انظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلَلآخِرَةُ أَكْبَرُ دَرَجَاتٍ وَأَكْبَرُ تَفْضِيلاً (الإسراء: 21).
لاَ تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ فَتَقْعُدَ مَذْمُومًا مَخْذُولاً (الإسراء: 22).
وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُوا إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلاَهُمَا فَلاَ تَقُلْ لَهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلاَ تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُلْ لَهُمَا قَوْلاً كَرِيمًا (الإسراء: 23).
وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنْ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا (الإسراء: 24).
رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِي نُفُوسِكُمْ إِنْ تَكُونُوا صَالِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ لِلأَوَّابِينَ غَفُورًا (الإسراء: 25).
وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلاَ تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا (الإسراء: 26).
إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا (الإسراء: 27).
وَإِمَّا تُعْرِضَنَّ عَنْهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ رَحْمَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ تَرْجُوهَا فَقُلْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَيْسُورًا (الإسراء: 28).
وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُولَةً إِلَى عُنُقِكَ وَلاَ تَبْسُطْهَا كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَقْعُدَ مَلُومًا مَحْسُورًا (الإسراء: 29).
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا (الإسراء: 30).
وَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلاَقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ إِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْئًا كَبِيرًا (الإسراء: 31).
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَى إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 32).
وَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلاَ يُسْرِفْ فِي الْقَتْلِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنصُورًا (الإسراء: 33).
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولاً (الإسراء: 34).
وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ إِذَا كِلْتُمْ وَزِنُوا بِالْقِسْطَاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً (الإسراء: 35).
وَلاَ تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُوْلَئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولاً (الإسراء: 36).
وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِي الأَرْضِ مَرَحًا إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَخْرِقَ الأَرْضَ وَلَنْ تَبْلُغَ الْجِبَالَ طُولاً (الإسراء: 37).
كُلُّ ذَلِكَ كَانَ سَيِّئُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ مَكْرُوهًا (الإسراء: 38).
ذَلِكَ مِمَّا أَوْحَى إِلَيْكَ رَبُّكَ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ فَتُلْقَى فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَلُومًا مَدْحُورًا (الإسراء: 39).
أَفَأَصْفَاكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ بِالْبَنِينَ وَاتَّخَذَ مِنَ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنَاثًا إِنَّكُمْ لَتَقُولُونَ قَوْلاً عَظِيمًا (الإسراء: 40).
وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا وَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلاَّ نُفُورًا (الإسراء: 41).
قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ آلِهَةٌ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذًا لاَبْتَغَوْا إِلَى ذِي الْعَرْشِ سَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 42).
سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا (الإسراء: 43).
تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَاوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ وَإِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَكِنْ لاَ تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا (الإسراء: 44).
وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ جَعَلْنَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بالآخِرَةِ حِجَابًا مَسْتُورًا (الإسراء: 45).
وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَنْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا وَإِذَا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَهُ وَلَّوْا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِمْ نُفُورًا (الإسراء: 46).
نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَسْتَمِعُونَ بِهِ إِذْ يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِذْ هُمْ نَجْوَى إِذْ يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ رَجُلاً مَسْحُورًا (الإسراء: 47).
انظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوا لَكَ الأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوا فَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلاً (الإسراء: 48).
وَقَالُوا أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَئِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا (الإسراء: 49).
قُلْ كُونُوا حِجَارَةً أَوْ حَدِيدًا (الإسراء: 50).
أَوْ خَلْقًا مِمَّا يَكْبُرُ فِي صُدُورِكُمْ فَسَيَقُولُونَ مَنْ يُعِيدُنَا قُلِ الَّذِي فَطَرَكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ فَسَيُنْغِضُونَ إِلَيْكَ رُءُوسَهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هُوَ قُلْ عَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ قَرِيبًا (الإسراء: 51).
يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 52).
وَقُلْ لِعِبَادِي يَقُولُوا الَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَنزَغُ بَيْنَهُمْ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلإِنسَانِ عَدُوًّا مُبِينًا (الإسراء: 53).
رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِنْ يَشَأْ يَرْحَمْكُمْ أَوْ إِنْ يَشَأْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 54).
وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا (الإسراء: 55).
قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلاَ يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنكُمْ وَلاَ تَحْوِيلاً (الإسراء: 56).
أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَى رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا (الإسراء: 57).
وَإِنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ إِلاَّ نَحْنُ مُهْلِكُوهَا قَبْلَ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُوهَا عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا كَانَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَسْطُورًا (الإسراء: 58).
وَمَا مَنَعَنَا أَنْ نُرْسِلَ بِالآياتِ إِلاَّ أَنْ كَذَّبَ بِهَا الأَوَّلُونَ وَآتَيْنَا ثَمُودَ النَّاقَةَ مُبْصِرَةً فَظَلَمُوا بِهَا وَمَا نُرْسِلُ بِالآياتِ إِلاَّ تَخْوِيفًا (الإسراء: 59).
وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لَكَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ أَحَاطَ بِالنَّاسِ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّؤْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلاَّ فِتْنَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّجَرَةَ الْمَلْعُونَةَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَنُخَوِّفُهُمْ فَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلاَّ طُغْيَانًا كَبِيرًا (الإسراء: 60).
وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا ِلأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ قَالَ أَأَسْجُدُ لِمَنْ خَلَقْتَ طِينًا (الإسراء: 61).
قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (الإسراء: 62).
قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَوْفُورًا (الإسراء: 63).
وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الأَمْوالِ وَالأَولاَدِ وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمْ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا (الإسراء: 64).
إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 65).
رَبُّكُمُ الَّذِي يُزْجِي لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ فِي الْبَحْرِ لِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا (الإسراء: 66).
وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فِي الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَنْ تَدْعُونَ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاكُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ وَكَانَ الإِنْسَانُ كَفُورًا (الإسراء: 67).
أَفَأَمِنتُمْ أَنْ يَخْسِفَ بِكُمْ جَانِبَ الْبَرِّ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ وَكِيلاً (الإسراء: 68).
أَمْ أَمِنتُمْ أَنْ يُعِيدَكُمْ فِيهِ تَارَةً أُخْرَى فَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ قَاصِفًا مِنْ الرِّيحِ فَيُغْرِقَكُمْ بِمَا كَفَرْتُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ تَبِيعًا (الإسراء: 69).
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلاً (الإسراء: 70
SURAH (ISRA) BANI ISRAEIL AYAH NO 21 TO 60
17:21) See, how We have exalted some above others in this world, and in the Life to Come they will have higher ranks and greater degrees of excellence over others.23
23. This is to show that the seekers of the Hereafter have been exalted over the worshipers of the world even in this worldly life. However, this exaltation is not in regard to the good things of this world, rich food and dresses, palatial dwellings, luxurious means of traveling, and other grand things. They enjoy that true honor, love, and goodwill which is denied to the tyrants and the rich people in spite of the fact that they may be indigent. This is because whatever the seekers of the Hereafter get in this world, it is earned in righteous and honest ways, while the worshipers of the world amass wealth by employing dishonest and cruel ways. Then the former spend what they get with prudence and righteousness. They fulfill the obligations they owe to others. They spend their money in the way of Allah and to please Allah on the needy and the indigent. In contrast to them, the worshipers of this world spend their money on the enjoyment of luxuries, wicked works, corruption, and spreading other evil things. This makes the former models of God worship and purity in every respect and distinguishes them so clearly from the worshipers of the world that they shine in
exaltation over the latter. These things clearly indicate that in the next world the rewards of the seekers of the Hereafter will be far greater and their superiority far higher than those of the worshipers of the world.
(17:22) Do not set up any other god with Allah lest you are rendered humiliated and helpless.24
24. Or it can be rendered like this: Do not invent another deity besides Allah, or do not set up another as a deity besides Allah.
(17:23) Your Lord has decreed: (i) Do not worship any but Him;25 (ii) Be good to your parents; and should both or any one of them attain old age with you, do not say to them even “fie” neither chide them, but speak to them with respect,26
25. In the succeeding verses, those main basic principles have been put forward on which Islam desires to build the entire structure of human life. These form the manifesto of the invitation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared by him at the end of the Makki stage of his mission, and the eve of the new stage at Al-Madinah so that it should be known to all that the new Islamic society and state were going to be built on such and such ideological, moral, cultural economic and legal principles. (Please also refer to (Ayats 151-153 and E.Ns
thereof of Surah Al-Anaam).
26. This commandment is very comprehensive. It prohibits not only the worship of anyone except Allah but also implies that one should obey and serve and submit to Allah alone without question. One should accept His commandments and law alone to be worthy of obedience and His authority to be supreme above all. This was not merely an instruction confined to a religious creed and individual practice but it served as the foundation of the moral, cultural, and political system which was practically established in Al-Madinah by the Prophet (peace be upon him). Its first and foremost principle was that Allah alone is the Master, Sovereign, and Law-giver.
(17:24) and be humble and tender to them and say: “Lord, show mercy to them as they nurtured me when I was small.”
(17:25) Your Lord knows what is in your hearts best. If you are righteous, He will indeed forgive those who relent and revert (to serving Allah).
27. This verse enjoins that after Allah’s right, the greatest of all human rights is the right of parents. Therefore, the children should obey and serve and respect their parents. The collective morality of society should make it incumbent on children to be grateful and respectful to their parents, they should serve them as they nursed and brought them up in their childhood. Above all, this verse is not merely a moral recommendation but is the basis of the rights and powers of parents the details of which we find in the Books of Hadith and Figh. Moreover, respectful behavior and obedience to and observance of the rights of
parents comprise the most important element of material education and moral training in Islamic society and civilization. Incidentally, all these things have determined forever the principle that the Islamic state shall make the family life sound and secure by laws, administrative regulations, and educational policy and prevent its disintegration.
(17:26) (iii) Give to the near of kin his due, and also to the needy and the wayfarer. (iv) Do not squander your wealth wastefully,
(17:27) for those who squander wastefully are Satan’s brothers, and Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.
(17:28) (v) And when you must turn away from them (that is, from the destitute, the near of kin, the needy, and the wayfarer) in pursuit of God’s Mercy which you expect to receive, then speak to them kindly.28
28. These three articles are meant to impress that a man should not reserve his earnings and his wealth exclusively for his own person. He should do his utmost to fulfill his own necessities of life in a moderate way and render the rights of his relatives, neighbors, and other needy persons as well. This attitude will help create the spirit of cooperation,
sympathy, and justice in the collective Islamic life. Thus every relative will cooperate with the others and every rich person will help the needy in his neighborhood and a wayfarer would find himself an honorable guest among generous hosts. The conception of rights
should be so extensive that every person should consider that all other human beings have rights on his person and his property so that he should serve them with the idea that he is rendering their rights and is not doing any favor to them. In that case, one would beg pardon
of the other if he was unable to serve him and would pray to God to send his blessings upon him to enable him to serve His servants.
These articles of the Islamic manifesto were not merely confined to moral teachings but these formed the basis of the commandments of Zakat and voluntary charity. The laws of inheritance and of making will and endowments were based on these articles. The rights of the orphans were determined by these and it was made obligatory on every habitation to entertain a wayfarer gratis for at least three days. Subsequently, the whole moral system was formed so as to create feelings of generosity, sympathy, and cooperation. So much so that
the people began to realize the importance of and observe voluntarily the moral rights which could neither be demanded legally nor enforced by law.
(17:29) (vi) Do not keep your hand fastened to your neck nor outspread it, 29 altogether outspread, for you will be left sitting rebuked, destitute.
29. “And do not keep your hand fastened to your neck”, means: Do not be parsimonious. “Nor outspread it altogether widespread” means: Do not be extravagant. The Quran desires the people to follow the golden mean, ie. they should neither be so parsimonious as to prevent the circulation of wealth nor so extravagant as to destroy their own economy. On the contrary, they should learn to behave in a balanced manner so that they should spend the money wherever it should be spent and refrain from becoming spendthrifts so as to involve
themselves in trouble. As a matter of fact, it is ingratitude towards Allah’s favor to spend money for the sake of the show, luxury, and sinful acts, and similar things which are neither man’s real necessities nor useful. Therefore, those people who spend money lavishly on
such things as these are the brethren of Satan.
These clauses too, are not merely meant to be moral instructions for individuals. They are intended to safeguard Islamic society against extravagance through moral instruction, collective pressure, and legal restrictions. Accordingly, in the Islamic State of Al-Madinah, practical steps were taken to safeguard the community against extravagance. First, many forms of extravagance and luxury were forbidden by law. Secondly, legal measures were taken against it. Thirdly, social reforms were introduced to put an end to those customs which involved extravagance. The government was empowered to prevent people from the obvious forms of extravagance. Above all, Zakat and the voluntary charity helped to break parsimony and the lust for hoarding money. Besides these measures, public opinion was created that enabled the people to discriminate between generosity and extravagance and thrift and parsimony: so much so that parsimonious people were looked down upon as ignominious and the thrifty people were regarded as honorable. This moral and mental attitude became a part and parcel of the Muslim society, and even today parsimonious people and hoarders are looked down upon in Muslim society, while generous people are respected everywhere.
(17:30) Certainly Your Lord makes plentiful the provision of whomsoever He wills and straitens it for whomsoever He wills. He is well-aware and is fully observant of all that relates to His servants.
30. That is, man cannot realize the wisdom of the disparity of wealth among the people. Therefore, man should not try to interfere by artificial means with the natural distribution of wealth. It is wrong to level down natural inequality or to aggravate it by artificial means so
as to make it unjust. Both extremes are wrong. The best economic system is that which is established on the divine Way of the division of wealth.
As a result of the realization of the wisdom of economic disparity, no such problems arose that might have made that disparity an evil in itself so as to demand the creation of a classless society. On the contrary, in the righteous society established at Al-Madinah on these divine principles which are akin to human nature, the economic differences were not artificially disturbed. But by means of moral and legal reforms, these became the means of many moral, spiritual and cultural blessings and benefits instead of becoming the means of
injustice. Thus, the wisdom of the disparity created by the Creator of the Universe was practically demonstrated at Al-Madinah.
(17:31) (vii) Do not kill your children for fear of want. We will provide for them and for you. Surely killing them is a great sin.31
31. This verse cuts at the very root of the movement of birth control, which has been going on from ancient times to our present age. It was the fear of want that induced people to kill their children or resort to abortion. In our age, another plan has been added to these, i.e. contraception. This article of the Islamic manifesto prohibits the people from reducing the number of mouths by artificial means but exhorts them to increase the means of production according to the natural methods enjoined by Allah. According to this article, it is one of the
biggest mistakes of man to check the birth rate as a solution to the want and scarcity of provisions. Therefore, it warns him, as if to say: O man, it is not you who make arrangements for food, but Allah, Who settled you in the land and has been providing for you and will
provide for those who will come after you. History tells us that food resources have always expanded in proportion to the number of inhabitants of a country. Nay, often they have exceeded far more than the needs of the inhabitants. Thus it is a folly on the part of man to interfere with the arrangements of Allah.
It is very significant that as a result of this teaching, no movement has ever been started to control birth nor has there been any inclination to infanticide among the Muslims ever since the revelation of the Quran.
(17:32) (viii) Do not even approach fornication for it is an outrageous act and an evil way.32
32. “And do not come near to adultery”. This commandment is meant both for individuals and society as a whole. It warns each individual not only to guard against adultery or fornication itself but against all those things that lead to or stimulate it. As regards society as a whole, the commandment enjoins it to make such arrangements as preventing adultery and eradicating the means and stimulants that lead to adultery. Therefore, society should employ all those legal and educative means that help develop such an environment as prevents and eradicates indecency.
Finally, this article formed the basis of laws and regulations of the Islamic system of life. In order to fulfill its implications adultery and false accusation of adultery were made criminal offenses. Regulations about the hijab were promulgated. The publication of indecent materials was banned and drinking of intoxicants was made unlawful. Restrictions on music, dancing, and pictures that are conducive to adultery were imposed. Such laws were enacted and marriage was made easy to and cut at the root of adultery.
(17:33) (ix) Do not kill any person whom Allah has forbidden to kill,33 except with right.34 We have granted the heir of him who has been wrongfully killed the authority to35 (claim retribution) ; so let him not exceed in the slaying.36 He shall be helped.37
33. “And do not kill a person” includes not only the prohibition of the killing of other souls but also his own soul as well for it is also included in the prohibition that immediately follows this command. Thus suicide is regarded as heinous a sin as murder. Some foolish people object to the prohibition of suicide saying that they themselves are the masters of their souls. Therefore, there is nothing wrong in killing one’s own self or in destroying one’s own property. They forget that every soul belongs to Allah, and none has any right to destroy it, nay, even to abuse it. This world is a place of trial, where we should undergo
the test up to the end of our lives in accordance with the will of Allah. It does not matter whether our circumstances are favorable or adverse for trial. Therefore, it would be wrong to run away from the place of test, not to speak of committing such a heinous crime as suicide (which Allah has prohibited) to escape it. For it means that the one who commits suicide tries to run away from small troubles and ignominies towards greater affliction and eternal torment and ignominy.
34. When the Islamic state was established, “killing by right” was confined to five cases only, namely to punish, (1) A willful murderer for retribution. (2) Opponents of true religion during the war. (3) Those who attempt to overthrow the Islamic system of government. (4) A
man or woman guilty of adultery. (5) An apostate.
35. We have translated the Arabic word sultan as “the authority of retribution”. Here it stands for “a ground for legal action”. This also lays down the legal principle that in a case of murder, the real plaintiff is not the government but the guardian or the guardians of the murdered person who is authorized to pardon the murderer or receive blood money instead of taking his life.
36. Exceed limits in the killing would be to kill more persons than the murderer or to kill the criminal by degrees with torment or to disfigure his dead body or to kill him after receiving blood money, etc. All these things have been forbidden.
37. It has not been defined how succor will be given because at the time of its revelation the Islamic state had not yet been established. After its establishment, it was made clear that a guardian was not authorized to enforce retribution by murdering the criminal. The Islamic government alone is legally authorized to take retribution; therefore, succor for justice should be demanded only from it.
(17:34) And do not even go near the property of the orphan – except that it be in the best manner till he attains his maturity.38 And fulfill the covenant, 39 for you will be called to account regarding the covenant.
38. This too, was not merely a moral instruction. When the Islamic state was established, legal and administrative methods were adopted to safeguard the rights of orphans, the details of which are found in the literature of Hadith and Fiqh. Then this principle was extended to cover the cases of all those citizens who were unable to safeguard their own
rights. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself declared: I am the guardian of the one who
has no guardian. And this is the basis of many rules and regulations of Islamic law.
39. Fulfillment of pledges was not meant to be merely a moral instruction for individuals but afterward, when the Islamic state was established, this became the guiding principle forthe conduct of all internal; and external affairs by the Muslim community and the Islamic
(17:35) (xii) Give full measure when you measure and weigh with even scales.40 That is fair and better in consequence.‘1
40. This instruction was not confined to individuals only but it has been made a part of the duties of an Islamic government to supervise transactions in the markets and streets to see that exact measures and weights are being observed, and to prevent their breach and violation by the force of law. Afterward, it was made one of the duties of the government to eradicate dishonesty in all commercial dealings and economic transactions.
41. That is, its end will be best in this world and it will be best in the Hereafter. It is the best in this world because it produces mutual trust between sellers and buyers. As a result of this, commerce prospers and there is general prosperity. As regards the Hereafter, there the
the end depends entirely on honesty, piety, and fear of God.
(17:36) (xiii) Do not follow that of which you have no knowledge. Surely the hearing, the sight, the heart each of these shall be called to account.42
42. The meanings of “Do not follow that of which you have no knowledge” are very comprehensive. It demands that both in individual and collective life, one should not follow mere guesswork and presumption instead of knowledge. This instruction covers all aspects of Islamic life, moral, legal, political, and administrative, and applies to science, arts, and education. It has thus saved society from numerous evils which are produced in human life by following guesswork instead of knowledge. The Islamic moral code demands: Guard against suspicion and do not accuse any individual or group without proper investigation. In law, it has been made a permanent principle that no action should be taken against anyone without proper investigation. It has been made unlawful to arrest, beat or imprison anyone on mere suspicion during the investigation. In regards to foreign relations, the definite policy has been laid down that no action should be taken without investigation, nor should rumors be set afloat. Likewise in education, the so-called sciences based on mere guesswork, presumptions, and irrational theories have been disapproved. Above all, it cuts at the very
the root of superstitions, for this instruction, teaches the believers to accept only that which is based on the knowledge imparted by Allah and His Messenger.
(17:37) (xiv) Do not strut about in the land arrogantly. 43 Surely you cannot cleave the earth, nor reach the heights of the mountains in stature.43
43. This instruction warns against the ways of tyrants and vain people and is not merely meant for the individual but also for the collective conduct of the Muslim community. It was because of this guidance that the rulers, governors, and commanders of the Islamic state which was established on the basis of this manifesto, were free from every tinge of tyranny, arrogance, haughtiness, pride, and vanity, so much so that even in the battlefield they never uttered a word which had the slightest indication of any of these vain things. Their gait, dress, dwelling, and conveyance showed humility. In short, their ways of conduct were not those of big ones but those of humble persons. That is why they never tried to overawe the people of a conquered city by show of pomp and pride.
(17:38) The wickedness of each of that is hateful to your Lord. 44
44. That is, Allah disapproves of the commission of anything that has been prohibited or, in other words, He disapproves of disobedience to any of these commandments.
(17:39) That is part of the wisdom your Lord has revealed to you. So do not set up any deity beside Allah lest you are cast into Hell, rebuked, and deprived of every good.45
45. Though this has been addressed to the Prophet (peace be upon him), the real addressee is every human being as in the case of many such verses.
(17:40) What, has your Lord favored you with sons and has taken for Himself daughters from among the angels?46 You are indeed uttering a monstrous lie.
(17:41) We have expounded (the Truth) in diverse ways in this Qur’an that they might take it to heart but all this only aggravates their aversion.
(17:42) Say, (O Muhammad): “Had there been other gods with Him, as they claim, they would surely have attempted to find a way to the Lord of the Throne.“
47. That is, they would have themselves tried their best to become masters of the Throne. This is because if there had been more than one partner in Godhead, it would produce one of the two results: (1) If they were all independent gods, it was not conceivable that they
would agree and cooperate with one another in the management of the boundless universe and there could never have been unanimity, uniformity, and balanced proportion in its functioning. There would have been conflict at every step and everyone would have tried to
dominate others in order to become its sole master. or (2) if one of them had been the supreme god and the others his obedient servants to whom he had delegated some of his powers, then, according to the maxim “power corrupts”, they would never have been content with remaining obedient servants of the supreme god and would have conspired to become the supreme god themselves.
Whereas the fact is that in this universe not even a grain of wheat or a blade of grass cant grow unless and until everything on the earth and the heavens cooperate with one another for its production. Therefore, only an utterly ignorant and blockheaded person can conceive that there are more than one independent or semi-independent rulers, who carry on the management of this universe. Anyone who has tried to understand the nature and functioning of the universe will most surely arrive at the conclusion that there is One and only One Sovereign ruling over this universe, and there is absolutely no likelihood of
anyone else to be a partner in this at any stage.
(17:43) Holy is He and far above all that they say.
(17:44) The seven heavens, the earth, and all that is within them48 give glory to Him. There is nothing but gives glory to Him with His praise, 49 though you do not understand their hymns of praise. He is Most Forbearing, Exceedingly Forgiving.50
48. That is, the entire universe and everything in it bear witness to the fact that their Creator and Guardian is free from each and every fault, defect, and weakness, and that He is far above this that there should be any partner or associate in His Godhead.
49. Everything is not only singing hymns of the glory of its Creator but is affording the proof that He is perfect in every respect and worthy of all praise. Everything is an embodiment of the proof that its Creator and Administrator is the one in whom there is the perfection of every
quality. Therefore, He alone is worthy of praise.
50. That is, it is due to His forbearance and forgiveness that though you are persistently insolent to Him and go on inventing one false thing or the other against Him, He forbears and forgives you. He neither withholds provisions from you nor deprives you of His favors
nor strikes an insolent person instantly dead with a thunderbolt. Above all, He is so forbearing and forgiving that He gives long enough respite to the individuals and communities to mend their ways sends His prophets and reformers for their admonition and guidance, and forgives all the past mistakes and errors if one sincerely repents and
adopts the right way.
(17:45) When you recite the Qur’an, We place a hidden barrier between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter;
(17:46) and We place a covering on their hearts so that they do not comprehend it, and We cause heaviness in their ears;=! and when you mention your Lord, the Only True Lord, in the Qur’an, they turn their backs in aversion.
51. This refers to the divine law according to which those people, who do not believe in the Hereafter, cannot benefit from the Quran. Allah has attributed this law to Himself as if to say: The natural result of disbelief in the Hereafter is that the heart of such a man becomes
dull and his ears become deaf to the message of the Quran, for Quran bases its invitation on the belief in the Hereafter. So it warns the people that they should not be deluded by this apparent aspect of the worldly life if there appears to be none to call them to account here;
for it does not mean they are not at all accountable and answerable to anyone. Likewise, if Allah allows freedom of belief to practice shirk, atheism, disbelief or Tauhid with impunity in this world, and their practice does not appear to make any practical difference in this
world, it does not mean that these things do not produce any results at all. For, in fact, everyone shall be accountable and answerable after death in the next world. Then everyone will realize that the doctrine of Tauhid alone is true and all other doctrines are false. For, if at present the consequences of deeds do not appear after death, they shall inevitably appear, but the reality has now been hidden behind an invisible curtain. There is an inevitable moral law according to which submission to it will bear its fruit and disobedience shall incur its
losses. As decisions according to this moral law will be made in the Hereafter. You should not be enticed by the charms of this transitory life. You should, therefore, keep in view that ultimately you shall have to render an account of all your deeds in this world before your
Lord, and adopt that true creed and moral attitude which may be conducive to your success in the Hereafter.
From this, it must have become obvious that if a man does not believe in the Hereafter, he will never consider the message of the Quran worth his while but will hanker after this world and its joys which he can feel and experience. Naturally, his ears will not listen to the message and it will never reach the depths of his heart. Allah has stated this psychological fact in this verse.
In this connection, it should be remembered that the words contained in this verse were uttered by the disbelievers of Makkah as quoted in (Ayat 5 of Surah HamimSajdah): “They say, O Muhammad, a covering has fallen over our hearts, and our ears are deaf for the message you give and there is a curtain between you and us. You may go on with your work and we will do whatever we desire.” Here the same words have been cited as if to say:
You consider this state of yours to be a virtue, whereas this is a curse which has fallen on you according to the divine law because of your disbelief of the Hereafter.
52. That is, they do not like it at all that you should consider Allah alone as your Lord and not mention the Lords they have set up. They seem to think it strange that one should go on praising Allah and never mention the miracles of their elders and saints nor praise them for their favors. For, according to them, Allah has delegated the powers of His Godhead to their great ones. Therefore, they say What a strange fellow he is! He believes that the knowledge of the unknown, and all the power and authority belong to One Allah alone. Why does he not pay tribute to those who give us children, cure us of diseases, and help make our commerce flourish, in short, fulfill all our wishes and desires?
(17:47) We are well aware of what they wish to hear when they listen to you and what they say when they confer in whispers when the wrong-doers say: “You are only following one who is bewitched.53
53. This refers to those devices which conspired against the message of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They would secretly listen to him and then hold consultations in order to counteract this. Sometimes it so happened that they suspected that someone had been influenced by the Quran. Then they would sit together and try to dissuade him, saying:
How is it that you have been influenced by a person who himself is bewitched by some enemy and talks like this?
(17:48) Just see how strange are the things they invent about you.54 They have altogether strayed, and are unable to find the right way.
54. This is to say that they expressed different opinions at different times which contradicted each other. Sometimes they said: You are a sorcerer. And at other times: You have been bewitched by someone, or you are a poet or you are possessed by some evil spirit. These
contradictory things were proof that they did not know the reality. Otherwise, they would not have invented a different name to suit each occasion. This also shows that they themselves were not sure of the charge they leveled against him. If they called him by one
epithet one day, they themselves felt afterward that it did not fit in. Then they would invent the second epithet and then the third and so on. Thus every new epithet contradicted the previous ones and showed that there was no truth in them, but in their enmity, they were
inventing one falsehood after the other.
(17:49) They say: “When we are turned to bones and particles (of dust), shall we truly be raised up as a new creation?”
(17:50) Tell them: “(You will be raised afresh even if) you turn to stone or iron,
(17:51) or any other form of creation you deem hardest of all (to recreate from).” They will certainly ask: “Who will bring us back (to life)? Say: “He Who created you in the first instance.” They will shake their heads at you and inquire: “When will that be? 55 Say: “Perhaps that time might have drawn near;
55. “They will shake their heads at you” in astonishment or to express doubt or disapproval or scoff at you.
(17:52) on the Day when He will call you and you will rise praising Him in response to His call, and you will believe that you had lain in this state only for a while.56
56. That is, you will feel as if the intervening period between death and coming again to life on the Day of Resurrection was only a few hours or so, for you will think that you had just woken up after a short sleep by the sudden noise produced on the Day. As regards to you will rise up praising Him, it is a subtle hint towards a great reality. At the time of rising up from death, both the believer and the unbeliever will be uttering the praise of Allah. The believer will do so because in the worldly life also he believed in this creed and practiced it.
As regards the unbeliever, he will have the urge to do so because of the inherent and ingrained tendency in him which he had been suppressing by his folly. In the new life, all those deliberate suppressions will vanish away and he will involuntarily utter the praise of Allah.
(17:53) Tell My servants,58 (O Muhammad), to say always that which is best. Verily it is Satan who sows discord among people. Satan indeed is an open enemy to mankind.59
58. The believers have been enjoined to say only the best things even in their discussion with the disbelievers and other opponents of their faith. They should neither use harsh words nor make exaggerated statements. They should be cool in their conversation and say only what is true and dignified in spite of the provoking behavior of the opponents.
59. The believers have been forewarned to guard against the provocations of Satan as if to say: While answering your opponents, if you feel that you are being aroused to anger, you should at once understand that it is Satan who is exciting you in order to do harm to your dispute, in which he wants to engage human beings for sowing discord between them.
(17:54) Your Lord knows you best. 60 He will have mercy on you if He wills and chastises you if He wills. We have not sent you, (O Muhammad), as an overseer over them.
60. This is to warn the believers to refrain from making claims of piety so as to assign Paradise to themselves and Hell to their opponents. It is Allah alone Who has the power to decide these things because He is fully aware of the known and secret and the present and future things about all human beings. It is He Who will decide whether to show mercy to anyone or give chastisement. However, a man may say in the light of the divine Book that a certain kind of human beings deserve mercy and other kinds of people incur chastisement but none has any right to say specifically that a particular man will be given chastisement
and another will get salvation.
61. This is to declare that a Prophet is sent to convey the message and not to decide whether a person will receive mercy or get chastisement. It does not, however, mean that, God forbid, the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself did such a thing and Allah had to warn him. In fact,
this is to warn the Muslims that when the Prophet himself is not in a position as to decide the fates of the people, they should never think of such a thing as to assign Paradise and Hell to anyone.
(17:55) Your Lord knows all who dwell in the heavens and the earth. We have exalted some Prophets over others,62 and We gave the Psalms to David. 63
62. Though this has apparently been addressed to the Prophet (peace be upon him), in fact, the real addressees are the disbelievers of Makkah. This is to rebuke them for the low opinion they held in regard to the Prophet (peace be upon him). As it commonly happens, contemporaries in general and opponents, in particular, do not see anything great and noble in a person of their own time. The same was the case with the contemporaries of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who could not see anything extraordinary or great in him. He appeared to be merely a common man of their habitation. On the other hand, they were full of praise in regard to the famous personalities who had lived in the past few centuries and imagined them to be the perfection of greatness. That is why they raised frivolous objections against his claim to Prophethood as if to say: Look at this man who considers
himself to be a Prophet whereas he cannot stand in comparison with the former great Prophets who are held in high esteem by all. Allah has answered their objection as if to say:
We are fully aware of all Our creatures in the heavens and the earth, and We know their ranks but you do not know. We know whom to favor with Prophethood, as We have been favoring the former Prophets and exalting some Prophets above others in rank.
63. It appears that Prophet David (peace be upon him) has been particularly mentioned to show that Prophethood does not mean that one should have nothing to do with the life of this world. This was the answer to the objection they were raising against the claim to
Prophethood by Muhammad (peace be upon him), that he was a man of the world. It means to say: Though David was a king who had to engage himself in worldly affairs more than a common man, he was favored by Allah with Prophethood, and given the Book, the Psalms.
Likewise Muhammad (peace be upon him) could be favored with Prophethood in spite of the fact that he had wives and children and passed his life like other common people and was engaged in buying and selling in the market. In short, in performing all those duties
that a man of the world has to perform to meet his necessities of life. This was necessitated because according to the disbelievers of Makkah, such a man of the world could not be considered to be even a pious man, much less a Prophet. For pious people should have
nothing to do with worldly affairs but should sit in seclusion and remember God whereas the Prophet (peace be upon him) had to work to fulfill the necessities of life.
(17:56) Tell them: “Call upon those whom you fancy being (your helpers) instead of Him! They have no power to remove any affliction from you, nor can they shift it (to any other).64
64. This warning helps to elaborate the doctrine of Tauhid and negate shirk. According to this, shirk is not confined merely to falling prostrate before any other than Allah but it is also a shirk to pray to or invoke the help of any other than Allah. For praying to or calling for help any other than Allah is in reality a kind of worship. Therefore, the one who invokes help other than Allah is as much guilty of shirk as the worshiper of an idol. This verse also shows clearly that, none other than Allah, has any power to attend to prayers and relieve anyone of trouble or alter any one’s bad condition. Hence, if one believes that
someone other than Allah has any power, he shall be guilty of shirk.
(17:57) Those whom they call upon are themselves seeking the means of access to their Lord, each trying to be nearer to Him. They crave His Mercy and dread His chastisement. 65 Surely your Lord’s punishment is to be feared.
65. The words of the text are clear proof that the deities and the helpers referred to in this verse were not idols of stone but were either angels or dead saints. It is clearly implied in this that no prophet, no saint and no angel, whom the people invoke for help, has the power
to hear prayers and help anyone. They themselves hope for mercy from Allah and dread His punishment and vie with one another in seeking means for nearness to Him.
(17:58) There is not a town but We shall destroy it or upon which We shall inflict severe chastisement® before the Day of Resurrection. This is written down in the Eternal Book (of Allah).
66. This is to remove the delusion of the disbelievers that their habitations were immune from danger or chastisement. This verse warns that every habitation will be destroyed as a matter of course or by Allah’s chastisement.
(17:59) Nothing hindered Us from sending Our Signs67 except that the people of olden times rejected them as lies. We publicly sent the she-camel to the Thamud to open their eyes but they wronged her.68We never send Our Signs except to cause people to fear.69
67. Here signs mean those visible miracles which are presented as a proof of Prophethood. The disbelievers from among the Quraish were demanding such signs over and over again.
68. This is to warn the disbelievers as if to say: It is the mercy of Allah that He is not showing such a sign so that you might mend your ways but in your folly you presume that such a sign cannot be presented. You should know that a sign is not being sent because its denial inevitably brings chastisement and the community is annihilated. You can learn from the past history that those communities which disbelieved in the open signs were utterly destroyed, such as the people of Thamud.
69. That is, miracles are not shown for fun. These are meant to warn the people that the Prophet is being helped by the Almighty and that they should realize the terrible consequences of disobedience.
(17:60) And recall when We said to you, (O Muhammad), that your Lord encompasses these people; 70 and that We have made that vision that We have shown you, and the tree accursed in the Qur’an,71 but as a trial for people. We go about warning them, but each warning leads them to greater transgression.
70. That is, at the very beginning of your Prophethood, when the disbelievers of the Quraish had started opposition to your message, We declared that We are encircling them. They might try their best to obstruct your message, but they will inevitably fail in this and your
mission will succeed regardless of opposition. Can’t they see that this declaration has come out true as a miracle, for their opposition has failed to hinder your message, and they have not been able to do any harm to you at all. This was a clear sign of the fact that the mission
of the Prophet (peace be upon him) was being supported by the Almighty God. As regards to the declaration that Allah is encircling the disbelievers and helping the mission of the Prophet, it occurs in several Surahs of the first stage of Prophethood at Makkah. For instance,
in (Ayats 17-20 of Surah Al-Burooj), Allah says: These disbelievers do not learn a lesson from the stories of the people of the Pharaoh and Thamud but are rejecting the message here as Allah is encircling them on all sides.
71. This refers to Miraj (Ascension) for here word ruya does not mean “seeing things in a dream” but seeing things actually with physical eyes. It is quite obvious that if it had been a mere dream and the Prophet (peace be upon him) had presented it as a dream to the
disbelievers, there was no reason why it should have become a trial for them. Every day people see strange dreams and relate them to people but these dreams never become such a curious thing as to make people scoff at the dreamer and accuse him of making a false claim or of being a mad person.
72. This cursed tree, Az-Zaqqum has been mentioned in (Ayat 43-44 of Surah Ad-Dukhan), grows at the bottom of Hell and its dwellers shall have to eat from it. This has been called a cursed tree because it is not given to people to eat as a mercy from Allah but as a symbol of His curse so that the accursed people should eat it and get sorer, for this will, so to speak, burn in their bellies like the boiling water.
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