Hold firmly to that which We have given you, and remember what is in it, that you may guard against evil.

وَإِذْ نَتَقْنَا الْجَبَلَ فَوْقَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ ظُلَّةٌ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُ وَاقِعٌ بِهِمْ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُمْ بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُوا مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (الأعراف: 171).
وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ (الأعراف: 172).
أَوْ تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أَشْرَكَ آبَاؤُنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا ذُرِّيَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ أَفَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ (الأعراف: 173).
وَكَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الآياتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ (الأعراف: 174).
وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ الَّذِي آتَيْنَاهُ آيَاتِنَا فَانسَلَخَ مِنْهَا فَأَتْبَعَهُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَكَانَ مِنْ الْغَاوِينَ (الأعراف: 175).
وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَرَفَعْنَاهُ بِهَا وَلَكِنَّهُ أَخْلَدَ إِلَى الأَرْضِ وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ إِنْ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْهِ يَلْهَثْ أَوْ تَتْرُكْهُ يَلْهَثْ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا فَاقْصُصِ الْقَصَصَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (الأعراف: 176).
سَاءَ مَثَلاً الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَأَنفُسَهُمْ كَانُوا يَظْلِمُونَ (الأعراف: 177).
مَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِي وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْخَاسِرُونَ (الأعراف: 178).
وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِنْ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لاَ يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا أُوْلَئِكَ كَالأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ (الأعراف: 179).
وَلِلَّهِ الأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأعراف: 180).
وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ (الأعراف: 181).
وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (الأعراف: 182).
وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ (الأعراف: 183).
أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا مَا بِصَاحِبِهِمْ مِنْ جِنَّةٍ إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ نَذِيرٌ مُبِينٌ (الأعراف: 184).
أَوَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَأَنْ عَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدْ اقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأعراف: 185).
مَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ وَيَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ (الأعراف: 186).
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنْ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي لاَ يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ ثَقُلَتْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ لاَ تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلاَّ بَغْتَةً يَسْأَلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ (الأعراف: 187).
قُلْ لاَ أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلاَ ضَرًّا إِلاَّ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لاَسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنْ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ إِنْ أَنَا إِلاَّ نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأعراف: 188).
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا لِيَسْكُنَ إِلَيْهَا فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّاهَا حَمَلَتْ حَمْلاً خَفِيفًا فَمَرَّتْ بِهِ فَلَمَّا أَثْقَلَتْ دَعَوَا اللَّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَئِنْ آتَيْتَنَا صَالِحًا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنْ الشَّاكِرِينَ (الأعراف: 189).
فَلَمَّا آتَاهُمَا صَالِحًا جَعَلاَ لَهُ شُرَكَاءَ فِيمَا آتَاهُمَا فَتَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ (الأعراف: 190).
أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لاَ يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ (الأعراف: 191).
وَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا وَلاَ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَنصُرُونَ (الأعراف: 192).
وَإِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَى لاَ يَتَّبِعُوكُمْ سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ أَدَعَوْتُمُوهُمْ أَمْ أَنْتُمْ صَامِتُونَ (الأعراف: 193).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (الأعراف: 194).
أَلَهُمْ أَرْجُلٌ يَمْشُونَ بِهَا أَمْ لَهُمْ أَيْدٍ يَبْطِشُونَ بِهَا أَمْ لَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا أَمْ لَهُمْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا قُلْ ادْعُوا شُرَكَاءَكُمْ ثُمَّ كِيدُونِي فَلاَ تُنظِرُونِ (الأعراف: 195).
إِنَّ وَلِيِّيَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى الصَّالِحِينَ (الأعراف: 196).
وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ نَصْرَكُمْ وَلاَ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَنصُرُونَ (الأعراف: 197).
وَإِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَى لاَ يَسْمَعُوا وَتَرَاهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَهُمْ لاَ يُبْصِرُونَ (الأعراف: 198).
خُذْ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنْ الْجَاهِلِينَ (الأعراف: 199).
وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ (الأعراف: 200).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِنْ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُمْ مُبْصِرُونَ (الأعراف: 201).
وَإِخْوَانُهُمْ يَمُدُّونَهُمْ فِي الغَيِّ ثُمَّ لاَ يُقْصِرُونَ (الأعراف: 202).
وَإِذَا لَمْ تَأْتِهِمْ بِآيَةٍ قَالُوا لَوْلاَ اجْتَبَيْتَهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَتَّبِعُ مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ مِنْ رَبِّي هَذَا بَصَائِرُ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأعراف: 203).
وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَأَنصِتُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ (الأعراف: 204).
وَاذْكُرْ رَبَّكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ تَضَرُّعًا وَخِيفَةً وَدُونَ الْجَهْرِ مِنْ الْقَوْلِ بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالآصَالِ وَلاَ تَكُنْ مِنْ الْغَافِلِينَ (الأعراف: 205).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيُسَبِّحُونَهُ وَلَهُ يَسْجُدُونَ (الأعراف: 206).

SURAH ALARRAF 171 TO 206

(7:171) And recall when We shook the mountain over them as though it were a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall over them; and We said: ‘Hold firmly to that which We have given you, and remember what is in it, that you may guard against evil.132

132. The allusion here is to the event which took place when Moses proclaimed God’s Divine Law at the foot of Mount Sinai.

Then Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God; and they took their stand at the foot of the mountain. And Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire; and the smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. (Exodus 19: 17-18.)

This awesome atmosphere was created by God at the time when He made the people of Israel enter into a covenant with Him in order to impress upon them the gravity of the event and the supreme importance of the covenant. It should not be mistakenly assumed, however, that the people of Israel, who were reluctant to make the covenant, were forced to enter into it. In fact they were all believers and had gone to the Mount merely to make the covenant.
The extraordinary conditions which God created were such as to make the Israelites realize that making a covenant with God was not an ordinary matter. They were rather made to feel that they were entering into a covenant with none other than Almighty God and that
violating it could spell their disaster.

This concludes the discourse especially addressed to the Israelites. From here on the discourse is directed to all mankind, and particularly to the people whom the Prophet (peace be on him) addressed directly.

(7:172) And recall (O Prophet)33 when your Lord brought forth descendants from the loins of the sons of Adam, and made them witnesses against their own selves. asking them: ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They said: ‘Yes, we do testify.’ “We did so lest you claim on the Day of Resurrection: ‘We were unaware of this.’

133. The preceding discourse concluded with the note that God made the Israelites enter into a covenant with their Lord. In the following passages all men are told that a covenant with God is not the exclusive privilege of Israel. In fact all human beings are bound in a covenant with God and a Day will come when they will be made to answer how well they were able to observe that covenant.

134. This event, according to several traditions, took place at the time of the creation of Adam. Apart from the prostration of the angels before Adam and the proclamation that man would be God’s vicegerent on earth, all the future progeny of Adam were gathered, and were endowed with both existence and consciousness in order to bear witness to God’s lordship. The best interpretation of this event is found in a statement by, ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b, who has probably given the substance of what he had heard from the Prophet (peace be on
him):

God gathered all human beings, divided them into different groups, granted them human form and the faculty of speech, made them enter into a covenant, and then making them witnesses against themselves He asked them: ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They replied:
‘Assuredly you are Our Lord.’ Then God told them: ‘I call upon the sky and the earth and your own progenitor, Adam, to be witness against you lest you should say on the Day of Judgement that you were ignorant of this. Know well that no one other than Me deserves to
he worshipped and no one other than Me is your Lord. So do not ascribe any partner to Me.
I shall send to you My Messengers who will remind you of this covenant which you made with Me. I shall send down to you My Books.’ In reply all said: ‘We witness that You are Our Lord and our Deity. We have no lord or deity other than You.’ (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 135 – Ed.)

This event has also been interpreted by some commentators in a purely allegorical sense.
They are of the opinion that the purpose of the Qur’an is merely to emphasize that the acceptance of God’s lordship is innate in human nature. However, this was narrated in such a way as to suggest that the event did actually take place. We do not subscribe to this allegorical interpretation of the primordial covenant of man with God. For both the Qur’an and Hadith recount it not only as an actual happening, but also affirm that the covenant would be adduced as an argument against man on the Day of Judgement. There remains, therefore, no ground whatsoever to interpret the event in terms of mere allegory.

In our own view the event did take place. God caused all human beings whom He intended to create until the Last Day to come into existence. He endowed upon them life, consciousness and the faculty of speech, and brought home to them that there is no god or lord besides Him, and that Islam alone is the right way to serve Him.

If someone considers calling all human beings together in one assembly impossible, that shows, more than anything else the woeful paucity of his imagination. For if someone accepts that God has the power to create countless human beings in succession, there is no
reason to suppose that He did not have the power to create them all at some given moment prior to the creation of the universe, or that He will be unable to resurrect them all at some given moment in the future. Again, it stands to reason that at a time when God wanted to
designate man as His vicegerent on earth after endowing him with reason and understanding, He took from him an oath of allegiance. All this is so reasonable that the actual occurrence of the covenant should not cause any wonder. On the contrary, one should wonder if the event did not take place.

(7:173) Or say: ‘Our forefathers before us who associated others with Allah in His divinity; we were merely their offspring who followed them. And would You destroy us for that which the unrighteous did?’135

135. The verse describes the purpose of the primordial covenant. The purpose is to make every person responsible for his deeds so that if he rebels against God he will be held fully accountable for that rebellion’s. Because of the covenant, no one will be able either to plead for acquittal on grounds of ignorance, or blame his misdeeds on his ancestors. In other words, this primordial covenant has been mentioned as the reason for the inherent awareness in every single person that God is the only Lord and Deity. Thus, none can totally
absolve himself of his responsibility on the plea that he was altogether ignorant, or transfer the blame for his error to the corrupt environment in which he was brought up. Now, it can be argued that even if the covenant did take place, no human being remembers its occurrence. No human being is aware that a long time ago, at the time of creation, he had affirmed, in response to God’s query, that God indeed was his Lord. This being the case, it can be further argued that no charge can be legitimately brought against man on the ground of a covenant with God which he no longer remembers to have made. In response to this it can be said that had the covenant been made fully in man’s conscious memory, it would be meaningless for God to put man to the test in this world. Hence, there can be no denying that the covenant is not preserved in man’s conscious memory. But it has doubtlessly been
preserved in man’s sub-conscious mind. In this respect the primordial covenant is no different from other pieces of knowledge in man’s sub-conscious mind. Whatever man has so far achieved in the way of culture and civilization can be attributed to his latent potentialities. All external factors and internal motivations simply account for helping the actualization of those potentialities. Neither education nor training nor environmental factors can bring out anything which is not potentially found in the human mind. Likewise, external factors have no power to root out man’s latent potentialities. External factors may,
at the most, cause a person to deflect from the course dictated by sound human nature.
However, man’s sound nature is inclined to resist the pressure of external forces and exert itself in order to find an outlet. As we have said earlier, this is not peculiar to man’s religious propensity alone, but is equally true of all his mental potentialities. In this regard the
following points are particularly noteworthy:

(1) All man’s potentialities exist in the sub-conscious mind and prove their existence when they manifest themselves in the form of human action.

(2) The external manifestation of these potentialities requires external stimuli such as instruction, upbringing. and attitudinal orientation. In other words, our actions consist of the responses of our inherent potentialities to external stimuli.

(3) Man’s inner potentialities can be suppressed both by false urges within him as well as external influences by trying to pervert and distort those latent potentialities. The potentialities themselves, however, cannot he totally rooted out.

The same holds true of man’s intuitive knowledge regarding his position in the universe and his relationship with his Creator. In this connection the following points should be borne in
mind:

(1) That man has always had such intuitive knowledge is evident from the fact that this knowledge has surfaced throughout history in every period and in every part of the world, and which no power has so far been able to extirpate.

(2) That this intuitive knowledge conforms to objective reality, is borne out by, the fact that whenever this knowledge has influenced human life, it has had beneficial results.

(3) That in order to manifest itself in his practical life, man’s intuitive knowledge has always required external stimuli. The stimuli have consisted of the advent of the Prophets (peace be on them), the revelation of the Heavenly Books, and the striving of those who have tried to follow them and invite others to do the same. It is for this reason that the Qur’an has been designated as mudhakkir (the reminder): dhikr (remembrance); tadhkirah (admonition). and
the function of the Qur’an has been characterized as tadhkir (reminding). What this suggests is that the Prophets, the Heavenly Books and those who invite people to the truth do not seek to provide human beings with something new, something which exists outside of them.
Their task rather consists of bringing to the surface and rejuvenating what is latent, though dormant, in man himself.

Throughout the ages man has always positively responded to this ‘Reminder’. This itself is testimony to the fact that it is embodied in a knowledge which has always been recognized
by; man’s soul.

Forces arising from ignorance and obscurantism, lust and bigotry, and the erroneous teachings and promptings of devils – human as well as jinn – have always attempted to suppress, conceal, and distort the fact that the truth preached by the Prophets is embedded in man’s soul. These attempts gave rise to polytheism, atheism, religious misdirection and moral corruption. Despite the combined efforts of the forces of falsehood, however, this knowledge has always had an imprint on the human heart. Hence, whenever any effort was made to revive that knowledge, it has proved successful.

Doubtlessly those who are bent on denying the truth can resort to a great deal of sophistry in order to deny or at least create doubt and confusion about the existence of this knowledge.
However on the Day of Resurrection the Creator will revive in man the memory of the first assembly when man made his covenant with God and accepted Him as his Only Lord. On that occasion God will provide evidence to the effect that the covenant always remained imprinted on man’s soul. He will also show how from time to time man tried to suppress his inner voice which urged him to respond to the call of the covenant; how again and again his heart pressed him to affirm the truth; how his intuition induced him to denounce the errors of belief and practice; how the truth ingrained in his soul tried to express itself and respond to those who called to it; and how on each occasion he lulled his inner self to sleep because of his lust and bigotry.

However a day will come when man will no longer be in a position to put forth specious arguments to justify his false claims. That will be the Day when man will have no option but to confess his error. It will then be impossible for people to say that they were ignorant, or negligent. In the words of the Qur’an: ‘…and they will bear witness against themselves that they had disbelieved’ (al-An’am 6: 130).

(7:174) And thus do We expound the signs% that they may turn back (to the right path) .132

136. ‘Signs’ here refer to the imprints made by knowledge of the truth on the human heart which help towards cognition of the truth.

137. ‘To return’ here signifies giving up rebellion, and reverting to obedience to God.

(7:175) And recite to them [0 Muhammad] the story of the man to whom We gave Our signs38 and who turned away from them; then ultimately Satan caught up with him and he was led astray.

138. The words of the text seem to indicate that the person mentioned must indeed be a specific rather than an imaginary figure mentioned for the sake of parable. It may, be borne in mind that God and His Messenger (peace be on him) usually mention evil without specific references to any individual. This is obviously in keeping with their dignity. Only examples of evil are mentioned since those examples are meant for didactic purposes, and this is done without smearing anyone’s reputation.

Some commentators on the Qur’an, however, have applied the statement made here to some persons who lived in the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) as well as before him. Some of them mention the name of Bal’am b. Ba’ura’, others that of Umayyah b. Abi al-Salt, and still others that of Sayfi b. al-Rahib. (See the comments of Qurtubi on (verses 175 and 176 – Ed.) Nonetheless, in the absence of any authentic information about the identity of the persons under discussion, we might as well consider the description made here to fit a certain type of person.

(7:176) Now had We so willed We could indeed have exalted him through those signs, but he clung to earthly life and followed his carnal desires. Thus his parable is that of the dog who lolls out his tongue whether you attack him or leave him alone.12 Such is the parable of those who reject Our signs as false. Narrate to them these parables that they may reflect.

139. Since the statement here embodies a very significant point, it needs to be carefully examined. The person mentioned in the verse as the representative of the evil type possessed knowledge of God’s signs, and hence of the truth. This should have helped him to
give up an attitude which he knew to be wrong, and to act in a manner which he knew to be right. Had he followed the truth and acted righteously God would have enabled him to rise to higher levels of humanity. He, however, overly occupied himself with the advantages,
pleasures, and embellishments of the worldly life. Instead of resisting worldly temptations, he totally, succumbed to them so much so that he abandoned altogether his lofty spiritual ambitions and became indifferent to the possibilities of intellectual and moral growth. He
even brazenly, violated all those limits which, according to his knowledge. should have been observed. Hence when he deliberately turned away from the truth merely because of his moral weakness, he was misled by Satan who is ever ready to beguile and mislead man.
Satan continually led him from one act of depravity to another until he landed him in the company of those who are totally under Satan’s control and who have lost all capacity for rational judgement.

This is followed by a statement in which God likens the person in question to a dog. A dog’s protruding tongue and the unceasing flow of saliva from his mouth symbolize unquenchable greed and avarice. The reason for likening the human character described above to a dog is because of his excessive worldliness. It is known that in several languages of the world it is common to call people overly devoted to worldliness as ‘dogs of the world’. For what, after all, is the characteristic of a dog? It is nothing else but greed and avarice. Just
look at the dog! As he moves around, he continuously sniffs the earth. Even if a rock is hurled at him he runs at it in the hope that it might be a piece of bone or bread. Before he discovers it to be a rock, he hastens to seize it in his mouth. Even a person’s indifference does not deter a dog from waiting expectantly for food – panting for breath, his tongue spread out and drooping, and a whole world from one perspective alone – that of his belly! Even if he discovers a large carcass, he would not be content with his portion of it, but
would try to make it exclusively his and would not let any other dog even come close. It seems that if any urge other than appetite tickles him, it is the sexual urge. This metaphor of the dog, highlights the fate of the worldly man who breaks loose from his faith and knowledge, who entrusts his reins to blind lust and who ends up as one wholly devoted to gratifying his own appetite.

(7:177) Evil is the example of the people who reject Our signs as false and perpetrate wrong against their own selves.

(7:178) He whom Allah guides, he alone is rightly guided; and he whom Allah lets go astray – it is they who are the loser. ‘

(7:179) And certainly We have created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind; they have hearts with which they fail to understand; and they have eyes with which they fail to see; and they have ears with which they fail to hear. They are like cattle – indeed, even more astray. Such are utterly heedless.

140. This does not mean that God has created some people for the specific purpose of fueling Hell. What it does mean is that even though God has bestowed upon men faculties of observation, hearing and reasoning, some people do not use them properly. Thus, because of their own failings, they end up in Hell.

The words employed to give expression to the idea are ones which reflect deep grief and sorrow. This can perhaps be grasped by the occasional outbursts of sorrow by human beings.
If a mother is struck by the sudden death of her sons in a war, she is prone to exclaim: ‘I had brought up my sons that they might serve as cannon fodder!’ Her exclamatory, utterance does not mean that that was the real purpose of the upbringing. What she intends to convey
by such an utterance is a strong condemnation of those criminals because of whom all her painful efforts to bring up her sons have gone to waste.

(7:180) Allah has the most excellent names.“! So call on Him by His names and shun those who distort them. They shall soon be requited for their deeds.

141. Here the present discourse is nearing its end. Before concluding, people are warned in a style which combines admonition with censure against some basic wrongs. People are here being warned particularly against denial combined with mockery which they, had adopted towards the teachings of the Prophet (peace be on him).

142. The name of a thing reflects how it is conceptualized. Hence, inappropriate concepts are reflected in inappropriate names, and vice versa. Moreover, the attitude a man adopts towards different things is also based on the concepts he entertains of those things. If a
concept about a thing is erroneous, so will be man’s relationship with it. On the other hand a right concept about a thing will lead to establishing, the right relationship with it. In the same way, as this applies to relationships with worldly objects, so it applies to relationships with God. If a man is mistaken about God – be it about His person or attributes – he will choose false words for God. And the falsity of concepts about God affects man’s whole
ethical attitude. This is understandable since man’s whole ethical attitude is directly related to man’s concept of God and God’s relationship with the universe and man. It is for this reason that the Qur’an asks man to shun profanity in naming God. Only the most beautiful  names befit God, and hence man should invoke Him by them. Any profanity in this respect will lead to evil consequences.

The ‘most excellent names’ used of God express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness, purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes. The opposite trend has been termed   ilhad in this verse. The word ilhad literally means ‘to veer away from the straight
direction’. The word is used, for instance, when an arrow misses the mark and strikes elsewhere. (See Raghib al-Isfahani, al-Mufradat, q.v. ilhad – Ed.) The commitment of ilhad in naming God mentioned in the verse consists of choosing names which are below His majestic dignity and which are inconsistent with the reverence due to Him; names which ascribe evil or defect to God, or reflect false notions about Him. Equally blasphemous is the act of calling some creature by a name which befits God alone, The Qur’anic exhortation in the above verse to ‘shun those who distort God’s names’ implies that if misguided people
fail to see reason, the righteous should not engross themselves in unnecessary argumentation with them. For such men will themselves suffer dire consequences.

(7:181) And of those whom We have created there is a party who guide men through the truth and act justly according to it.

(7:182) As for those who reject Our signs as false, We shall lead them, step by step, to their ruin without their even perceiving it.

(7:183) And (for this purpose) I will grant them respite. My design is incontrovertible.

(7:184) Have they not pondered that their companion [i.e. the Prophet Muhammad] is not afflicted with insanity? He is only a plain warner.

(7:185) Have they not observed the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that Allah has created“: and that their term of life might have drawn near™ After this warning from the Prophet, what will it be that will make them believe?

143. The word ‘companion’ here refers to the Prophet (peace be on him) who was born, brought up, grew into youth, in short, spent his whole life including his old age in their midst. Before the advent of his prophethood, Muhammad (peace be on him) was known to all the Quraysh as good natured and of sound mind. However, as he started calling people to accept the Message of God, they immediately dubbed him insane. Now it is obvious that they were not attributing insanity to him as regards his pre-prophetic life, for they had nothing evil to say about that period of his life. The charge of insanity, therefore, was levelled against the Message he began to preach when he was designated a Prophet.

The Qur’an, therefore, asks them to give serious thought to the teachings of the Prophet (peace be on him) and to see if there is anything that is inconsistent with sanity, or is meaningless and irrational. Had people reflected on the order of the universe, or carefully considered even one single creation of God, they would have been convinced of the truth of the teachings of the Prophet (peace be on him). They would have realized that whatever he said to refute polytheism, or to establish God’s unity or the accountability of man in the Hereafter, or about the necessity of man’s surrender to God, was corroborated by the entire order of the universe and every single atom of God’s creation.

144. The unbelievers, feeble-minded as they are, fail to understand that no one knows when he will die. For death overtakes man totally unawares. This being the case, what will be the end of those who waste the time at their disposal until death overtakes them and fail to find
the direction to their salvation?

(7:186) For those whom Allah lets go astray, there is no guide; and He will leave them in their transgression to stumble blindly.

(7:187) They ask you concerning the Hour, when will its coming be? Say: ‘The knowledge of it is with my Lord alone: none but He will disclose it at its time. That will weigh heavily on the heavens and the earth; and it shall not come to you other than all of a sudden.’ They ask you – as if you are eagerly inquisitive about it – concerning it. Say to them: ‘The knowledge of it is with none except Allah. But most people are unaware of this reality.’

(7:188) Tell them [O Muhammad]: ‘I have no power to benefit or harm myself except as Allah may please. And had I knowledge of the unseen, I should have amassed all kinds of good, and no evil would have ever touched me.5 I am merely a warner and the herald of glad tidings to those who have faith.

145. The time of the advent of the Last Day is known to God alone Who knows the Unseen which, in fact, is not known even to the Prophet (peace be on him). Being human, he is not aware what the morrow has in store for him and his family. Had his knowledge
encompassed everything – even things that lie beyond the ken of sense-perception and events that lie hidden in the future – he would have accumulated immense benefit and would have been able to avoid a great deal of loss owing to such foreknowledge. That being
the case, it is sheer naivety to ask the Prophet about the actual time for the advent of the Last Day.

(7:189) It is He – Allah -Who created you from a single being, and out of it He made its mate, that he may find comfort in her. And when he covers her, she bears a light burden and goes about with it. Then, when she grows heavy, they pray to their Lord:

‘If You bestow upon us a healthy child, we will surely give thanks.’

(7:190) But when He vouchsafes them a healthy child, they attribute to Him partners regarding what Allah had bestowed upon them. Subliminally exalted is Allah above that which they associate with Him.“

146. The present and succeeding (verses 190-8) seek to refute polytheism. These verses are devoted to highlighting the implications of the postulate which even the polytheists
affirmed – that it is God Who originally created the human species. They also acknowledge that every human being owes his existence to God. God also holds absolute power over the entire process leading to man’s birth, right from the fertilization of the ovum in the uterus to
its onward development in the form of a living being, then investing it with numerous faculties and ensuring its birth as a sound, healthy baby. No one has the power to prevent God, if He so willed, from causing a wronging to give birth to an animal or to odd creature, or
to a physically or mentally handicapped baby. This fact is also equally acknowledged by monotheists and polytheists. It is for this reason that in the final stage of pregnancy, people are inclined to turn to God and pray for the birth of a sound and healthy baby.

It is, however, the very, height of man’s ignorance and folly that after a sound and healthy baby has been born as a result of God’s will, man makes offerings at the altars of false gods, goddesses, or saints. Occasionally the names given to the child (e.g., ‘abd al-Rasul, ‘abd al-
‘Uzza, ‘abd Shams, etc.) also indicate that man feels grateful to others than God and regards the child as a gift either of Soren Prophet, some noted Companion of the Prophet (peace be on him), or some other noted personality such as his spiritual mentor rather than a gift from God.

There has been some misunderstanding with regard to the point emphasized here. This misunderstanding has been further reinforced by traditions of doubtful authenticity. The Qur’an mentions that human being’s are created from a single person, and obviously here
that person means Adam (peace be on him). Now this reference to one person is soon followed by reference to his spouse, and that both prayed to God for the birth of a sound and healthy baby. And when that prayer was accepted, the couple are mentioned as having associated others with God in the granting of His favor.

The misunderstanding consists in considering this couple, who fell prey to polytheism, to be Adam and Eve. People resorted to unauthentic traditions to explain the above verse and the
story which thus gained acceptance was the following. It was claimed that Eve suffered several mishaps since her offspring would die after birth. Satan seized this opportunity to mislead her into naming her baby Abd al-Harith (the slave of Satan). (See the comments of
Ibn Kathir on verse 190. Cf. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 11 – Ed.) What is most shocking is that some of these unsubstantiated traditions have been ascribed to the Prophet (peace be on him). The fact, however, is that the above account does not have even an iota of
truth. Nor is it, in any way, corroborated by the Qur’an itself. The only point brought home by the Qur’an is that it is God alone, to the total exclusion of every one else, Who brought
the first human couple into being. And again it is God alone Who causes the birth of each baby born out of the intercourse between a man and a woman. The Qur’an also points out that the of this truth is innate in human nature which is evident from the fact that in states of
distress and crisis man turns prayerfully to God alone. Ironically, however, after God blesses those prayers with acceptance, a number of people associate others with God in His
divinity. The fact is that the present verses do not refer to any particular man and woman. The allusion is in fact to every man and woman enmeshed in polytheism.

Here another point deserves attention. These verses condemn the Arabian polytheists on account of the fact that when God granted them sound children in response to their prayers they associated others with God in offering thanks. But what is the situation of many
Muslims of today who strongly believe in the unity of God? Their situation seems even worse. It is not uncommon for them to ask others than God to grant children. They, make vows during pregnancy to others than God, and make offerings to others than God after child -birth. Yet they are satisfied that they have a full guarantee of Paradise since they are believers in the One True God whereas the Arabian polytheists would inevitably be consigned to Hell. It is only the doctrinal errors of the pre-Islamic Arabian polytheists which may be condemned. The doctrinal errors of Muslims are beyond all criticism and censure.

(7:191) Do they associate (with Allah in His divinity) those who can create nothing; rather, they are themselves created?

(7:192) They have no power to help others. nor can they help themselves.

(7:193) And if you call them to true guidance, they will not follow you. It is all the same for you whether you call them to true guidance or keep silent. 14

147. As to the false gods set up by the polytheists, what is the extent of their power? Not only, do they not have the power to guide others, they do not even have the power to follow others or even to answer the call of their devotees.

(7:194) Those whom you invoke other than Allah are creatures like you. So invoke them. and see if they answer your call, if what you claim is true.

(7:195) Have they feet on which they can walk? Have they hands with which they can grasp? Have they eyes with which they can see? Have they ears with which they can hear?48 Say [O Muhammad]: ‘Invoke all those to whom you ascribe a share in Allah’s divinity, then scheme against me and grant me no respite.

148. Polytheistic religions seem to have three characteristics: (1) idols and images that are held as objects of worship; (2) some persons and spirits that are considered deities represented in the form of idols and images, etc.; and (3) certain beliefs which underlie their polytheistic rites. The Qur’an denounces all these. At this place, however, the attack is directed against the objects to which the polytheists directed their worship.

(7:196) My guardian is Allah Who has revealed the Book, and it is He Who protects the righteous.“2

149. This is in response to the threats held out by the polytheists to the Prophet (peace he on him). They used to tell the Prophet (peace be on him) that if he did not give up opposing their deities and denouncing them, he would be overwhelmed by the wrath of those deities
and court utter disaster.

(7:197) And those whom you invoke other than Allah, they can neither help themselves nor you.

(7:198) And if you were to call them to true guidance, they will not hear; and you observe them looking at you whereas they have no power to see.’

(7:199) [O Prophet!] Show forgiveness, enjoin equity, and avoid the ignorant.

(7:200) And if it happens that a prompting from Satan should stir you up, seek refuge with Allah. He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

(7:201) If the God-fearing are instigated by any suggestion of Satan, they instantly become alert, where after they clearly perceive the right way.

(7:202) As for their brethren [the Satan’s] “, they draw them deeper into error and do not relax in their efforts.12

149 a. That is, “Those who are under the influence of Satan’s”.

150. Here some important directives are addressed to the Prophet (peace be on him) regarding how he should preach the Message of Islam and how he should guide and reform people. The object of these directives is not merely to instruct the Prophet (peace be on him),but also to instruct all those who would shoulder the same responsibility after the Prophet (peace be on him) was no longer amidst them. The major directives are as follows:

(1) The most important qualities that must be cultivated by anyone who calls others to the truth are tenderness, magnanimity, and forbearing. Such a person should also have the capacity to tolerate the lapses of his companions and to patiently endure the excesses of his
opponents. He should also be able to keep his cool in the face of grave provocation and gracefully connive at the offensive behavior of others. In facing the angry words, slander, persecution and mischief of his opponents, he should exercise the utmost self-restraint.
Harshness, severity, bitterness. and vindictive provocativeness on his part are bound to undermine his mission. The same point seems to have been made in a Hadith in which the Prophet (peace be on him) says that he has been commanded by his Lord: ‘…to say the just
word whether I am angry, or pleased; to maintain ties with him who severs ties with me; and to give to him who denies me (my right); and to forgive him who wrongs me.’ (See the comments of Qurtubi in his Tafsir on the verse – Ed.) The Prophet (peace be on him) also
instructed all those whom he deputized for preaching: ‘Give good news rather than arouse revulsion: make things easy rather than hard.’ (Muslim, Kitab al-Ilm, Bab fi al-amr bi al- Taysir wa Tark al-Ta’sir’- Ed.) This distinguishing feature of the Prophet’s personality has
also been mentioned in the Qur’an.

It was thanks to Allah’s mercy that you were gentle to them. Had you been rough, hard- hearted, they would surely have scattered away, from you (AIL ‘Imran 3:159).

(2) The second key to the success in da’wah work is to stay away from excessive theorizing and intellectual hair-splitting. One should rather call people in clear and simple terms to those virtues which are recognized as such by the generality of mankind and appeal to
common sense. The great advantage of this method is that the Message of Islam finds its way right to the hearts of people at all levels of understanding. Those who then seek to oppose the Message are soon exposed and end up antagonizing the common people. For
when the common people observe on the one hand decent and righteous people being opposed for the simple reason that they are inviting people to universally-known virtues, and on the other hand observe those opponents resorting to all kinds of immoral and
inhuman means, they are bound to incline to support the standard bearers of truth and righteousness. This process goes on until a point where the only opponents left are those whose self-interest is inextricably linked with the prevailing unrighteous system, or those’
who have been totally blinded by their bigoted adherence to ancestral tradition or by their irrational biases.

The wisdom underlying the Prophet’s method accounts for his phenomenal success and for the speedy spread of Islam in and around Arabia within a short span of time. People flocked to Islam in vast numbers so much so that in some lands eighty and ninety per cent of the population embraced Islam. In fact there are even instances of a hundred per cent of the population embracing Islam.

(3) The interest of the Islamic mission requires, on the one hand, that righteousness should be enjoined on those who have the propensity to become righteous. On the other hand, it also requires that those who are overly insistent in their adherence to falsehood, should be
left alone, and that their acts of provocation be ignored. Those who seek to spread Islam should confine their efforts to persuading only those who are prepared to consider the Message of Islam in reasonable manner. When someone becomes altogether unreasonable and quarrelsome, and resorts to indecent methods of taunting and reviling Islam, Muslims should simply refuse to become adversative. For all the time and effort devoted to reforming such people will be
totally wasted.

(4) The moment the proponent of the Islamic Message feels that he is being provoked by the excesses, mischief, and uncalled-for objections and accusation, he should realize that he is being influenced by Satan. In such a situation he should immediately seek refuge with God,
and restrain himself lest his impulsiveness damage his cause. The cause of Islam can be served only by those who act cool-headedly. Only those steps are appropriate which have been taken after due consideration rather than under the influence of impulse and emotion.
Satan, however, is ever on the look-out for opportunities to sabotage the efforts made in the cause of Islam. He, therefore, ensures that those who are working for the Islamic cause are subjected to unjust and mischievous attacks from their opponents. The purpose underlying this is to provoke the workers for the cause of Islam to engage in the senseless and harmful task of mounting counter-attacks against their opponents.

The appeal that Satan makes to those well-meaning, religious people is often couched in religious phraseology and is backed up by religious argument. But the fact is that those counter-attacks are undertaken merely under the impulse of man’s lower self. The last two verses, therefore, make it clear that those who are God-fearing are always very sensitive to provocations under the impulse of Satan, and as soon as they become aware of such a provocation, they promote the best interests of the cause of truth rather than satisfy their vengeful feelings. As for those who are driven by egotistical impulses, they succumb to the promptings of Satan and are eventually set on an erroneous path. They fall victim to Satan, act virtually as his puppet, and subsequently their degradation knows no limit. They pay
their opponents back in the same coin, tit for tat.

What has been said above also has another import. It seeks to remind the God-fearing that their ways should be perceptibly different from the ways of those who do not fear God. The God-fearing not only avoid evil, but the very idea of committing it pricks their conscience
and rankles their hearts. They have an instinctive revulsion against evil, a revulsion similar to what a cleanliness-loving man feels at the sight of a big stain or a splash of filth on his clothes. This feeling causes the God-fearing to remove every stain of evil. Quite contrary are
those who have no fear of God, who have no desire to stay away from evil and who are in harmony with the ways of Satan. Such people are always given to evil thoughts and wrong-
doing.

(7:203) [O Prophet!] When you do not produce before them any miracle, as say: ‘Why do you not choose for yourself a miracle?’1s! Say to them: ‘I follow only what is revealed to me by my Lord. This is nothing but a means of insight into the truth, and guidance and mercy from your Lord to the people who believe.12

151. This question is a taunt rather than a simple query. What the utterance implies is that if the claim to prophethood is genuine, it should have been supported by some miracle. The next verse contains a fitting rejoinder to the taunt.

152. The Prophet (peace be on him) is being made to tell his opponents in clear terms that he has no power to get whatever he wants. Being God’s Messenger, he is required to follow the directives of the One Who has sent him and has granted him the Qur’an which has the light of guidance. The major characteristic of this Book is that those who seek guidance from it do indeed find the right way. The moral excellence visible in the lives of those people who accept the Qur’an is testimony to the fact that they have been blessed with God’s mercy.

(7:204) So when the Qur’an is recited, listen carefully to it, and keep silent so that you may, be shown mercy.”

153. The unbelievers are asked to shed their prejudice and to abandon their deliberate indifference to the Qur’an. Whenever the Qur’an is recited to them, they stuff their fingers into their ears and make a lot of noise lest they or any others hear the Qur’an. They should better behave more maturely and make an effort to grasp the teachings of the Qur’an. It is quite likely that their study, of the Book would ultimately make them share with Muslims the blessings of the Qur’an. This is an excellent, subtle and heart-winning approach which
simply cannot be over-praised. Those who are interested in learning the art of effective preaching can benefit immensely by, pondering over this Qur’anic verse.

The main purpose of the verse has also been explained. By implication, however, the verse also enjoins people to be silent and to listen attentively to the Qur’an when it is being recited.
The verse also provides the basis of the rule that when the leader (imam) is reciting verses of the Qur’an in Prayer, the followers in the congregation should (refrain from reciting and)
listen to the recitation in silence. There is some disagreement among scholars on this issue.
Abu Hanifah and his disciples are of the view that the followers in the congregation should remain silent, irrespective of whether the the imam is reciting the Qur’an aloud or silently in his mind. On the other hand, Malik and Ahmad b. Hanbal are of the opinion that the
followers in the congregation should listen silently only when the Qur’an is being recited
aloud. According to Shafi’i, the followers in the congregation should also recite the Qur’an regardless of whether the imam is reciting the Qur’an aloud or silently’. His view is based on the Hadith that Prayer without recitation of al-Fatihah is void. (See Ibn Rushd, Bidayat al-
Mujtahid, vol. 1, pp. 149-50; Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, vol. 1, pp. 562-9 – Ed.)

(7:205) And remember [O Prophet] your Lord in your mind, with humility and fear, and without raising your voice; remember Him in the morning and evening, and do not become of those who are negligent.1

154. The command to remember the Lord signifies remembrance in Prayer as well as otherwise, be it verbally or in one’s mind. Again the directive to remember God in the morning and in the evening refers to Prayer at those times as well as remembering God at
all times. The purpose of so saying is to emphasis constant remembrance of God. This admonition – that man ought to remember God always – constitutes the conclusion of the discourse lest man becomes heedless of God. For every error and corruption stems from the fact that man tends to forget that God is his Lord and that in his own part he is merely, a servant of God who is being tested in the world; that he will be made to render, after his death, a full account to his Lord of all his deeds. All those who care to follow, righteousness
would, therefore, be ill-advised not to let these basic facts slip out of their minds. Hence Prayer, remembrance of God and keeping ones attention ever focused on God are frequently stressed in the Qur’an.

(7:206) [The angels] who are near to Your Lord, never turn away from His service out of arrogance; they rather glorify Him and prostrate themselves before Him.155

155. It is Satan who behaves arrogantly and disdains to worship God, and such an attitude naturally brings about degradation and abasement. But an attitude marked by consistent surrender to God characterizes angels and leads people to spiritual elevation and proximity to God. Those interested in attaining this state should emulate the angels and refrain from following the ways of Satan.

156. To celebrate God’s praise signifies that the angels acknowledge and constantly affirm that God is beyond any flaw, free from every defect, error and weakness; that He has no partner or peer; that none is like Him.

157. Whoever recites or hears this verse should fall in prostration so as to emulate the practice of angels. In addition. prostration also proves that one has no shred of pride, nor is one averse to the duty of being subservient to God.

In all, there are fourteen verses in the Qur’an the recitation of which requires one to prostrate. That one should prostrate on reading or hearing these verses is, in principle, an incontrovertible point. There is, however, some disagreement about it being obligatory (wajib). Abu Hanifah regards it as obligatory, while other authorities consider it to be recommended (Ibn Qudamah, Al-Mughni, vol. 1. p. 663; Al-Jaziri, Kitab al-Figh ‘ala al Madhahib al-arba’ah, vol. 1. p. 464 – Ed.) According to traditions, while reciting the Qur’an in large gatherings, when the Prophet (peace be on him) came upon a verse the recitation of
which calls for prostration, he prostrated, and the whole gathering followed suit. The traditions mention that sometimes some people did not have room to prostrate. Such people prostrated on the backs of others. (See Bukhari, Abwab sujud al-Quran ‘Bab Izdiham al-Nas
Idh’a gara’a al-Imam al-Sajdah’- Ed.) It is reported in connection with the conquest of Makka that in the course of the Qur’an-recitation, as the Prophet (peace be on him) read such a verse, those standing fell into prostration while those who were mounted on horses and
camels performed prostration in that very state. It is also on record that while delivering a sermon from the pulpit the Prophet (peace be on him) came down from the pulpit to offer prostration, and resumed his sermon thereafter. (Abu da’ud, Kitab al-Salah, ‘Bab al-Sujud fi
Sad’ – Ed.) It is generally, believed that the conditions for this kind of prostration are exactly the same as required for offering Prayer – that one should be in a state of ritual purity, that one should
be facing the Ka ‘bah, and that the prostration should be performed as in the state of Prayer.
However, the traditions we have been able to find in the relevant sections of the Hadith collection do not specifically mention these conditions. It thus appears that one may perform prostration, irrespective of whether one fulfils these conditions or not. This view is
corroborated by the practice of some of the early authorities. Bukhari, for instance, reports about ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Urnar that he used to perform prostration even though he would have required ablution if he wanted to perform Prayer. (See Bukhari, Abwab Sujud al-Quran,
‘Bab Sujud al-Muslimin ma’ al-Mushrikin’- Ed.) Likewise, it has been mentioned in Fath al- Bari about ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami that if he was reciting the Qur’an while moving, and he recited a verse calling for prostration, he would simply bow his head (rather than make full prostration). And he would do that even when he was required to make ablution for Prayer, and regardless of whether he was facing the Ka’bah or not.

In our view, therefore, while it is preferable to follow the general opinion of the scholars on the question, it would not be blameworthy if someone deviates from that opinion. The reason for this is that the general opinion of the scholars on this question is not supported by well-established Sunnah, and there are instances of deviation from it on the part of the early authorities.

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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