فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلاَغُ الْمُبِينُ (النحل: 82).
يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنكِرُونَهَا وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ (النحل: 83).
وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا ثُمَّ لاَ يُؤْذَنُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَلاَ هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ (النحل: 84).
وَإِذَا رَأَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا الْعَذَابَ فَلاَ يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ (النحل: 85).
وَإِذَا رَأَى الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا شُرَكَاءَهُمْ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا هَؤُلاَء شُرَكَاؤُنَا الَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِكَ فَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلَ إِنَّكُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ (النحل: 86).
وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ (النحل: 87).
الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ زِدْنَاهُمْ عَذَابًا فَوْقَ العَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا يُفْسِدُونَ (النحل: 88).
وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَى هَؤُلاَء وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ (النحل: 89).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ (النحل: 90).
وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ إِذَا عَاهَدْتُمْ وَلاَ تَنقُضُوا الأَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ (النحل: 91).
وَلاَ تَكُونُوا كَالَّتِي نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنكَاثًا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلاً بَيْنَكُمْ أَنْ تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَى مِنْ أُمَّةٍ إِنَّمَا يَبْلُوكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ (النحل: 92).
وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَكِنْ يُضِلُّ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَلَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (النحل: 93).
وَلاَ تَتَّخِذُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلاً بَيْنَكُمْ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِهَا وَتَذُوقُوا السُّوءَ بِمَا صَدَدْتُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَكُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (النحل: 94).
وَلاَ تَشْتَرُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً إِنَّمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (النحل: 95).
مَا عِنْدَكُمْ يَنفَدُ وَمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ بَاقٍ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (النحل: 96).
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (النحل: 97).
فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ (النحل: 98).
إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ (النحل: 99).
إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ (النحل: 100).
وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَكَانَ آيَةٍ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُفْتَرٍ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (النحل: 101).
قُلْ نَزَّلَهُ رُوحُ الْقُدُسِ مِنْ رَبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيُثَبِّتَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ (النحل: 102).
وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّمَا يُعَلِّمُهُ بَشَرٌ لِسَانُ الَّذِي يُلْحِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ أَعْجَمِيٌّ وَهَذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِيٌّ مُبِينٌ (النحل: 103).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَهْدِيهِمُ اللَّهُ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (النحل: 104).
إِنَّمَا يَفْتَرِي الْكَذِبَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ (النحل: 105).
مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلاَّ مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالإِيمَانِ وَلَكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِنْ اللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (النحل: 106).
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى الآخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ (النحل: 107).
أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ (النحل: 108).
لاَ جَرَمَ أَنَّهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (النحل: 109).
ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (النحل: 110).
يَوْمَ تَأْتِي كُلُّ نَفْسٍ تُجَادِلُ عَنْ نَفْسِهَا وَتُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا عَمِلَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ (النحل: 111).
وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ آمِنَةً مُطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللَّهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللَّهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ (النحل: 112).
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْهُمْ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ (النحل: 113).
فَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلالاً طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ (النحل: 114).
إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ فَمَنْ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (النحل: 115).
وَلاَ تَقُولُوا لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَذَا حَلاَلٌ وَهَذَا حَرَامٌ لِتَفْتَرُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لاَ يُفْلِحُونَ (النحل: 116).
مَتَاعٌ قَلِيلٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (النحل: 117).
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَكِنْ كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ (النحل: 118).
ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (النحل: 119).
إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (النحل: 120).
شَاكِرًا ِلأَنْعُمِهِ اجْتَبَاهُ وَهَدَاهُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيم (النحل: 121).
وَآتَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَإِنَّهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ (النحل: 122).
ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (النحل: 123).
إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ السَّبْتُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَيَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ (النحل: 124).
ادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (النحل: 125).
وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَئِنْ صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِلصَّابِرِينَ (النحل: 126).
وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ وَلاَ تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ تَكُ فِي ضَيْقٍ مِمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ (النحل: 127).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ مُحْسِنُونَ (النحل: 128).
(16:81) And Allah has provided shade for you out of some of the things He has created, 76 and He has provided you with shelters in the mountains, and has given you coats that protect you from heat as well as coats that protect you in battle. 77 Thus does He complete His favor upon you that you may submit to Him. 78
76. The Quran has not mentioned protection from the cold for either of the two reasons:
(1) Because the use of garments in the summer season is a symbol of cultural perfection and obviously there is no need to mention the lower stages of culture. Or
(2) the use of garments in hot countries has especially been mentioned because the main use of garments there is for protection from the hot pestilential furious wind. Therefore, one has to cover one’s head, neck, ears, and whole of his body to protect it from the hot wind which would otherwise scorch him to death.
77. That is, Armors.
78. “Thus does He perfect His favor upon you”: Allah makes provision for the minutest needs and necessities of every aspect of human life. For example, let us take the instance of the protection of the human body from external influences. We find that Allah has made such elaborate arrangements as require a complete book to relate them. These arrangements reach their perfection in the case of clothing and housing arrangement. Or, if we consider the food requirements, we realize that it is of many varieties which fulfill every need. More
than this: the means Allah has provided for the food requirements of man are so numerous that the list of the varieties and the names of different kinds of food require a big volume. This is the perfection of the blessing of food. Likewise, one would see the perfection of the blessings of Allah in the fulfillment of each and every human need and necessity.
(16:82) But if they turn away, your only duty is to clearly deliver the message of the truth.
(16:33) They are aware of the favors of Allah, and yet refuse to acknowledge them.79 Most of them are determined not to accept the Truth.
79. Here the denial of the blessings of Allah refers to practical denial by the disbelievers of Makkah. For they did not deny that all these blessings were from Allah but along with this they believed that their saints and gods also contributed to them. This is why they associated their intercessors with their gratitude to Allah for these blessings. Nay, they were even more grateful to them than to Allah. Allah regards this association as denial of His blessings, ingratitude, and forgetfulness of His favors.
(16:84) (They are heedless of) the Day when We shall raise a witness 80 from each community and then the unbelievers will neither be allowed to plead nor will they be asked to repent and seek pardon.
80. The witness will be the Prophet of that community or his follower who invited that community to Tauhid and God worship and warned it of the consequences of shirk and superstitious rites and customs and cautioned it against the accountability on the Day of Resurrection. He will bear witness to the fact that he had conveyed the true message to
those people, and that they committed evils deliberately and not in ignorance.
81. This does not mean that the criminals will not be given any opportunity to clear themselves but it means that their crimes will be proved to the hilt by means of irrefutable evidence which will leave no room for excuses.
(16:85) Once the wrong-doers have beheld the chastisement,82 neither will it be lightened for them nor will they be granted any respite.
82. That is, they will not be given the opportunity to beg pardon of their Lord for their crimes. For that will be the time of judgment as the time of begging pardon would have ended long before this. The Quran and the traditions are explicit on this point that the place for penitence is this world and not the next world. Even in this world, the opportunity is lost as soon as signs of death begin to appear, for the penitence at that time will be of no avail when a person knows that the time of his death has come. Respite for deeds expires as soon as one enters into the boundary of death, and the only thing that remains after that is the
award of reward and punishment.
(16:86) And when those who associated others with Allah in His Divinity will see those to whom they ascribed this share, they will say: “Our Lord! These are the beings to whom we ascribed a share in Your Divinity and whom we called upon instead of You,” whereupon those beings will fling at them the words: “You are liars.”83
83. It does not mean that they would deny the fact that the mushriks used to invoke their help. They will call them liars in the sense that they had made them deities without their knowledge, information and permission as if to say: We never told you to leave Allah aside
and pray to us for help. As a matter of fact, we never approved of this. Nay, we were utterly unaware of this that you were invoking us. It was an utter lie that you considered us to be able to hear your prayers, answer them, and help you out of your difficulties. As you yourselves were responsible for this shirk, why are you involving us in its consequences?
:37) On that Day they will offer their submission and all that they h(ad fabricated will have vanished.84
84. That is, all those things on which they had relied will prove to be false, for they will not find anyone to hear their supplication nor anyone to remove their hardships. Nay, there will be none who will come forward and say: These are my dependents, so no action should be taken against them.
(16:88) As for those who disbelieved and barred others from the way of Allah, We shall add further chastisement® to their chastisement for all the mischief they did.
85. “We will increase punishment over punishment”: one for their own disbelief and the other for hindering others from the Way of Allah.
(16:89) (O Muhammad), warn them of the coming of a Day when We shall bring forth a witness against them from each community and We shall bring you forth as a witness against them all; (and it is for that purpose that) We sent down the Book to you which makes everything clear,86and serves as a guidance and mercy and glad tidings to those who have submitted to Allah.87
86. The Quran makes manifest everything on which depends guidance or deviation, success or failure. Whose knowledge is essential for following the right way. What clearly distinguishes truth from falsehood?
In this connection, one should guard against the meaning of this sentence and the like in the Quran according to which some people interpret “everything” to mean the knowledge of all sciences, arts, etc., and in order to prove the correctness of their interpretation, they have to pervert the real meaning of the Quran.
87. This Book is complete guidance for those who surrender to it as a divine Book and follow it in every aspect of life. Then it will bring Allah’s blessings upon them and will give them the good news that they will come out successful in the court of Allah on the Day of Judgment. Or, on the contrary, those people who reject it shall not only be deprived of guidance and blessing but will also find it as a testimony against themselves on the Day of Resurrection when Allah’s Messenger will stand up to testify against them. This Book will prove to be a strong argument against them. For Allah’s Messenger will say that he had conveyed its message which made manifest the distinction between truth and falsehood.
(16:90) Surely Allah enjoins justice, kindness and the doing of good to kith and kin,88 and forbids all that is shameful, evil and oppressive.’89 He exhorts you so that you may be mindful.
88. In this brief sentence, Allah has enjoined three most important things on which alone depends the establishment of a sound and healthy society:
The first of these is justice which has two aspects.
Making such arrangements as may enable everyone to get one’s due rights without stint. Justice does not, however, mean equal distribution of rights, for that would be absolutely unnatural. In fact, justice means equitable dispensation of rights which in certain cases may mean equality. For example, all citizens should have equal rights of citizenship but in other cases, equality in rights would be an injustice. For instance, equality in social status and rights between parents and their children will obviously be wrong. Likewise, those who render
services of superior and inferior types cannot be equal in regard to wages and salaries. What Allah enjoins is that the full rights of everyone should be honestly rendered whether those be moral, social, economic legal, or political in accordance with what one justly deserves.
The second thing enjoined is Ihsan which has no equivalent in English. This means to be good, generous, sympathetic, tolerant, forgiving, polite, cooperative, selfless, etc. In collective life this is even more important than justice; for justice is the foundation of a sound society but Ihsan is its perfection. On the one hand, justice protects society from bitterness and violation of rights. On the other hand, ihsan makes it sweet and joyful and worth living. It is obvious that no society can flourish if every individual insists on exacting his pound of flesh. At best such a society might be free from conflict but there cannot be love, gratitude, generosity, sacrifice, sincerity, sympathy, and such humane qualities as producing sweetness in life and developing high values.
The third thing which has been enjoined is good treatment towards one’s relatives which in fact is a specific form of ihsan. It means that one should not only treat his relatives well, share their sorrows and pleasures and help them within lawful limits but should also share
his wealth with them according to his means and the need of each relative. This enjoins everyone who possesses ample means to acknowledge the share of his deserving relatives along with the rights of his own person and family. The divine law holds every well-to-do
person in a family to be responsible for fulfilling the needs of all his needy kith and kin. The law considers it a great evil that one person should enjoy the pleasures of life while his own kith and kin are starving. As it considers the family to be an important part of society, it lays down that the first right of needy individuals is on its well t -do members and then on the others. Likewise, it is the first duty of the well-to-do members of the family to fulfill the needs of their own near relatives and then those of others. The Prophet (peace be upon him)
has emphasized this fact in many traditions, according to which a person owes rights to his parents, his wife, and children, his brothers, and sisters, other relatives, etc. in accordance with the nearness of their relationships. On the basis of this fundamental principle, Umar
made it obligatory for the first cousins of an orphan to support him. In the case of another orphan, he declared that if he had no first cousins he would have made it obligatory for distant cousins to support him. Just imagine the happy condition of the society every unit
which supports every needy individual in this way. Most surely that society will become high and pure economically, socially, and morally.
89. In contrast to the above-mentioned three virtues, Allah prohibits three vices that ruin individuals and the society as a whole:
(1) The Arabic word fahsha applies to all those things that are immodest, immoral or obscene or nasty or dirty or vulgar, not fit to be seen or heard, because they offend against recognized standards of propriety or good taste, e.g. adultery, fornication, homosexuality,
nakedness, nudity, theft, robbery, drinking, gambling, begging, abusive language and the like. Likewise, it is indecent to indulge in giving publicity to any of these evils and to spread them, e.g. false propaganda, calumny, publicity of crimes, indecent stories, dramas, films, naked pictures, public appearance of womenfolk with indecent makeup, free mixing of sexes, dancing and the like.
(2) Munkar applies to all those evils which have always been universally regarded as evils and have been forbidden by all divine systems of law.
(3) Baghy applies to those vices that transgress the proper limits of decency and violate the rights of others, whether those of the Creator or His creation.
(16:91) And fulfill the covenant which you have made with Allah and do not break your oaths after having firmly made them, and after having made Allah your witness. Surely Allah knows all that you do.
(16:92) And do not become like the woman who, after having painstakingly spun her yarn, caused it to disintegrate into pieces.90 You resort to oaths as instruments of mutual deceit so that one person might take greater advantage than another although Allah puts you to the test through this.91 Surely on the Day of Resurrection,92 He will make clear the Truth concerning the matters over which you differed.
90. In this verse, Allah has enjoined three kinds of covenants which have been mentioned in the order of their importance. The first of these covenants is the one between man and his Allah which is the most important of all. The second in importance is the covenant between one man or one group of men and another man or another group of men, which is taken with Allah as a witness or in which the name of God has been used. The third covenant is that which has been made without using Allah’s name. Though this is third in importance,
its fulfillment is as important as that of the first two and the violation of any of these has been prohibited.
91. In this connection it should be noted that Allah has rebuked the people for the worst form of violation of treaties which has been creating the greatest disorder in the world. It is a pity that even big people consider it to be a virtue to violate treaties in order to gain
advantages for their people in political, economic, and religious conflicts. At one time the leader of one nation enters into a treaty with another nation for the interest of his own people but at another time the same leader publicly breaks the very same treaty for the
interest of his people or secretly violates it. It is an irony that such violations are made even by those people who are honest in their private lives. Moreover, it is regrettable that their own people do not protest against them; nay, they eulogize them for such shameful feats of diplomacy. Therefore, Allah warns that every such treaty is a test of the character of those who enter into it, and of their nations. They might gain some apparent advantage for their people in this way, but they will not escape their consequences on the Day of Judgment.
92. This is to warn that decisions about differences and disputes that lead to conflict will be made on the Day of Judgment. Therefore, these should not be made an excuse to break agreements and treaties. Even if one is wholly in the right and the opponent is wholly in the wrong. It is not right for the former to break treaties or make false propaganda or employ other deceitful methods to defeat the other. If one does so, it will go against him on that Day because righteousness demands that one should not only be right in his theories and aims but should also use the right methods and employ the right means. This warning has especially been given to those religious groups and sects who always suffer from this misunderstanding that they have a right to defeat their opponents because they are on the side of God and their opponents are rebels against Allah. Therefore, there is no obligation on them to stick to their treaties with their opponents. This was what the Arab Jews practiced, declaring: There is no moral obligation on us in regard to the pagan Arabs, and we are rightly entitled to practice dishonesty and deceit that might be of advantage to us and harmful to the disbelievers.
(16:93) Had Allah so willed, He would have made you all one single community.93 However, He lets go astray whomsoever He wills and shows the Right Way to whomsoever He wills. 94“ Surely you shall be called to account regarding what you did.
93. This further supports the previous warning. It means that it would be wrong for any champion of Allah’s religion to arrogate to himself the use of every sort of method and means irrespective of whether they are right or wrong to propagate his own religion (considering it to be Allah’s religion) and try to destroy opposite religions. For this would be utterly against the will of Allah. If Allah had willed that there should be no religious differences, He could have deprived mankind of the freedom of choice. In that case, there would have been no need for Allah to get help from any such upholder of His religion, who
uses disgraceful means for this purpose. Allah could have created all mankind to be inherent believers and obedient servants by depriving them of the power and option of disbelief and sin. Then there would have been none who could have dared to deviate from belief and obedience.
94. This is to show that Allah Himself has given man the power and freedom to follow any out of the many ways. That is why Allah makes arrangements for the guidance of the one who intends to follow the right way and let go astray the one who desires to deviate.
(16:94) Do not make your oaths a means of deceiving one another or else your foot may slip after having been firm,95and you may suffer evil consequences because of hindering people from the way of Allah. A mighty chastisement awaits you.
95. That is, someone who might have been convinced of Islam, seeing your dishonest conduct should become disgusted and hold back from joining the believers. For he might argue like this: As these Muslims are not much different from the disbelievers in their morals and dealings, there is no reason why I should join them.
(16:95) Do not barter away the covenant 96 of Allah for a paltry gain. Verily that which is with Allah is far better for you if you only knew.
96. That is, the covenant that you may make in the name of Allah as a representative of His religion.
97. It does not mean that they should barter away Allah’s covenant for some big gain. What it implies is that any worldly gain howsoever great is insignificant as compared with the worth of Allah’s covenant. Therefore, it will be a losing bargain to barter that away for any
worldly gain, which is after all paltry.
(16:96) Whatever you have is bound to pass away and whatever is with Allah will last. And We shall surely grant those who have been patient their reward 98 according to the best of what they did.
98. Those who practice fortitude are the people who will always stand firm in the struggle between right and truth on one side and greed and lust on the other. They bear every loss for the sake of righteousness and spurn away every gain that they might obtain by adopting unlawful means. They patiently wait for the rewards of their good deeds in the Hereafter.
(16:97) Whosoever acts righteously – whether a man or a woman – and embraces belief, We will surely grant him a good life;99and will surely grant such persons their reward according to the best of their deeds.100
99. This verse removes the wrong notions of both the Muslims and the disbelievers who are of the opinion that those who adopt a just honest and pious attitude, are most surely losers in this world, though they might be gainers in the Hereafter.
Allah removes this misunderstanding as if to say: This presumption of yours is wrong. The righteous attitude not only leads to a happy life in the Hereafter, but it also guarantees, by Allah’s grace, a pure and happy life even in this world. And this is a fact that those people who are sincerely righteous, honest, pure, and fair in their dealings enjoy a much better life in this world. For they enjoy that confidence and real honor and respect because of their spotless character, which is not enjoyed by those who lack these virtues. They obtain such pure and
outstanding success as are denied to those who employ dirty and disgusting ways to win success. Above all, they enjoy, even though they might be living in poor houses, that peace of mind and satisfaction of conscience which is denied to the wicked dwellers of mansions and palaces.
100. That is, their rank in the Hereafter shall be determined according to their best deeds. In In other words, if a person has done both small and great virtues, he will be awarded that high rank which he would merit according to his greatest virtues.
(16:98) Whenever you read the Qur’an seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the accursed.101
101. This does not mean that one should merely repeat the Arabic words: I seek Allah’s refuge against the accursed Satan. It means that one should have a sincere desire and do his utmost to guard against Satan’s evil suggestions when one is reciting the Holy Quran and
should not allow wrong and irrelevant doubts and suspicions to enter his mind. One should try to see everything contained in the Quran in its true light, and refrain from mixing it up with his self invented theories or ideas foreign to the Quran so as to construe its meaning
against the will of Allah. Moreover, one should feel that the most sinister and avowed design of Satan is that the reader should not obtain any guidance from the Quran. This is why Satan tries his utmost to delude the reader and pervert him from getting guidance from
it, and mislead him into wrong ways of thinking. Therefore, the reader should be fully on his guard against Satan and seek Allah’s refuge for help so that Satan should not be able to deprive him of the benefits froth this source of guidance, for one who fails to get guidance
from this source, will never be able to get guidance from anywhere else. Above all, the one who seeks to obtain deviation from this Book is so entangled in deviation that he can never get out of this vicious circle.
The context in which this verse occurs here is to serve as an introduction to the answers to the questions which the mushriks of Makkah were raising against the Quran. They have been warned that they could appreciate the blessing of the Quran only if they would try to see it in its true light by seeking Allah’s protection against Satan’s misleading suggestions, and not by raising objections against it. Otherwise, Satan does not let a man understand the Quran and its teachings.
(16:99) Surely he has no power over those who have faith and who place their trust in
(16:100) He has power only over those who take him as their patron and who, under his influence, others with Allah in His Divinity.
(16:101) Whenever We replace one verse with another verse – and Allah knows what He should reveal 102 they are wont to say: “You are nothing but a fabricator! (who has invented the Qur’an).” The fact is that most of them are ignorant of the Truth.
102. This may also mean: To send down one commandment to elaborate upon the other, for the commandments were sent down piecemeal in the Quran. For instance, the commandments about prohibition and fornication were sent down gradually one after the
other for several years. But We hesitate to accept this interpretation because An-Nahl is a Makki Surah and to the best of our information there is no instance to show that commandments were sent down piecemeal at Makkah. Therefore, we prefer the other interpretation. The Quran has added details of one theme and explained the same with different kinds of illustrations in different places. Likewise, it has related a story in different words at different places and presented its different aspects and details in other places. It has put forward one argument at one place to prove a theme and another at another place to prove the same theme. It has related one theme concisely at one place and in detail at the other. That is what the disbelievers of Makkah put forward as proof that Muhammad (peace be upon him) forged the Quran himself. They argued like this: Had the Quran been the Word of Allah, it would have related one thing in full in one place, for Allah’s knowledge is not defective that He should have to think out gradually the details of a theme and to give different versions to explain the same thing. In contrast to this, the knowledge of a human being is defective. A man has to think out gradually as has been done in the case of the Quran which is a clear proof that you have forged it yourself.
(16:102) Tell them: “It is the spirit of holiness that has brought it down, by stages,103 from your Lord so that it might bring firmness to those who believe, and guidance to the Right Way, and give glad tidings of felicity and success to those
who submit to Allah.”104
103. The Holy Spirit: Gibril. Instead of using the name of the angel who brought revelation, his title has been deliberately mentioned to warn the disbelievers that the Holy Spirit who brought revelation is free from human frailties. He is neither dishonest that he should add
something to or take away something from the message he brought, nor is he a liar and forger that he should invent and state something in the name of Allah. Nor does he suffer from any human lust that he should practice deceit. He is wholly pure and holy and conveys the Word of Allah intact.
104. That is, the fact that Allah sends down His message piecemeal does not mean that Allah’s knowledge and wisdom are defective as you consider because of your folly. Allah sends His revelations gradually because human intelligence and capacity to grasp are
limited and defective which does not let him understand the whole theme at one and the same time and make it firm in his mind. Therefore, Allah in His wisdom conveyed His revelation piecemeal through the Holy Spirit. He sends a theme gradually and gives its details by and by and uses different methods and ways to make it plain to human beings so that they might grasp it according to their abilities and capabilities and become firm in their faith and knowledge.
105. The second practical wisdom of sending down the Quran piecemeal was that those believers who obediently followed it should get necessary instructions for the propagation of Islam and the solution of other problems of life at the time when they were actually
needed. It is obvious that if those instructions had been sent down before time and at one and the same time they would not have been useful.
106. The third practical wisdom of not sending down the Quran as a whole at one and the same time was to give good tidings and encouragement to the obedient servants who were suffering from persecution and encountering great obstacles because they needed it over and over again. That is why they were assured of ultimate success time and again to fill them with hope to carry on their mission.
(16:103) Surely We know well what they say about you: “It is only a human being who teaches him, 107(notwithstanding) that he whom they maliciously hint at is of foreign tongue, while this (Qur’an) is plain Arabic speech.
107. In this connection, traditions mention the names of several persons, one of whom is Jabar. According to the disbelievers of Makkah, he taught the Prophet (peace be upon him).
However, one thing particularly noteworthy about all these persons is that they were non-Arab slaves. Whosoever he might be, the fact that he used to recite the Torah and the Gospel and had an acquaintance with the Prophet (peace be upon him). This gave an opportunity to
the disbelievers for spreading this false report that it was the particular slave who was the real author of the Holy Quran, but Muhammad (peace be upon him) presented it as the Word of God. This not only shows that his opponents were very impudent in spreading false accusations against the Prophet (peace be upon him) but also that, in general, people are not just judging the worth of their contemporaries. They were ill-treating like this that great personality who has had no parallel in history. Nevertheless, these people who had become blind in their opposition preferred to attribute the authorship to the matchless
Arabic Quran to a non-Arab slave who had a smattering of the Torah and the Gospel. Instead of accepting the claim of the Prophet (peace be upon him), who was an embodiment of truth, they attributed its authorship to an insignificant foreign slave.
(16:104) Surely Allah will not enable those who do not believe in the signs of Allah to be directed to the Right Way, and a painful chastisement awaits them.
(16:105) (It is not the Prophet who invents lies), 108 it is rather those who do not believe in the signs of Allah who invent lies. They are liars.
108. This verse can also be rendered like this: A Prophet does not forge any false thing but those, who do not believe in the revelations of Allah, invent falsehoods.
(16:106) Except for those who were forced to engage in infidelity to Allah after believing while their hearts remained firmly convinced of their belief, the ones whose hearts willingly embraced disbelief shall incur Allah’s wrath and a mighty chastisement lies in store for them.109
109. This verse deals with the case of those Muslims who were being persecuted with cruelty and were being subjected to unbearable torments to force them to give up their faith.
They are being told that if at any time they are forced to utter words of disbelief to save their lives, when in fact in their hearts they are secure against disbelief, they will be pardoned. On the other hand, if they accepted unbelief from the core of their hearts, they shall not escape
the torment of Allah even if they succeed in saving their lives.
It does not, however, mean that one should utter words of disbelief to save his life. This is merely permission but not the ideal thing for a believer. According to this permission, if one utters such a thing, he shall not be taken to account. In fact, the ideal thing for a believer is to
utter words of truth in any case whether his body is cut into pieces. There are instances that show that during the period of the Prophet (peace be upon him) some acted upon the ideal while others took advantage of the permission. There was Khabbab bin Art (may Allah
be pleased with him) who was made to lie on embers of fire until the fire was extinguished by the melting of his fat, but he remained firm in his faith. Then there was Bilal Habashi
who was made to put on armor and stand in the scorching heat. Then he was dragged on the burning sand but he went on saying, Allah is one. There was another believer, Habib Gin Zaid bin Asim, whose limbs were cut one by one by the order of Musailimah, the Liar.
Each time his limb was severed it was demanded of him that he should acknowledge the Liar as a prophet but each time he refused to bear witness to his claim of prophethood until he breathed his last. On the other hand, there was the instance of Ammar bin Yasir whose
parents were mercilessly butchered before his eyes. After this, he himself was put to such unbearable torture that, in order to save his life, he had to utter the same words of unbelief that were demanded of him. Afterward, when he came crying to the Prophet (peace be
upon him), he said: O Messenger of Allah, they did not let me go until I spoke evil of you and praised their deities. The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him: How do you feel about this, in your heart? He replied humbly: My heart is fully convinced of the faith. At this the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: If they put you to the same torture again, you may utter the same words. May Allah be pleased with them all.
(16:107) That is because they love the life of this world more than the Hereafter, and Allah does not guide those who are ungrateful to Allah for Hi
(16:108) They are the ones upon whose hearts and hearing and eyes Allah have set a seal. They are utterly steeped in heedlessness.
(16:109) No doubt they shall be losers in the Hereafter.110
110. These words apply to those people who gave up their faith, when they felt that they could not bear hardships of the right way and so they again joined their unbelieving, mushrik people.
(16:110) And surely your Lord will be Most Forgiving and Most Merciful towards those who left their homes after they were persecuted, 111 and who thereafter struggled hard and remained constant.
111. They were those believers who migrated to Habashah.
(16:111) Allah’s judgment will come about them all on the Day when everyone shall come pleading in his defense, and everyone shall be fully requited for his deeds and none shall be wronged in the least.
(16:112) Allah sets forth the parable of (the people of) a town who were secure and content and whose sustenance came in abundance from every quarter. But then the people of the town showed ingratitude towards Allah for His bounties, so Allah afflicted them with hunger and fear in punishment for their evil deeds.
(16:113) Most certainly a Messenger came to them from among them; but they rejected him, calling him a liar. Therefore chastisement seized them while they engaged in wrong-doing.112
112. That habitation has not been specified here nor have the commentators definitely pointed out which that habitation was. However, there is a saying of Ibn Abbas (which seems to be correct) that the place referred to is Makkah itself. In that case, hunger and fear
will mean the famine which prevailed over the people of Makkah for several years during the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him).
16:114) So eat out of the lawful and good sustenance that Allah h(as bestowed upon you,113 and thank Allah for His bounty,” if it is Him that you serve.114
113. This shows that the above mentioned famine had come to an end at the time of the revelation of this Surah.
114. Here the observation of the lawful and the unlawful has been made the test of worship of Allah. Those who claim to be the servants of Allah will eat what is lawful and pure and show gratitude to Him and will scrupulously refrain from what is forbidden and impure.
(16:115) Allah has forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine; also any animal over which the name of any other than Allah has been pronounced. But whoever eats of them under compelling necessity – neither desiring it nor exceeding the limit of absolute necessity – surely for such action, Allah is Much Forgiving, Most Merciful.
115. Please refer also to (Surah Al-Bagarah, Ayat 173), (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayat 3) and (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 145).
(16:116) And do not utter falsehoods by letting your tongues declare: “This is lawful’116 and “That is unlawful,” thus fabricating lies against Allah. Surely those who fabricate lies against Allah will never prosper.
116. This verse clearly shows that none but Allah has the right to declare a thing to be lawful or unlawful. Or, in other words, the right of making laws exclusively rests with Allah. Therefore, any person who will dare to decide between the lawful and the unlawful will transgress his powers. Of course, a person, who acknowledges the divine law as the final authority, may deduce from it whether a certain thing or action is lawful or unlawful.
The arrogation of the right of determining the lawful and the unlawful has been declared to be a falsehood on Allah for two reasons:
(1) Such a person, so to say, claims that what he declares to be lawful or unlawful, disregarding the authority of the divine Book, has been made lawful or unlawful by God.
(2) He means to claim that Allah has given up the authority of making lawful and unlawful and has thus left man free to make his own laws for the conduct of life. It is obvious that each of these claims will be a falsehood and a false imputation to Allah.
(16:117) Brief is their enjoyment of the world, and thereafter they shall suffer a painful chastisement.
(16:118) We have already recounted to you”Z what We prohibited8 to the Jews. In so doing We did not wrong them; it is they who wronged themselves.
117. In this paragraph (vv. 118-124), answers to the objections raised by the disbelievers of Makkah concerning the Commandments contained in vv. 114-117 have been given. Their first objection was: “Besides the above-mentioned unlawful things, there are other unlawful things in the Jewish Law which have been made lawful by you. If that law was from Allah and yours is also from Allah why do they then contradict each other?” Their second objection was: “You have abrogated the sanctity of the Sabbath of the Israelites. Have you
done this of your own accord or by Allah’s Command? In the latter case then will be an obvious contradiction between the two laws. Or has Allah Himself given two contradictory Commandments?”
118. This refers to: “And We prohibited all animals with claws to those people who had adopted Judaism.” (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 146). In this (verse 118) Allah has stated that certain things were made unlawful because of the disobedience of the Jews.
Here a question arises. Which of the two Surahs, Al-Anaam or An-Nahl, was first revealed? his is because in (verse 118), a reference has been made to (verse 146 of Al-Anaam). Also in (verse 119 of Al-Anaam): “And why should you not eat that thing over which Allah’s name
has been mentioned, when He has already given you detail of those things that have been declared to be unlawful for you except in case of extremity?” a reference has been made to (verse 115 of An- Nahl).
This is because these are the only two Makki Surahs in which details of unlawful things have been given. As regards to the question, we are of the opinion that An-Nahl was revealed earlier than Al-Anaam, for (verse 119 )of the latter contains a reference to( verse 115) of the former. It appears that after the revelation of Surah Al-Anaam, the disbelievers raised objections in regard to these verses of An-Nahl. So they were referred to (verse 146 of Al- Anaam) in which a few things were made unlawful, especially for the Jews. As this answer concerned An-Nahl, so (verse 118), though it was revealed after the revelation of Al-Anaam, was inserted as a parenthetical clause in An-Nahl.
119. “Abraham was a whole community by himself” for at that time he was the only Muslim in the whole world who was upholding the banner of Islam, while the rest of the world was upholding the banner of unbelief. As that servant of Allah performed the mission which is
ordinarily carried out by a whole community, he was not one person but an institution in himself.
(16:119) But to those who commit evil out of ignorance and then repent and amend their ways, thereafter your Lord will be Much Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(16:120) Indeed Abraham was a whole community by himself,“119 obedient to Allah, exclusively devoted to Him. And he was never one of those who associated others with Allah in His Divinity.
119. “Abraham was a whole community by himself” for at that time he was the only Muslim in the whole world who was upholding the banner of Islam, while the rest of the world was upholding the banner of unbelief. As that servant of Allah performed the mission which is
ordinarily carried out by a whole community, he was not one person but an institution in himself.
(16:121) He rendered thanks to Allah for His bounties so that Allah chose him (for His favors) and directed him to the Right Way.
(16:122) We bestowed good upon him in this world, and in the Hereafter, he shall certainly be among the righteous.
(16:123) Then We revealed to you: “Follow the way of Abraham with exclusive devotion to Allah. He was not one of those who associated others120 with Allah in His Divinity.”
120. This is the complete answer to the first objection (E.N. 117) raised by the disbelievers. This has two parts.
(1) There is no contradiction in the divine law as you seem to presume on the apparent variance in the Jewish and the Islamic Law. As a matter of fact, a few things had been made unlawful especially for the Jews as punishment to them because of their disobedience; therefore, there was no reason why others should be deprived of those good things.
(2) Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was commanded to follow the way of Abraham and not the way of the Jews, and they themselves knew that these things were not unlawful in the law of Abraham. For instance, the Jews did not eat the flesh of camel but this
was lawful according to Abraham. Likewise, ostrich, hare, duck, etc. were unlawful in the Jewish law, but they were lawful according to Abraham. Incidentally the disbelievers of Makkah has been warned that neither they nor the Jews had any relationship with Prophet
Abraham for he was not a mushrik while both of them were practicing shirk. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his followers were the only true followers of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) for there was no tinge of shirk in their creed or in their practice.
(16:124) As for the Sabbath, it was made incumbent only on those who differed about its laws.121Certainly your Lord will judge on the Day of Resurrection between them regarding the matters they disputed.
121. This is the answer to their second objection. Obviously, there was no need to state that the restrictions about the Sabbath applied only to the Jews and had nothing to do with the law of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him), because they themselves knew it. The restrictions were imposed upon the Jews because of their mischief and violations of the law. In order to understand fully the significance of this reference one is requested to read those passages of the Bible in which commandments about the Sabbath have been stated, e.g.,
Exodus 20: 8-11, 23: 12-13,31: 1-17, 35: 23, and Numbers 15: 32-36. Besides this, one should also be acquainted with the impudent violations of the Sabbath. See Jeremiah: 17: 21-27 and
Ezekiel. 10: 18-24.
(16:125) (O Prophet), call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation,122 and reason with them in the best manner possible.123 Surely your Lord knows best who has strayed away from His path, and He also knows well those who are guided to the Right Way.
122. This instruction is very important for those who are engaged in the propagation of Islam. They should always keep in view two things, wisdom and excellent admonition.
Wisdom implies that one should use discretion in the work of propagation and should not do this blindly like foolish people. Wisdom demands that one should keep in view the intelligence, capability, and circumstances of the addressees and convey the message in accordance with the requirements of the occasion. Moreover, one should refrain from applying one and the same method to each and every person or group but should first diagnose the real disease of the addressee and then cure it by appealing to his mind and
Excellent admonition implies two things:
(1) One should not be content with convincing the addressee with arguments alone but should also appeal to his feelings. Likewise one should not confine himself merely to arguments in condemning evils and deviations but should try to convince the other of the repugnance that lies embedded in human nature. One should also warn of the worst consequences of those evils. Besides, one should not only try to convince the addressee rationally of the soundness and excellence of guidance and righteous deeds but should also create in his interest and love for them.
(2) Admonition should be administered in such a manner as to show sincere concern for and the welfare of the addressee. Nothing should be said or done to create the impression that the admonisher is looking down upon him and taking pleasure in his own feeling of
superiority. On the contrary, he should feel that the admonisher is filled with a strong desire for his reform and welfare.
123. “In a way that is better” implies that one should have a sweet tongue, show noble character and give reasonable and appealing arguments, and refrain from indulging in polemics, argumentation and controversies. The one who discusses things with people in
the best manner does not resort to accusations, crooked arguments, taunts, nor making fun of the opponent in order to defeat him and to win applause for his own superiority in the argument. For these things will produce obduracy and obstinacy. In contrast to this, he will
try to convince the other in a simple and humble way, and when he feels that the other person has come down to crooked arguments, he will leave him alone lest the other should go further and further astray in his deviation.
(16:126) If you take retribution, then do so in proportion to the wrong done to you. But if you can bear such conduct with patience, indeed that is best for the steadfast.
(16:127) And bear with patience, (OQ Muhammad) – and your patience is only because of the help of Allah – and do not grieve over them, nor feel distressed by their evil plans.
(16:128) For surely Allah is with those who hold Him in fear and do good.
124. “Allah is with those who fear Him” because they scrupulously refrain from evil ways and always adopt a righteous attitude, for they know that their actions and deeds are not determined by the evils others do to them but by their own sense of righteousness; so they
return good for evil.
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