ignorance. The Prophet (peace be upon him) has summed this up in this concise and comprehensive sentence: The Quran is either an argument in your favor or against you.
(17:83) Whenever We bestow favors upon man, he arrogantly turns away and draws aside; and whenever evil visits him, he is in utter despair.
(17:84) Say, (O Prophet): “Each one acts according to his own manner. Your Lord knows well who is best-guided to the Right Path.”
(17:85) They ask you about “the spirit” 103 Say: “The spirit descends by the command of my Lord, but you have been given only a little knowledge.”
103. It is generally understood that the Arabic word Rooh stands here for the soul as if the people asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the soul of man in regard to its nature, and the answer was that it came by the command of Allah. But we have great hesitation in
accepting this meaning for it could be taken only if the verse is isolated from its context; otherwise, these words would become quite incoherent for there is no reason why the question about soul should have intervened between the preceding three verses and following verses which deal with the theme of the Quran.
If we read the verse in its context, it becomes quite obvious that here the word Rooh (The Spirit) stands for the angel who brings revelation. This was in answer to the question of the mushriks: Where from do you bring the Quran? as if to say: O Muhammad, these people ask
you about the Spirit, that is, the source of the Quran or the means of acquiring it, so tell them: This Spirit comes to me by the command of my Lord but your knowledge is so little that you cannot distinguish between the nature of human words and the divinely revealed
words. That is why you suspect that this has been fabricated by some man.
The above interpretation is to be preferred because it fits in excellently between the preceding and the succeeding verses. This is also supported by the Quran itself: He sends down by His command “The Spirit” to any of His servants He wills so that they should
warn the people of the Day when they shall be assembled together. (Surah Al-Momin, Ayat 15). And likewise, We have sent down “The Spirit” to you by Our command: You did not know what the Book was and what the faith. (Gurah Ash-Shurah, Ayat 52).
Besides this, Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, and Hasan Basri (may Allah bestow His mercy upon them all) have also adopted the same interpretation. Ibn Jarir attributed the same thing to Ibn Abbas under the authority of Qatadah, but at the same time he tells a strange thing that Ibn
Abbas stated this thing only in secret. Again the author of Ruh-ul-Maani cites these words of Hasan and Qatadah: By Rooh is meant Jibril: the question was about the nature of his coming down and inspiring the heart of the Prophet (peace be upon him) with Revelation.
(17:36) Had We willed, We could take away what We have revealed to you, then you would find none to help you in recovering it from Us.
(17:87) (Whatever you have received) is nothing but grace from your Lord. Indeed His favor to you is great.104
104. Though these words are apparently addressed by the Prophet (peace be upon him), they are in fact meant for the disbelievers who considered the Quran to be either the invention of the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself or of some other man, who secretly taught him the Quran. They are being told that this is the Word of Allah as if to say: Our Prophet has not fabricated the Quran but We have bestowed this on him, and if We take it back from him, the Prophet has no power to invent such a thing nor has any other man the power to help the Prophet to present such a miraculous Book.
(17:88) Say: “Surely, if mankind and jinn were to get together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they will never be able to produce the like of it, howsoever they might help one another.”105
105. This challenge occurs at several other places in the Quran: (Surah Al-Bagarah, Ayat 23); (Surah Younus, Ayats 38-39); (Surah Al-Momin, Ayats 13-14); (Surah At-Toor, Ayats 33-34).
In all these places, this has been cited as an answer to the charge of the disbelievers that Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself invented the Quran but is presenting it as Allah’s Word. Besides this, the same has also been refuted in (Surah Younus, Ayat 16): “Say
also, had not Allah willed that I should recite the Quran to you, I could not have recited it to you, nor could I have been able to give you any information about it: already have I lived a lifetime among you before its revelation. Do you not use your common sense?”
Now let us turn to the three arguments contained in these verses as proof that the Quran is the Word of Allah.
(1) The Quran is such a miracle in regard to its language, style, arguments, themes, topics, teachings and prophecies that it is beyond any human power to produce the like of it, as if to say, “You say that a man has invented this but We challenge that even the whole of
mankind combined cannot produce a Book like this: nay, even if the jinns, whom the mushriks worshiped as deities and whom this Book openly attacks, should come to the help of the disbelievers, they cannot produce a Book like this to refute this challenge.
(2) As regards the charge that Muhammad (peace be upon him) has himself invented this Book, the Quran refutes their claim, as if to say” Muhammad is one of you and not a foreigner. He lived among you for forty years before the revelation of the Quran. Did you ever heard words like those of the Quran from him even a day before his claim of
Prophethood, or did you ever hear him discussing themes and problems contained in the Quran? If you consider the matter from this point of view, it will become obvious to you that the sudden change which has come about in their language, ideas, information, style, and
way of thinking of Muhammad, could not take place without divine guidance.
(3) Can you not see that after the recital of the Quran, he does not disappear but lives among you? You hear other things than the Quran from him. Do you not notice that the distinction between the two different styles of expression is so obvious that no man can successfully adopt the two styles at one and the same time? The distinction can also be noticed, even today, between the language of the Quran and that of the traditions of the Prophet (peace be
upon him). Anyone well versed in the Arabic language and literature notices the difference which is so marked that one can categorically say that these modes of expression cannot belong to one and the same person. (For further reference please also see (E.N. 21 of Surah Younus, Ayat 16).
(17:89) We have explained things to people in this Qur’an in diverse ways to make them understand the Message, yet most people obstinately persist in unbelief.
(17:90)They said: “We shall not accept your Message until you cause a spring to gush forth for us from the earth
(17:91) or that there be a garden of palms and vines for you and then you cause rivers to abundantly flow forth through them;
(17:92) or cause the sky to fall on us in pieces as you claimed, or bring Allah and the angels before us, face to face;
(17:93) or that there come to be for you a house of gold, or that you ascend to the sky – though we shall not believe in your ascension (to the sky) – until you bring down a book for us that we can read.” Say to them, (O Muhammad): “Holy is my Lord! Am I anything else than a human being, who bears a Message (from Allah)? 106
106. This is the second answer to the demand of the disbelievers for a miracle. The first answer is contained in (Ayat 59). The eloquence of this concise answer is above praise: You demand from me that I should cause a spring to gush forth, or in the twinkling of an eye should bring into being a garden in full bloom with canals flowing in it: or I should cause the heaven to fall into pieces on those of you who are rejecting the message: or I should cause to build a furnished palace of gold: or I should call Allah and the angels to stand before you and testify to this effect: We Ourselves have sent down Muhammad as Our Messenger: or I should go up to the sky in your presence and bring down, addressed to you, the letter of the authority of my appointment duly signed by Allah so that you may touch it with your hands and read it with your own eyes. The concise answer to these big demands was this: My Lord be glorified! Have I ever claimed to be anything more than a human Messenger? It may be expanded like this: O people, have I claimed to be God that you are demanding such things from me? Did I ever say that I am all-powerful and am ruling over
the earth and the Heavens? From the very first day, my claim has been that I am a human being who is bringing the Message from God. Therefore, if you want to judge the authenticity of my claim, you may judge it from my message. If you are convinced that it is based on the truth and is absolutely rational, then you should believe in it without making foolish demands. On the other hand, if you find any defect in it, you may reject it. If you want to test whether my claim is based on truth, you should judge it by the standard of my conduct and morals as a human being and my mission. Is it not a folly that, instead of this,
you are demanding from me to cleave the earth and cause the sky to fall? Is there any connection whatsoever of Prophethood with things like that?
(17:94) Whenever Guidance came to people, nothing prevented them from believing except that they said: “Has Allah sent a human being as a Messenger?”107
107. It implies that this misunderstanding has always been common among the ignorant people of every age that a human being could not be a Messenger of Allah: They rejected a Messenger just because he was a human being and took his meals and had a wife and children like themselves. In contrast to this, after the passage of time, the credulous followers of a Messenger began to claim that he was not a human being at all because he was a Messenger. That is why some people made their Messenger their God, others the son of God, and still others the incarnation of God. In short, the ignorant people had never been able to understand that a human being could be a Messenger of Allah.
(17:95) Say: “Had angels been walking about in peace on the earth, We would surely have sent to them an angel from the heavens as Messenger.108
108. This is to say that Messenger does not merely convey the message but is sent to reform human life in accordance with it. He has to apply the principles of the message to the circumstances of human beings and has himself demonstrate practically those principles.
Moreover, he has to remove the misunderstandings of those people who try to listen to and understand his message. Besides this, he has to organize and train the believers to create a society based on the teachings of his message. He has to struggle against those who reject
and oppose his message in order to subdue those powers that are bent upon corruption and bring about that reformation for which Allah has sent His Messenger. As all these things have to be done in a society of human beings only a human Messenger can perform the
mission. If an angel had been sent as a Messenger, the most he could have done was to convey the message, for he could not live among human beings and share their life and problems in order to reform them. It is thus clear that a human Messenger only could be
suitable for this purpose.
(17:96) Tell them, (O Prophet): “Allah suffices as a witness between me and you. 109Allah is well aware and fully observes everything pertaining to His servants.109
109. That is, Allah is fully aware of all my efforts which I am sending in order to reform you, and He is fully aware of the efforts you are making against my mission. His witness is sufficient because He will pass the final judgment.
(17:97) Whomsoever Allah guides are rightly guided, and whomsoever Allah lets go astray, you shall find none – apart from Him – who could protect him. We shall muster them all on the Day of Resurrection, on their faces – blind and dumb and deaf. Hell shall be their refuge. Every time its Fire subsides, We will intensify for them its flame.110
110. In this verse, the Quran has enunciated a divine principle. Allah guides to the right way only that person who intends to follow His guidance and let go astray that person who intends to go astray. Thereafter none is able to bring back to the right way the one against
whom Allah has closed the door of guidance because of his own persistent deviation and obduracy. It is obvious that if a man turns his back against the truth and rests content with falsehoods, there is no power in the world to make him turn away from falsehood and come
to the truth.
This is because after this depravity Allah provides for that wicked person such means as increasing his aversion to truth and his love for falsehood.
111. On the Day of Resurrection, they will be raised up blind, dumb, and deaf because they behaved like such people in this world and would not see the truth nor listen to the truth nor speak the truth.
(17:98) That will be their recompense because they disbelieved in Our Signs and said: “What, when we shall be reduced to bones and particles (of dust), shall we be raised again as a new creation?”
(17:99) Have they not perceived that Allah, Who has created the heavens and the earth, has the power to create the like of them? He has fixed a term for them about which there is no doubt. And yet the wrong-doers obstinately persist in unbelief.
(17:100) Tell them, (O Prophet): “Even if you owned the treasures of my Lord’s Mercy you would have held them back for fear of spending them.” Man is indeed ever niggardly.112
112. This verse also suggests the same thing that has already been mentioned in Ayat 55. This hints at the real psychological reason why the disbelievers of Makkah were not inclined to accept Muhammad (peace be upon him), their contemporary, as a Prophet. For thus they
would have to acknowledge his superiority and one does not easily acknowledge the superiority of his contemporary. This verse may be expanded like this: Those people who are so narrow-minded that they are unwilling even to acknowledge the real superiority of another, cannot be expected to be generous in spending on others if they possessed the keys of the treasures of Allah’s blessings.
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