SURH AL ANAAM AYAH 196 t0 165 (end)
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٍ وَمِنْ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَا إِلاَّ مَا حَمَلَتْ ظُهُورُهُمَا أَوْ الْحَوَايَا أَوْ مَا اخْتَلَطَ بِعَظْمٍ ذَلِكَ جَزَيْنَاهُمْ بِبَغْيِهِمْ وَإِنَّا لَصَادِقُونَ (الأنعام: 146).
فَإِنْ كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُلْ رَبُّكُمْ ذُو رَحْمَةٍ وَاسِعَةٍ وَلاَ يُرَدُّ بَأْسُهُ عَنْ الْقَوْمِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ (الأنعام: 147).
سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلاَ آبَاؤُنَا وَلاَ حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّى ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا قُلْ هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلاَّ تَخْرُصُونَ (الأنعام: 148).
قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ فَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ (الأنعام: 149).
قُلْ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَاءَكُمْ الَّذِينَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ هَذَا فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَلاَ تَشْهَدْ مَعَهُمْ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بالآخِرَةِ وَهُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ (الأنعام: 150).
قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ مِنْ إِمْلاَقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلاَ تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ (الأنعام: 151).
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ لاَ نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا وَإِذَا قُلْتُمْ فَاعْدِلُوا وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى وَبِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ أَوْفُوا ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ (الأنعام: 152).
وَأَنَّ هَذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (الأنعام: 153).
ثُمَّ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ تَمَامًا عَلَى الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ وَتَفْصِيلاً لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَعَلَّهُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنعام: 154).
وَهَذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ (الأنعام: 155).
أَنْ تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أُنزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَى طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَإِنْ كُنَّا عَنْ دِرَاسَتِهِمْ لَغَافِلِينَ (الأنعام: 156).
أَوْ تَقُولُوا لَوْ أَنَّا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْكِتَابُ لَكُنَّا أَهْدَى مِنْهُمْ فَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَصَدَفَ عَنْهَا سَنَجْزِي الَّذِينَ يَصْدِفُونَ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْدِفُونَ (الأنعام: 157).
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمْ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ رَبُّكَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ لاَ يَنفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا قُلْ انتَظِرُوا إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ (الأنعام: 158).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ (الأنعام: 159).
مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلاَ يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ (الأنعام: 160).
قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (الأنعام: 161).
قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَاي وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (الأنعام: 162).
لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ (الأنعام: 163).
قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَلاَ تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلاَّ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ (الأنعام: 164).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلاَئِفَ الأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (الأنعام: 165).
(6:146) And to those who had Judaized We have forbidden all beasts with claws, and the fat of oxen and sheep except the fat which is either on their backs or their entrails or that which is attached/stick to the bones. Thus did We require them for their rebellion.12 Surely We state the Truth.
123. This is discussed at three places in the Qur’an. (Surah Al ‘Imran 3:93 ) states: ‘All food
was lawful to the Children of Israel except what Israel made unlawful to themselves before the revelation of the Torah. Tell them: “Bring the Torah and recite any passage of it if you are truthful”.’ (Surah al-Nisa’ 4:160) mentions that because of the misdeeds of the Children of Israel: ‘We forbade them many clean things which had earlier been made lawful to them.’
And now the present verse says that because of the transgression of the Jews, God forbade unto them ‘all beasts with claws; and the fat of oxen and the sheep except the fat which is either on their backs or their entrails or that which sticks to the bones’. If these three verses are taken together, it becomes clear that the differences between Islamic law and Jewish law with regard to what is lawful and what is unlawful in animal foods stem from two considerations. First, that several centuries before the revelation of the Torah, Isra’il (Jacob, peace be on him) had given up the use of certain things, which his descendants also abstained from consuming. The result was that Jewish jurists considered them to be absolutely unlawful and recorded their prohibition in the Torah. They included the camel, the hare and the rock-badger, the prohibition of which is mentioned in the fragments of the Torah embodied in the Bible. (See Leviticus Il: 4; Deuteronomy 14: 7) But the Qur’an challenges the Jews to come forward with the Torah itself and show where any of those things had been declared unlawful. Their inability to do so shows that those interdictions must have been later interpolations into the Torah.
Second, when the Jews rebelled against the Law revealed by God and set themselves up as their own law-givers, they made several things unlawful for themselves, and as a punishment, God allowed them to remain a prey to that misunderstanding. These include birds with claws such as the ostrich, seagull and water-hen, and also the fat of oxen and sheep. In the Bible prohibitions of these kinds have been interpolated among the injunctions of the Torah. (See Leviticus 3:17; 7:22-3; 11:16-18; Deuteronomy 14:14-16.) But (Surahal-Nisa’4:160) shows that those things had not been made unlawful by the Torah itself. They had rather been prohibited after the time of Jesus, and history bears witness to the fact that the present Jewish law was given a definitive formulation by the Jewish jurist, Yehudah, towards the end of the second century of the Christian calendar.
It might be asked in view of what has been mentioned above, why the expression ‘We forbade for them’ is employed in (Surah al-Nisa’ 4:160) The answer is that declaration through a Prophet or a heavenly Book is not God’s only way of prohibiting. Another way is to allow fraudulent law-makers and sham jurists to gain predominating influence upon od’s rebels. These in turn deprive them of many good, clean things of life by making them elieve that they are prohibited. The first kind of prohibition is an act of His mercy, whereas the second kind is in the nature of a curse and punishment from God.
(6:147) ‘Then if they give you the lie, say: ‘Your Lord is of unbounded mercy, but His punishment shall not be averted from the guilty folk.’23
123. If they could still give up their disobedience and return to the true service of God, they would find Him ready to embrace them with His mercy. But if they persisted, they should remember that no one could save them from His wrath.
(6:148) Those who associate others with Allah in His divinity will now surely say: ‘Had Allah willed, neither we nor our forefathers would have associated others with Allah in His divinity, nor would we have declared anything (which Allah did not forbid) as forbidden.’!4 Even so those who had lived before them gave the lie (to the Truth) until they tasted Our chastisement. Tell them: ‘Have you any sure knowledge that you can produce before us? In fact you are only following idle fancies, merely conjecturing.’
124. Their apology for their crimes and misdeeds would be that which has always been advanced by criminals and wrong-doers – an apology based on the assumption of absolute determinism. They would plead that when they associated others with God in His divinity, or unwarrantedly regarded certain things as prohibited, they did so because those acts had been willed for them by God. Had He not so willed, they would not have been able to do what they did. Hence, since they were doing everything according to the will of God, everything was proper. If anyone was to blame, it was God and not they. They were under compulsion to do what they did, for the ability to do otherwise lay beyond their power.
(6:149) ‘Then say to them: ‘(As against your argument) Allah’s is the conclusive argument. Surely, had He willed, He would have guided you all to the Truth.125
125.This provides a complete refutation of their apology. In order to appreciate it fully, careful analysis is required. In the first place, they are told that citing God’s will to justify one’s errors and misdeeds, and making it a pretext for refusing to accept true guidance was the practice of the evil-doers before them. But they should remember that this had led to their ruin and they themselves were witnesses to the evil consequences of deviation from the Truth.
Furthermore, it is being clarified that the plea of the unbelievers that the only reason for their error was that God had not willed that they be guided to the Truth, is based on fancy and conjecture rather than on sound knowledge. They refer to God’s will without understanding the relationship between God’s will and man’s action. They entertain the the misconception that if a man commits theft under the will of God, that does not mean that he will not be reckoned a criminal. The fact is that whichever path a man chooses, be it that of gratitude or ingratitude to God of guidance or error, obedience or disobedience, God will open that path for him, and thereafter God will permit and enable him within the from the framework of His universal scheme, and to the extent that He deems fit to do whatever he chooses to do whether it is right or wrong.
If their forefathers had been enabled by God’s will to associate others with Him in His divinity and prohibit clean things, that did not mean that they were not answerable for their misdeeds. On the contrary, everyone will be held responsible for choosing false ways, for having a false intent, and for having striven for false ends.
The crucial point is succinctly made at the end in the words: ‘Then say to- them, (As against your argument) Allah’s is the conclusive argument. Surely, had He willed, He would have guided you all to the Truth.’ The argument which they put forward, viz. ‘If Allah had willed, neither we nor our forefathers could have associated others with Allah in His divinity’, does not embody the whole truth. The whole truth is that ‘had He willed, He would have guided you all to the Truth’. In other words, they were not prepared to take the Straight Way of their own choice and volition. As it was not God’s intent to create them with inherent right guidance like the angels, they would be allowed to persist in the error they had chosen for themselves.
(6:150) Say to them: ‘Call your witnesses to testify that Allah forbade such-and-such. Then if they do testify, neither testify with them! nor follow the desires of those who has given the lie to Our signs and who do not believe in the Hereafter and set up equals with their Lord.
126.A person who is conscious that he should testify only to that which he knows, can never testify that the taboos regarding food and other customs prevalent in their society had been enjoined by God. But if some people are brazen enough to feel no compunction in bearing false witness, then at least the believers should not become their partners in lying.
The real purpose in asking them to testify honestly whether their customs and practices had in fact been sanctioned by God, is to stimulate those with some sense of honesty to reflect on the character of their customs and practices. Perhaps when they realize that there is no evidence of those prohibitions having been prescribed by God, some of them may decide to get rid of them.
(6:151) Say to them (O Muhammad!): ‘Come, let me recite what your Lord has laid down to you: (i) that you associate nothing with Him;228 (ii) and do good to your parents;!22 (iii) and do not slay your children out of fear of poverty. We provide you and will likewise provide them with sustenance; (iv) and do not even draw to things shameful! – be they open or secret; (v) and do not slay the soul sanctified by Allah except in just cause;131 this He has enjoined upon you so that you may understand;
127.The restrictions which had shackled their lives were not those imposed by God. The really worthwhile restrictions are those prescribed by God in order to regulate human life.
These have always served as the essential basis of all God-given codes (cf. Exodus. chapter 20).
128.The first principle is that they should associate none with God in His divinity: neither in His essence, nor in His attributes, nor in His powers and authority, nor in the rights He has against His creatures.
To associate someone with God in His divinity is to declare that the former shares the essence of God’s divinity. Instances of associating others in God’s essence are the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the belief of the pagan Arabs that angels are daughters of God, and the belief of other polytheists in the divine character of their self-styled gods and goddesses and, in some cases, of their royalty. Likewise, a person associates others in the attributes of God when he considers someone other than God to be invested with those attributes which belong exclusively to God. One becomes guilty of this kind of polytheism if one believes somebody either to know all the mysteries of the Unseen or to be all-seeing and all-hearing or to be free of all defects and weaknesses and thus infallible. Again, a person associates others in the authority of God when he recognizes someone to be possessed of authority
which belongs to God alone by virtue of His godhead; for example, the power to either benefit or harm people in a supernatural manner, to fulfil the needs of people and rescue them from distress. to protect and shield them, to hear their prayers, to make or mar their fate. A person is guilty of the same when he recognizes someone as possessing the rightful authority to determine what is lawful and what is unlawful, and to make laws for the regulation of human life. Such authority belongs to God alone, and recognizing anyone other than God as possessing it is tantamount to associating others with God in His authority.
Moreover, to associate others with God in His divine rights means that one recognizes someone besides God as legitimately deserving that which may he asked of man by God alone, viz. bowing and prostrating, standing in awe and reverence with folded hands, devotional greeting and kissing the earth, slaughtering animals and making any other offerings in thanksgiving for his grace and benevolence and in acknowledgment of his over lordship, vowing offerings in his name, calling him to rescue one from one’s affliction and misfortune, and all the other forms of worship, adoration, and reverence which are exclusively for God. In the same way, no one has the right to be loved to the exclusion of all other attachments, or to be held in such awe that one always fears his wrath and dreads the violation of his command, both openly and in secret. Likewise, it is God – and God alone .Who has the right to be obeyed unconditionally, and Whose guidance should be considered the only criterion of right and wrong. In the same way, man should not commit himself to obey any authority which is either independent of obedience to God or whose command lacks the sanction of God.
If someone accords any of these rights to anyone other than God, he is guilty of associating others with God in His divinity. His guilt is the same whether or not he calls such beings divine.
129.Accordingly, good treatment of one’s parents includes showing them respect and reverence, obeying them, trying to keep them pleased, and serving them. The Qur’an always mentions this right of the parents immediately after mentioning the duty one owes to God alone. This makes it quite clear that the rights of parents have precedence over those of other human beings.
130.The word fawahish applies to all those acts whose abominable character is self-evident.
In the Qur’an all extra-marital sexual relationships, sodomy, nudity, false accusations of chastity, and taking as one’s wife a woman who had been married to one’s father, are specifically reckoned as ‘shameful deeds’ (fawahish). In Hadith, theft, taking intoxicating drinks and begging have been characterized as fawahish, as have many other brazenly indecent acts. Man is required to abstain from them both openly and in secret.
131.This means that human life, which has been declared inviolable by God, can only be destroyed for just cause. As for what is meant by ‘just cause’, we ought to remember that three cases are embodied in the Qur’an whereas two additional cases have been stated by the Prophet (peace be on him). The cases mentioned by the Qur’an are the following:
(1) That a man is convicted of deliberate homicide and thus the claim of retaliation is established against him.
(2) That someone resists the establishment of the true faith so that fighting against him might become necessary.
(3) That someone is guilty of spreading disorder in the Domain of Islam and strives to overthrow the Islamic order of government.
The two cases mentioned in the Hadith are:
(1) That a person commits illegitimate sexual intercourse even after marriage.
(2) That a Muslim is guilty of apostasy and rebellion against the Muslim body-politic.
Except for these five reasons, slaying a human being is not permissible, regardless of whether he is a believer, a protected non-Muslim (dhimmi) or an ordinary unbeliever.
(6:152) (vi) and do not even draw near to the property of the orphan in his minority except in the best manner;!22 (vii) and give full measures and weight with justice; We do not burden anyone beyond his capacity;133 (viii) When you speak, be just, even though it concern a near of kin; (ix) and fulfill the covenant of Allah.14 That is what He has enjoined upon you so that you may take heed.
132.That is, one’s handling of the property of orphans should be based on maximum selflessness, sincerity, and well-wishing for the orphans; it should be of a kind that lends itself to no reproach, either from God or man.
133.Even though this is a full-fledged postulate of the law of God, it is mentioned here in order to stress that one who tries to remain fair and just to the utmost of his ability, in giving weight and measure and in his dealings with people will be acquitted of responsibility for error. If any mistakes in weight or measure occur out of oversight, and thus involuntarily, he will not be punished.
134.’Covenant of Allah’ signifies, in the first place, the commitment to God, as well as to human beings, to which man binds himself in His name. It also signifies the covenant between man and God, as well as between one human being and another which automatically takes place the moment a person is born onto God’s earth and into human society. The first two covenants mentioned are voluntary and deliberate whereas the last one is natural. The last one is no less binding than the first two, even though man does not make it of his own volition. For when a man enjoys his own existence, makes use of his physical and mental energy, benefits from the means of sustenance and natural resources in other words, when he benefits from the world created by God and avails himself of the opportunities provided for him by the operation of natural laws – he incurs certain obligations towards God. In the same way, when one derives nourishment and sustenance from the blood of one’s mother while in her womb, when one opens one’s eyes in a family which is supported by the toil of one’s father, when one benefits from the various institutions of human society, one is placed in varying degrees of obligation towards those individuals and institutions. This covenant between man and God and between man and society is inscribed, not on a piece of paper, but on every fiber of man’s being. Man has not entered into this covenant consciously and deliberately, yet the whole of his being owes itself to it. (Surah al-Baqarah 2:27) alludes to this covenant when it says that it is the transgressors ‘who break the covenant of Allah after its firm binding, and cut asunder what Allah has commanded to be joined, and spread mischief on earth. It is also mentioned in (Surah al-A’raf 7:172 )in the following words: ‘And recall when your Lord took the children of Adam from their loins and made them testify as to themselves saying, “Am I not your Lord?” (to which) they answered, “Yes, we do bear witness thereto. ”
(6:153) (x) This is My way that is straight: follow it, then, and do not follow other paths lest they scatter you from His path.15 This is what He has enjoined upon you, so that you may beware.’
135.It is an essential corollary of the natural covenant mentioned above that man should follow the way prescribed by his Lord; any deflection from the orders of God, or serving anyone other than Him, constitutes a primary breach of that covenant. Once this breach has been committed every single article of the covenant is likely to be violated one after the other. Moreover, it should also be remembered that man can not acquit himself of the highly delicate, extensive and complex set of responsibilities entailed by this covenant unless he accepts the guidance of God and tries to follow the way prescribed by Him.
Non-acceptance of God’s guidance necessarily produces two grave and damaging consequences. First, by following any other way, one is inevitably led away from the true path and is thus deprived of the opportunity to approach God and please Him. Second, as soon as man deviates from the Straight Way prescribed by God, he encounters a whole labyrinth of highways and byways, causing the entire human species to fall a prey to total bewilderment and perplexity, and which shatters all dreams of a steady advance towards maturity and betterment. The words ‘follow not other paths for they will scatter you away from from from His path’ hint at this damage. See (Surah al-Ma’idah 5, n. 35) above.
(6:154) Then We gave to Moses the Book, completing the benediction of Allah upon he one who acts righteously, spelling out everything clearly, a guidance and a mercy; so that they may believe in their meeting with their Lord.
136.To believe in ‘meeting with the Lord’ signifies the conviction that one is answerable to God, and which leads one to adopt responsible behavior in life.
The statement made here could mean two things. It might mean that the teachings of the heavenly Book vouchsafed to Moses could itself create a sense of responsibility among the Israelites. Alternatively, it might mean that when ordinary people observe the wonderful way of life prescribed by God and note the beneficial effects of its merciful dispensation in the lives of righteous people, they will come to realize that belief in the After-life is, in all respects, a better basis for human life than its denial. In this way, their observation and study might turn them from rejection to the true faith.
(6:155) And likewise, We revealed this (Book) – a blessed one. Follow it, then, and become God-fearing; you may be shown mercy.
(6:156) (You may no longer) say now that the Book was revealed only to two groups of people before Us 12 and that we had indeed been unaware of what they read.
(6:157) Nor may you claim that: ‘Had the Book been revealed to us, we would have been better guided than they.’ Surely clear evidence has come to you from your Lord, which is a guidance and a mercy. Who, then, is more unjust than he who gave the lie to the signs of Allah and turned away from them?38 And We shall soon requite those who turn away from Our signs with a severe chastisement for having turned away.
138.’Signs of Allah’ include the teachings embodied in the Qur’an. They are also manifest in the noble life of the Prophet (peace be on him), and the pure lives of those who believed in him. They also includes the natural phenomena to which the Qur’an refers in support of its message.
(6:158) What! Do they wait either for the angels to appear before them or for your Lord to come unto them or for some clear signs of your Lord112 to appear before them? When some clear signs of your Lord will appear, believing will be of no avail to anyone who did not believe before, or who earned no good deeds through his faith.42 Say: ‘Wait on; we too are waiting. ‘
139.That is, either token of the approach of the Day of Reckoning or God’s scourge or any other sign that will uncover the Truth, after which there will be no reason left for testing man.
140.Those tokens will be so clear that after their appearance it will neither avail the unbeliever to repent of his unbelief nor the disobedient to forsake his disobedience. For faith and obedience have meaning and value only as long as the Truth remains hidden, as long as the tenure of life granted to people does not seem to have approached its end and the world with all its vanities continues to delude man that, as there may neither be God nor After-life, one should eat, drink and enjoy oneself as best one can.
(6:159) Surely you have nothing to do with those who have made divisions in their religion and become factions. Their matter is with Allah and He will indeed tell them (in time) what they have been doing.
141.This is addressed to the Prophet (peace be on him) and through him to all followers of the true faith. The import of this statement is that true faith has always consisted, and still consists, in recognizing the One True God as one’s God and Lord; in associating none with God in His divinity – neither in respect of His essence, nor of His attributes, nor of His claims upon His creatures; in believing in the Hereafter and hence considering oneself answerable before God; and in living according to those principles and values which have been communicated by God to mankind through His Prophets and Books. This was the religion entrusted to man at the beginning of human life. The religions which emerged later stemmed from the perverted ingenuity of man, from his baser lusts, and from an exaggerated sense of devotion to venerable personalities. Such factors corrupted the original religion and overlaid it with harmful innovations. Hence, people modified and distorted the
original beliefs by mixing them with products of their conjecture and philosophical thinking.
More and more innovations were added to the original laws of the true religion. Putting aside the Law of God, men set themselves up as their own law-makers, indulged in hair-splitting elaborations, and exaggerated the importance of disagreements in minor legal problems. They showed excessive veneration for some Prophets of God and some standard bearers of the true religion, and directed their rancor and hatred against the others. Thus there emerged innumerable religions and sects, the birth of each leading to the fragmentation of humanity into an ever-increasing number of mutually hostile groups.
Anyone who decides to follow the true religion must therefore cut himself off from all factions and chart an independent course.
(6:160) Whoever will come to Allah with a good deed shall have ten times as much, and whoever will come to Allah with an evil deed, shall be requited with no more than the like of it. They shall not be wronged.
(6:161) Say: ‘As for me, my Lord has guided me on to a straight way, a right religion, the way of Abraham2 who adopted it in exclusive devotion to Allah, and he was not of those who associated others with Allah in His divinity.
142.The ‘Way of Abraham! is one further indication of the way of true religion which one is required to follow. This way could also have been designated as the way of Moses or of Jesus But since their names have become falsely associated with Judaism and Christianity respectively, it was necessary to call it the ‘Way of Abraham’. Moreover, Abraham was acknowledged by both the Jews and the Christians as rightly-guided and both knew, of course, that he lived long before either Judaism or Christianity was born. In the same way, the polytheists of Arabia also considered Abraham be to rightly guided rightly-guided. Despite their ignorance, they at least acknowledged that that righteous man, who had founded the Ka’bah, was a worshipper of God exclusively and no idolater.
143. The Arabic word nusuk used here signifies ritual sacrifice as well as the other forms of devotion and worship.
(6:163) He has no associate. Thus have I been bidden, and I am the foremost of those who aa themselves (to Allah).
(6:164) Say: ‘Shall I seek someone other than Allah as Lord when He is the Lord of everything?’4 Everyone will bear the consequence of what he does, and no one shall bear the burden of another. “5 Thereafter, your return will be to your Lord, whereupon He will let you know what you disagreed about.
144.Since God is the Lord of the entire universe, how could anyone be His lord? Since the the entire universe is yoked to obedience to God, man is an integral part of the universe, how can he reasonably, look for another lord in that area of his life in which he uses his own volition, and judgment? Is it appropriate for him to move in diametrical opposition to the entire universe?
145.Every person is responsible for whatever he does, and no one is responsible for the deeds of others.
(6:165) For He it is Who has appointed you vicegerent over the earth, and has exalted some of you over others in rank that He may try you in what He has bestowed is upon you. Indeed your Lord is swift in retribution, and He is certainly All Forgiving, All-Compassionate.
146.This statement embodies three important truths: First that human beings as such are vicegerents of God on earth so that God has entrusted them with many things and endowed them with the power to use them. Second, it is God Himself Who has created differences of rank among His vicegerents. The trust placed in some is more than that of others. Some men have been granted control of more resources than others. Some are more gifted in respect of their abilities. Likewise, some human beings have been placed under the trust of others. Third, all this is indeed designed to test man. The entire life. of man is in fact, a vast examination wherein man is being tested about the trust he has received from God: how sensitive he is to that trust, to what extent he lives up to it, and to what extent he proves to be competent with it. What position man will be able to attain in the Next Life depends on the result of this test.
7. Surah Al A’araf (The Heights)
This Surah takes its name from vv. 46-47 in which mention of A’araf occurs.
Period of Revelation
A study of its contents clearly shows that the period of its revelation is about the same as that of Al-An’am, i. e., the last year of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah, but it cannot be asserted with certainty which of these two was sent down earlier. Anyhow the manner of its admonition clearly indicates that it belongs to the same period. As both have the same historical background the reader should keep in view the preface to Al-An’am.
Topics of Discussion
The principal subject of this surah is “invitation to the Divine Message sent down to Muhammad” (Allah’s peace be upon him), which is couched in a warning. This is because the Messenger had spent a long time in admonishing the people of Makkah without any tangible effect on them. Nay, they had turned a deaf ear to his message and become so obdurate and antagonistic that, in accordance with the Divine Design, the Messenger was going to be commanded to leave them and turn to other people, That is why they are being admonished to accept the Message but, at the same time, they are being warned in strong terms of the consequences that followed the wrong attitude of the former people towards their Messengers. (Now that the Holy Prophet was going to” migrate from Makkah the concluding portion of the address has been directed towards the people of the Book with whom he was going to come into contact. This meant that the time of migration was coming near and the “invitation” was going to be extended to mankind in general and was not to be confined to his own people in particular as before.
During the course of the address to the Jews, the consequences of their hypocritical conduct towards Prophethood have also been pointed out clearly, for they professed to believe in Prophet Moses but in practice opposed his teachings, disobeyed him, and worshiped falsehood and consequently were afflicted with ignominy and disgrace.
At the end of the Surah, some instructions have been given to the Holy Prophet and his followers for carrying out the work of the propagation of Islam with wisdom. The most important of these is that they should show patience and exercise restraint in answer to the provocations of their opponents. Above all, they have been advised that under the stress of the excitement of feeling, they should not take any wrong step that might harm their cause.
Subject: Invitation to the Divine Message
Topics and their Interconnection
In this passage, the people have been invited to follow the Message sent down to them through Muhammad (Allah’s peace be upon him) and warned of the consequences of its rejection. 1 – 10
The story of Adam has been related with a view to warning his descendants against the evil devices of Satan who is ever ready to mislead them as he did in the case of Adam and Eve. 11 – 25 This passage contains some Divine instructions, and contrasts these with Satan’s instructions, and depicts a graphic picture of the results and the consequences of the two. 26 – 53
As the Message has been sent down by Allah (Who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and everything in them), it should be followed, for it is like the rain He sends down to give life to the dead earth. 54 – 58
Events from the lives of some well-known Prophets – Noah, Hud, Salih, Lot, Shu’aib, Moses (Allah’s peace be upon them all) — have been related to show the consequences of the rejection of the Message, and the addressees of Prophet Muhammad (Allah’s peace be upon him) have been admonished to accept and follow the Message in order to escape perdition. 59 – 171
As the Covenant with the Israelites was mentioned at the end of the preceding passage, the whole mankind has been reminded very appropriately of the Covenant that was made at the time of the appointment of Adam as the Vicegerent of Allah so that all of his descendants should remember it and accept and follow the Message that was delivered by the Holy Prophet. 172 – 174
The example of the one who had the knowledge of the Message but discarded it has been cited as a warning to those who were treating the Message as false; they have been exhorted to use their faculties to recognize the Message; otherwise, Hell would be there abode. 175 – 179
In this concluding portion of the Surah, some deviations of those who do not use their faculties properly to understand the Message have been dealt with and they have been admonished, reproved and warned of the serious consequences of their antagonistic attitude towards the Message of the Holy Prophet. 180 – 198
In conclusion, instructions have been given to the Holy Prophet, and through him to his followers, about the attitude they should adopt towards those who reject the Message and deviate from it. 199 – 206