Everyone is assigned a degree according to his deed.

SURAH AL ANN’M Ayah No 91 to 165

 وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِنْ شَيْءٍ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَى نُورًا وَهُدًى لِلنَّاسِ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا وَعُلِّمْتُمْ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنْتُمْ وَلاَ آبَاؤُكُمْ قُلْ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ (الأنعام: 91).
وَهَذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُصَدِّقُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَى وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بالآخِرَةِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَهُمْ عَلَى صَلاَتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ (الأنعام: 92).
وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ قَالَ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ وَلَمْ يُوحَ إِلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ وَمَنْ قَالَ سَأُنزِلُ مِثْلَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ بَاسِطُوا أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ (الأنعام: 93).
وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءَكُمْ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاءُ لَقَدْ تَقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنكُمْ مَا كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ (الأنعام: 94).
إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنْ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنْ الْحَيِّ ذَلِكُمْ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّا تُؤْفَكُونَ (الأنعام: 95).
فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ (الأنعام: 96).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمْ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُوا بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآياتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ (الأنعام: 97).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآياتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُون (الأنعام: 98).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهُ خَضِرًا نُخْرِجُ مِنْهُ حَبًّا مُتَرَاكِبًا وَمِنْ النَّخْلِ مِنْ طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّاتٍ مِنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُشْتَبِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ انظُرُوا إِلَى ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكُمْ لآياتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنعام: 99).
وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ وَخَرَقُوا لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ (الأنعام: 100).
بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ صَاحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (الأنعام: 101).
ذَلِكُمْ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ (الأنعام: 102).
لاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الأَبْصَارَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِير (الأنعام: 103).
قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَصَائِرُ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ فَلِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ عَمِيَ فَعَلَيْهَا وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُمْ بِحَفِيظٍ (الأنعام: 104).
وَكَذَلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الآياتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ وَلِنُبَيِّنَهُ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ (الأنعام: 105).
اتَّبِعْ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (الأنعام: 106).
وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكُوا وَمَا جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا وَمَا أَنْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِوَكِيلٍ (الأنعام: 107).
وَلاَ تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ كَذَلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأنعام: 108).
وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِنْ جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ لَيُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهَا قُلْ إِنَّمَا الآيَاتُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَمَا يُشْعِرُكُمْ أَنَّهَا إِذَا جَاءَتْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنعام: 109).
وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَارَهُمْ كَمَا لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ (الأنعام: 110).
وَلَوْ أَنَّنَا نَزَّلْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ الْمَلاَئِكَةَ وَكَلَّمَهُمْ الْمَوْتَى وَحَشَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ قُبُلاً مَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَجْهَلُونَ (الأنعام: 111).
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ (الأنعام: 112).
وَلِتَصْغَى إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بالآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُمْ مُقْتَرِفُونَ (الأنعام: 113).
أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكُمْ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلاً وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمْ الْكِتَابَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ مِنْ رَبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنْ الْمُمْتَرِينَ (الأنعام: 114).
وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلاً لاَ مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ (الأنعام: 115).
وَإِنْ تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَخْرُصُونَ (الأنعام: 116).
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مَنْ يَضِلُّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (الأنعام: 117).
فَكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنتُمْ بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ (الأنعام: 118).
وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلاَّ تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلاَّ مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ (الأنعام: 119).
وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ (الأنعام: 120).
وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرْ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ (الأنعام: 121).
أَوَمَنْ كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ كَمَنْ مَثَلُهُ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ لَيْسَ بِخَارِجٍ مِنْهَا كَذَلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأنعام: 122).
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرْيَةٍ أَكَابِرَ مُجْرِمِيهَا لِيَمْكُرُوا فِيهَا وَمَا يَمْكُرُونَ إِلاَّ بِأَنفُسِهِمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ (الأنعام: 123).
وَإِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ قَالُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ حَتَّى نُؤْتَى مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ رُسُلُ اللَّهِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا صَغَارٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَمْكُرُونَ (الأنعام: 124).
فَمَنْ يُرِدْ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلإِسْلاَمِ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ كَذَلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنعام: 125).
وَهَذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الآياتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ (الأنعام: 126).
لَهُمْ دَارُ السَّلاَمِ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأنعام: 127).
وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ قَدْ اسْتَكْثَرْتُمْ مِنْ الإِنسِ وَقَالَ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمْ مِنْ الإِنسِ رَبَّنَا اسْتَمْتَعَ بَعْضُنَا بِبَعْضٍ وَبَلَغْنَا أَجَلَنَا الَّذِي أَجَّلْتَ لَنَا قَالَ النَّارُ مَثْوَاكُمْ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا إِلاَّ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ (الأنعام: 128).
وَكَذَلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعْضَ الظَّالِمِينَ بَعْضًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ (الأنعام: 129).
يَامَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي وَيُنذِرُونَكُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا قَالُوا شَهِدْنَا عَلَى أَنفُسِنَا وَغَرَّتْهُمْ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ (الأنعام: 130).
ذَلِكَ أَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَى بِظُلْمٍ وَأَهْلُهَا غَافِلُونَ (الأنعام: 131).
وَلِكُلٍّ دَرَجَاتٌ مِمَّا عَمِلُوا وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأنعام: 132).
وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ إِنْ يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ مَا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنشَأَكُمْ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ (الأنعام: 133).
إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَآتٍ وَمَا أَنْتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ (الأنعام: 134).
قُلْ يَا قَوْمِ اعْمَلُوا عَلَى مَكَانَتِكُمْ إِنِّي عَامِلٌ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ (الأنعام: 135).
وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنْ الْحَرْثِ وَالأَنْعَامِ نَصِيبًا فَقَالُوا هَذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَهَذَا لِشُرَكَائِنَا فَمَا كَانَ لِشُرَكَائِهِمْ فَلاَ يَصِلُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَى شُرَكَائِهِمْ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ (الأنعام: 136).
وَكَذَلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلاَدِهِمْ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ لِيُرْدُوهُمْ وَلِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَيْهِمْ دِينَهُمْ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ (الأنعام: 137).
وَقَالُوا هَذِهِ أَنْعَامٌ وَحَرْثٌ حِجْرٌ لاَ يَطْعَمُهَا إِلاَّ مَنْ نَشَاءُ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَأَنْعَامٌ حُرِّمَتْ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنْعَامٌ لاَ يَذْكُرُونَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا افْتِرَاءً عَلَيْهِ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ (الأنعام: 138).
وَقَالُوا مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَذِهِ الأَنْعَامِ خَالِصَةٌ لِذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَى أَزْوَاجِنَا وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مَيْتَةً فَهُمْ فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ وَصْفَهُمْ إِنَّهُ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ (الأنعام: 139).
قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ قَتَلُوا أَوْلاَدَهُمْ سَفَهًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَحَرَّمُوا مَا رَزَقَهُمْ اللَّهُ افْتِرَاءً عَلَى اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ (الأنعام: 140).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْشَأَ جَنَّاتٍ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَغَيْرَ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَالنَّخْلَ وَالزَّرْعَ مُخْتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ كُلُوا مِنْ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ وَلاَ تُسْرِفُوا إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ (الأنعام: 141).
وَمِنْ الأَنْعَامِ حَمُولَةً وَفَرْشًا كُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمْ اللَّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ (الأنعام: 142).
ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ مِنْ الضَّأْنِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنْ الْمَعْزِ اثْنَيْنِ قُلْ أَالذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمْ الأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الأُنثَيَيْنِ نَبِّئُونِي بِعِلْمٍ إِنْ كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (الأنعام: 143).
وَمِنْ الإِبِلِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنْ الْبَقَرِ اثْنَيْنِ قُلْ أَالذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمْ الأُنثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الأُنثَيَيْنِ أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ وَصَّاكُمْ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا لِيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (الأنعام: 144).
قُلْ لاَ أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَى طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ فَمَنْ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (الأنعام: 145).

(6:91) They did not form any proper estimate of Allah when they said: ‘Allah has not revealed anything to any man.” Ask them: ‘The Book which Moses brought as a light and guidance for men and which you keep in bits and scraps, some of which you disclose while the rest you conceal, even though through it you were taught that which neither you nor your forefathers knew -who was it who revealed it?’® Say: ‘Allah!’- and then leave them to sport with their argumentation.

In the light of the foregoing discussion and commentary, it is quite evident that this statement comes from the Jews. Since the Prophet (peace be on him) had asserted that he was a Prophet and that a Book had been revealed to him, the unbelieving Quraysh and other polytheists of Arabia naturally used to approach the Jews and the Christians who believed in the Prophets and in the Scriptures – and tried to solicit a candid answer from them as to whether God’s words had indeed been revealed to Muhammad (peace be on him). Whatever answer they gave was then disseminated on all sides by the active opponents of the Prophet (peace be on him) in order to create revulsion against Islam. This is the reason for mentioning, and then refuting, this statement by the Jews, which had been used by the opposition as an argument against Islam.

One might wonder how a Jew, who believes in the Torah as a revealed Book of God, could say that God had revealed nothing to anyone. At times blind obstinacy and bigotry cause people to resort to arguments which strike at the roots of their own belief. These people were bent upon denying the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be on him), and this fanaticism had come to dominate them so much that they went so far as to deny the very institution of prophethood.

To say that people have not formed any proper estimate of God means that they have erred grossly in assessing His wisdom and power. Whoever says that God did not reveal knowledge of Reality and the code for man’s guidance has fallen into one of two errors.

Either he considers it impossible for man to become the recipient of God’s revelation, and this constitutes a gross misjudgment of God’s power, or he thinks that even though God has equipped man with intelligence and with the power to act as he chooses, He  has nevertheless made no arrangement for his guidance, but has left him in this world altogether unguided and thus conferred upon him the right to behave in any way he likes.

This is obviously a misjudgment of God’s wisdom. The revelation of the Torah to Moses (peace be on him) is adduced by way of evidence since the Jews, to whom this response is addressed, believed that it had been revealed. It is obvious that their recognition of the Torah as the Book revealed to Moses negated their standpoint that God had never revealed anything to any human being. Their belief in the Torah at least proved that revelation to man is possible and had actually taken place.

 

(6:92) (Like that Book) this too is a Book which We have revealed; full of blessing, confirming what was revealed before it so that you might warn the people of the Mother of Cities (Makkah) and those around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and are ever mindful of their Prayers.“

 

The point argued above was that God’s word can be, and in the past has been, revealed to human beings. The next point is that the message of Muhammad (peace be on him) is indeed the revealed word of God. In order to establish this, four things are adduced as evidence: First, that this Book is overflowing with God’s grace and beneficence. In other words, it contains the best possible principles for the well-being and salvation of mankind. It lays down the true doctrines of belief. It urges man to righteous conduct and inspires him to moral excellence. It contains guidance as to how one may live a life of purity. And above all, it is free from any trace of the ignorance, egocentricity, narrow-mindedness, iniquity, obscenity and other corruptions with which the Jews and the Christians had overlaid their revealed Scriptures. Second, this Book does not propound any guidance which is essentially divergent from that previously revealed; rather it confirms and supports it. Third, the purpose of the revelation of this Book is the same as that of the revelation of Scriptures in the past, viz., to shake people out of their heedlessness and warn them of the evil consequences of their corruption. Fourth, that the call of this Book did not attract those who merely worshipped worldly advantages and were slaves of their animal desires. On the contrary, it attracted those whose vision goes beyond the narrow limits of worldly life.

Moreover, the revolution wrought in the lives of people under the influence of this Book has rendered them conspicuously distinct from others in respect of piety and godliness.

A Book with such characteristics and with such a wholesome impact on human beings can only be from God.

 

(6:93) Who can be more unjust than he who places a lie on Allah and who says: ‘Revelation has come to me’ when in fact nothing was revealed to him, and who says: ‘T will produce the like of what Allah has revealed?’ If you could but see the wrongdoers in the agonies of death, and the angels stretching out their hands (saying): ‘Yield up your souls! Today you will be recompensed with the chastisement of humiliation for the lie you spoke concerning Allah, and for you waxing proud against His signs.

 

(6:94) (And Allah will say): ‘Now you have come to Us all alone even as We had created you in the first instance, and you have left behind all that We had bestowed upon you in the world. We do not see with you your intercessors whom you imagined to have a share with Allah in your affairs. You have now been cut off from one another and all those whom you imagined (to be Allah’s associates in your affairs) have failed you.’

 

(6:95) Truly it is Allah Who causes the grain” and the fruit-kernel to sprout. He brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living.® Such is Allah. So whither are you tending in error?

 

The one who causes the seed-grain to split open under the surface of the earth and then makes it grow and appear on the surface as a plant is no other than God.

To ‘bring forth the living from the dead’ means creating living beings out of dead matter. Likewise, ‘to bring out the dead from the living’ means to remove the lifeless elements from a living organism.

 

(6:96) It is He Who causes the dawn to split forth, and has ordained the night for repose, and the sun and the moon for reckoning time. All this is determined by Allah the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

 

(6:97) It is He Who has made for you the stars that you may follow the right direction in the darkness of the land and the sea. We have indeed spelled out signs for the people who have knowledge.

 

By ‘signs’ are meant all that support the proposition that there is only one God, that is, no one has either the attributes of God or any share in His authority or can rightfully claim any of the rights which belong exclusively to Him. But the ignorant cannot benefit from these signs, which are scattered all around, in order to arrive at an understanding of the Truth. Only those who observe the phenomena of the universe in a careful and systematic manner, and do so with a correct perspective, can truly benefit from these signs.

 

(6:98) It is He Who created you out of a single being, and appointed for each of you a time-limit and a resting place. We have indeed spelled out Our signs for those who can understand.

 

This means that God caused the human race to originate from one human being. If one were to observe carefully the creation of the human species, its division into male and female, the proliferation of the human race by procreation, the passing of life through its several stages in the womb of the mother from conception to childbirth, one would perceive innumerable signs to help one grasp the truth mentioned above. But only those who make proper use of their intellect can be led by means of these signs to an understanding of Reality. Those who live like animals, who are concerned merely with the satisfaction of their lusts and desires, can perceive nothing significant in these phenomena.

 

(6:99) And it is He Who has sent down water from the heavens, and thereby We have brought vegetation of every kind, and out of this We have brought forth green foliage and then from it close-packed ears of corn, and out of the palm-tree from the sheath of it – thick clustered dates, hanging down with heaviness, and gardens of vines, and the olive tree, and the pomegranate – all resembling one another and yet so different. Behold their fruit when they bear fruit and ripen! Surely, in all this there are signs for those who believe.

(6:100) And yet, some people have come to associate the jinn with Allah in His divinity,“2 even though it is He Who created them; and in ignorance they impute to Him sons and daughters. He is Holy and Exalted far above that which they attribute to Him.

 

Because of man’s imaginativeness and superstitious disposition, he has often held other invisible beings to be associated with God in His governance of the universe and in making and marring man’s destiny. For example, the deity of rain, and the deity of vegetation, the god of wealth and the god of health, and so on. Such beliefs are found among all the polytheistic nations of the world.

The ignorant Arabs considered angels to be the daughters of God. In the same way, other polytheistic nations wove a network of blood relationships with God, producing thereby a whole crop of gods and goddesses descended from the Creator.

 

(6:101) He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have a son when He has had no mate? And He has created everything and He has full knowledge of all things.

 

(6:102) Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no god but He – the Creator of all things. Serve Him alone – for it is He Who is the guardian of everything.

 

(6:103) No visual perception can encompass Him, even though He encompasses all visual as He is the All-Subtle, the All-Aware the All-Aware.

 

6:104) The lights of clear perception have now come to you from your Lord. Then, he who chooses to see clearly, does so for his own good; and he who chooses to remain blind, does so to his own harm. I am not your keeper.

 

Even though this statement is from God, it is expressed through the mouth of the Prophet (peace be on him). We observe that in the Qur’an the speaker frequently changes sometimes it is God Who is speaking, sometimes it is the angel who carries the revelation, and sometimes a group of angels; on some occasions, it is the Prophet (peace be on him) who is speaking, while on others it is the men of faith. Likewise, those addressed by the Qur’an also change – sometimes it is the Prophet (peace be on him); sometimes it is the men of faith; sometimes it is the People of the Book; sometimes it is the unbelievers and the polytheists; sometimes it is the Quraysh; sometimes it is the Arabs; and sometimes, mankind as a whole.

Regardless of these changes, however, the content of the message always remains the same ,it consists of God’s guidance to mankind.

The statement ‘I am not your keeper’ signifies that the task of the Prophet is confined to carrying the light of true guidance to others, it is then up to them either to use it to perceive The reality for themselves or to keep their eyes closed. The Prophet (peace be on him) is not asked to compel those who deliberately kept their eyes shut to open them, forcing them to see what they did not wish to see.

 

(6:105) Thus do We make Our signs clear in diverse ways that they might say: ‘You have learned this (from somebody)’; and ‘We do this in order that We make the Truth clear to the people of knowledge.’

 

The same has been said earlier, viz. that genuine seekers after the Truth arrive at it even when it is couched in parables about such apparently trivial things as flies and gnats see (surah al-Baqarah 2:24). As for those who have been seized by biased negativism, they are prone to ask, sarcastically: What have these trivial things to do with the Book of God? The same idea is expressed here in a slightly different form. The import of the statement is that the Book of God has become a touchstone, which helps mark off the true from the false.

These include the sort of people who, once they have come to know the teachings of the Book of God, try in earnest to reflect on its substance and seek to benefit from the wisdom and admonition it contains. Another group reacts quite differently. When they hear or read the Book, their minds are not attracted by the substance of its message. Rather, their curiosity is aroused and they begin probing as to where this Prophet, who had no formal education, derived the teachings which the Book contains. And since a negative prejudice has already seized their hearts, they find it reasonable to conceive of any possibility except the possibility that the Qur’an is a revelation from God. Such people proclaim their opinion with such strong conviction that one might feel inclined to believe that they had indeed discovered the real ‘source’ of the Book by means of scientific investigation.

 

(6:106) (O Muhammad!) Follow the revelation which has come to you from your Lord, other than Whom there is no god, and turn away from those who associate others with Allah in His divinity.

 

(6:107) Had Allah so willed they would not have associated others with Him in His divinity; and We have not appointed you a watcher over them, and you are not their guardian.2

 

It is emphasized that the Prophet (peace be on him) is only required to preach the truth and try to call people to embrace it. His responsibility ends at that for he is, after all, not their warden. His task is to present this guidance and spare no effort in elucidating the truth. Anyone who still rejects it does so on his own responsibility. It is not part of the Prophet’s task to compel anybody to follow the Truth, and he will not be held accountable for not having been able to bring an individual out of the fold of falsehood. Hence he should not overstrain his mind by his desire to make the blind see, or compel those bent on keeping their eyes shut, to observe. For, had it been an objective of God’s universal plan not to allow anyone to remain devoted to falsehood, He need not have sent Prophets for that purpose.

Could He not have turned all human beings, instantly, into devotees of the Truth by His mere will? Quite obviously God did not intend to do so. The entire basis of the Divine plan is that men should have free-will and be allowed to choose between the Truth and falsehood; that the Truth should be explained to them in order that they be tested with regard to their choice between truth and falsehood. The right attitude, therefore, is for them to follow the Straight Way which has been illuminated by the light bequeathed to them and to keep on calling others towards it. They should naturally value very highly all those who respond to the message of the Truth. Such persons should not be forsaken or neglected, however humble their station in the world. As for those who willfully reject the message of God, one need not pursue them too far. They should rather be left alone to proceed towards their doom since they themselves wish so, and are insistent on doing so.

 

(6:108) Do not revile those whom they invoke other than Allah, because they will revile Allah in ignorance out of spite. 2 For We have indeed made the deeds of every people seem fair to them. Then, their return is to their Lord and He will inform them of what they have done.

 

The Prophet (peace be on him) and his followers are admonished not to allow their proselytizing zeal to dominate them so that their polemics and controversial religious discussions either lead them to be offensive to the beliefs of non-Muslims or to abuse their religious leaders and deities. Far from bringing people closer to the Truth, such an attitude is likely to alienate them from it further.

Here we should bear in mind, as we have pointed out earlier, that God declares those things which take place as a result of the operation of the laws of nature to be His own acts, for it is He Who has made those laws. Whatever results from the operation of those laws, therefore results from His command. Whenever God states that a certain act was His, the same might be described by humans as occurring in the natural course of things.

 

(6:109) They swear by Allah with their most solemn oaths that if a sign comes to them, they will certainly believe in it. Say: ‘Signs are in Allah’s power alone. What will make you realize that even if those signs were to come, they would still not believe?

 

‘Sign’ in this context signifies a tangible miracle that is so impressive that it leaves people with no alternative but to believe in the veracity of the Prophet (peace be on him) and the truth of his claim to have been appointed by God.

 

The Prophet (peace be on him) denies his ability to perform miracles. That power lies with God alone. If God wants a miracle to take place, He has the power; if He does not want miracles to take place, none will. And so indeed does every Prophet of God .

These words are addressed to the Muslims. Driven by the restless yearning to see people embrace Islam – a yearning which they sometimes expressed in words – they wished some miracle to happen which might lead their erring brethren to the true faith. In response to this wish and longing they are told that their embracing the true faith does not depend upon their observing any miraculous sign.

 

(6:110) We are turning their hearts and eyes away from the Truth even as they did not believe in the first instance and We leave them in their insurgence to stumble blindly.

 

This shows that they still suffer from the same mentality which had made them reject the call of the Prophet (peace be on him) at the outset. Their outlook has undergone no change.

The same mental confusion, the same opacity of vision that had kept them from developing sound understanding and a correct perspective still warps their understanding and clouds their vision.

 

(6:111) Even if We had sent angels down to them and the dead had spoken to them, and even if We had assembled before them all the things, face to face, they would still not believe unless it be Allah’s will that they believe.2 Most of them behave in utter ignorance.

 

The people under discussion are so perverse that they do not prefer to embrace the truth in preference to falsehood by rightly exercising their choice and volition. The only way that is left for them to become lovers of the Truth is, therefore, that by His overpowering will God should render them truth-loving not by their choice and volition, but by metamorphosing their very nature. Such a course, however, goes against the wisdom which underlies the creation of man. Hence it is futile to expect God to intervene in the matter and to force those people to believe by the exercise of His will.

 

(6:112) And so it is that against every Prophet We have set up the evil ones from among men and jinn, some of them inspire others with specious speech only by way  delusion.2 Had it been your Lord’s will, they would not have done it.82 Leave them alone to fabricate what they will.

 

The Prophet (peace be on him) is told that he should not be unnerved even if the evil ones among both mankind and the jinn stood united against him and opposed him with all their might. For this was not the first time that such a thing had happened. Whenever a Prophet came and tried to lead people to the Truth, all the satanic forces joined hands to defeat his mission. ‘Specious talk’ signifies all the trickery and maneuvering to which the enemy resorts, all his efforts aimed at sowing doubts about Islam and undermining people’s faith in it, so as to arouse them against both the Prophet (peace be on him) and his message.

Taken as a whole, these are characterized as ‘delusion’, for the weapons used in their crusade by the opponents of the Truth has the effect of deluding others as well as themselves, no matter how beneficial and successful those weapons may appear to be.

 

Furthermore, we should always bear in mind that, according to the Qur’an, there is a tremendous difference between ‘God’s will’ and ‘God’s good pleasure. The failure to differentiate between the two often gives rise to serious misconceptions. If a certain thing takes place in accord with the universal will of God, and thus by His sanction, that does not necessarily mean that God is pleased with it. Nothing at all takes place in the world unless God permits it to take place, unless He makes it a part of His scheme, and unless He makes it is possible for that event to take place by creating the necessary conditions. The act of stealing on the part of a thief, the act of homicide on the part of a murderer, the wrong and corruption of the wrong-doer and the corrupt, the unbelief of the unbeliever and the polytheism of the polytheist – none of these are possible without the will of God. Likewise, the faith of the believer and the piety of the pious are inconceivable without the will of God. In short, both these require the will of God. But whereas the things in the first category do not please Him, those in the second do.

 

Even though the will of God is oriented to ultimate good, the course of the realization of that good is paved with the conflict between the forces of light and darkness, of good and evil, of what is sound and pure on the one hand and what is corrupt and defiled on the other. With larger interests in view, God has endowed man with the disposition of obedience as well as of disobedience. He has created in man Abrahamic and Mosaic as well as Nimrodic and Pharaonic potentialities. Both the pure, unadulterated human nature and the satanic urges are ingrained in man’s being and have been provided with the opportunity to work themselves out by coming into conflict with each other. He has granted those species of his creatures who are possessed of authority (viz. man and jinn) the freedom to choose between good and evil. Whosoever chooses to act righteously has been given the power to do so, and the same is the case with him who chooses to be evil. People of both categories are in a position to use material resources within the framework of the broader considerations underlying God’s- governance of His universe. God will be pleased, however, only with those who are working for good. God likes His creatures to exercise their freedom of choice properly and commit themselves to the good of their own volition.

Unlike the angels, who carry out God’s commands without resistance from any quarter, the task entrusted to men is to strive to establish the way of life sanctioned by God in the face of opposition and hostility from evil-doers and rebels against Him. In the framework of his universal will, God allows even those who have chosen the path of rebellion to strive for the realization of their goals, even as He grants the believers every opportunity to strive along the path of obedience and service to God. Despite this granting of freedom and choice to all there is no doubt that God is pleased with, and guides, directs, supports and strengthens the believers alone because their overall direction is to His liking. Nevertheless, they should not expect that by His supernatural intervention God will either force those who are disinclined to believe into believing or that He will forcibly remove the satanic forces – among both men and jinn – who are resolved to spare neither their mental and physical energy nor their material resources to impede the triumph of the Truth. Those determined to strive in the cause of the Truth, and of virtue and righteousness are told that they must prove their earnest devotion by waging a fierce struggle against the devotees of falsehood. For had God wanted to use miracles to obliterate falsehood and usher in the reign of the Truth, He would not have required human beings to accomplish the task. He could have simply seen to it that no evil one remained in the world, leaving no possibility for polytheism and unbelief to exist.

 

(6:113) So that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Life to come might inclined towards this attractive delusion, and that they may be well pleased with it and might acquire the evils that failure bent on acquiring.        

 

(6:114) Shall I look upon anyone apart from Allah for judgment when it is He Who has revealed to you the Book in details! And those whom We gave the Book (before you) know that this (Book) has been revealed in truth by your Lord. Do not, then, be among the doubters.2

 

The implied speaker in this sentence is the Prophet (peace be on him) and the words are addressed to the Muslims. The purpose of the sentence is to impress upon the Muslims that God has elucidated the relevant truths and has also proclaimed that in their endeavor to make the Truth prevail they will have to follow the path of striving and struggle. The devotees of the Truth should, therefore, resort to those means by which human beings normally employ for the successful achievement of their objectives rather than wait for any supernatural intervention that would enable them to achieve their mission without struggle and sacrifice. Moreover, since God Himself had chosen that human effort rather than supernatural intervention should lead to the prevalence of the Truth, who had the power to change this basic fact and bring about the victory of the Truth without any resort to human effort and sacrifice.

 

This is no mere concoction designed to explain away the current problems. All those versed in the Scriptures, and possessing a true understanding of the mission of the Prophets (peace be on them all), will confirm that everything in the Qur’an is perfectly true and in fact constitutes that eternal truth that cannot suffer any change or modification.

 

(6:115) The Word of your Lord is perfect in truthfulness and justice; no one can change His words. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

 

(6:116) (0 Muhammad!) If you obey the majority of those who live on earth, they will lead you away from Allah’s path. They only follow idle fancies, indulging in conjecture.

 

One need not follow the way of life of the majority, for the majority tend to follow their conjectures and fancies rather than sound knowledge. Their beliefs, their ideas and concepts, their philosophies of life, the guiding principles of their conduct, their laws – all these are founded on conjecture. On the contrary, the way of life which pleases God, was revealed by Him and hence is based on true knowledge rather than conjecture. Instead of trying to discover the way of life of the majority, a seeker after truth should, therefore, persevere in the way prescribed by God, even if he finds himself to be a solitary traveler.

 

(6:117) And your Lord knows well who stray from His path, and also those who are Rightly guided.

 

(6:118) If you believe in the signs of Allah, eat (the flesh) of that over which Allah’s name has been pronounced.

 

Many nations have imposed on themselves superfluous religious taboos, which include a variety of dietary restrictions. On the one hand, they have declared lawful many of the things which God has forbidden. On the other, there are many things which God has made lawful but which some people have forbidden to themselves. Some people have even gone so far as to consider eating animals slaughtered in the name of God as unlawful, while those slaughtered with no mention of God’s name may be eaten. God repudiates this and urges the Muslims – if they really believe in Him and obey His injunctions – to smash the superstitious and prejudiced notions contrived by human beings in disregard of God’s revealed guidance, and to recognize as unlawful all that God has declared to be unlawful, and as lawful all that God has declared to be lawful.

 

(6:119) And how is it that you do not eat of that over which Allah’s name has been pronounced even though He has clearly spelled out to you what He has forbidden you unless you are constrained to it? Many indeed say misleading things without knowledge, driven merely by their lowly desires. But your Lord knows well the transgressors.        

 

See (Surah _al-Nahl 16:15). We may observe in passing that this allusion indirectly establishes that Surah al-Nahl was revealed before the present surah.

 

(6:120) Abstain from sin, be it either open or secret. Indeed those who commit sins shall surely be required for all they have done.

 

(6:121) Do not eat of (the animal) over which the name of Allah has not been pronounced (at the time of its slaughtering), for that is a transgression. And behold, the evil ones do inspire doubts and objections into the hearts of their friends so that they dispute with you;% but if you obey them, you will surely yourselves turn into those who associate others with Allah in His divinity. 2

 

It has been reported in a tradition transmitted by ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abbas that the Jewish religious scholars used to prompt the ignorant people of Arabia to address many enquiries to the Prophet (peace be on him) so as to discredit him. One of the questions they taught them to ask was: ‘Why is it that an animal killed by (the act of) God should be deemed prohibited, while one killed by us is considered lawful?’ This is a common example of the warped mentality of the People of the Book. They strained their minds to contrive such questions so as to create doubts in people’s minds and to provide them with intellectual weapons in their fight against the Truth.

 

To acknowledge the over lordship of God, yet to follow at the same time the orders and ways of those who have turned away from Him amounts to associating others with God in His divinity. True belief in the unity of God consists in orienting one’s entire life to the obedience and service of God. Those who believe that any other being besides God is to he acknowledged in principle as having an independent claim on man’s unreserved obedience should know that such acknowledgment amounts to associating others with God in his divinity at the level of belief. On the other hand, if they actually do obey those who, in sheer disregard of God’s guidance and injunctions, arrogate to themselves the right to declare according to their whims, certain things to be lawful and others to be unlawful, and to bid and forbid people as they please, this amounts to associating others with God in His divinity at the level of action.

 

(6:122) He who was dead and whom We raised to life,8 and We set an light: for him to walk among men – is he like the one steeped in darkness out of which he does not come out?s2. Thus have their own doings been made to seem fair to the unbelievers.”

 

‘Death’ signifies here the state of ignorance and lack of consciousness, whereas ‘life’ denotes the state of knowledge and true cognition, the state of awareness of Reality. He who cannot distinguish between right and wrong and does not know the Straight way for human life, maybe alive on the biological plane, but his essential humanity is not. He may be a living animal but is certainly not a living human being. A living human being is one who can distinguish right from wrong, good from evil, honesty from dishonesty.

 

The question is: ‘How can they expect one who has been able to attain genuine consciousness of his true human nature and who, by virtue of his knowledge of the Truth, can clearly discern the Straight Way among the numerous crooked ways, to live like those who lack true consciousness and go on stumbling in the darkness of ignorance and folly?’

 

The law of God with regard to those to whom light is presented but who willfully refuse to accept it, preferring to follow their crooked paths even after they have been invited to follow the Straight Way, is that in the course of time such people begin to cherish darkness, and to enjoy groping their way in the dark, stumbling and falling as they proceed. They tend to mistake cacti for orchids, thorns for roses. They find pleasure in every act of evil and corruption. They look forward to renewed experiences of corruption, hoping that where they were previously unsuccessful they will now find success.

 

(6:123) Thus We have appointed the leaders of the wicked ones in every land to weave their plots; but in truth, they plot only to their own harm, without even realizing it.

 

(6:124) Whenever there comes to them a sign from Allah, they say: ‘We will not believe until we are given what was given to the Messengers of Allah. Allah knows best where to place His message. Soon shall these wicked ones meet with humiliation and severe chastisement from Allah for all their evil plotting.

 

This shows that they were unwilling to believe in the statement of the Prophets that an angel of God came to each of them and delivered the message of God. They would believe, they said, only if the angel approached them directly and intimated God’s message to them.

 

(6:125) Thus, (it is a fact that) whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his heart for Islam;2 and whomsoever He wills to let go astray, He causes his heart/breast to become strait and constricted as if he were climbing towards the heaven. Thus Allah lays the abomination (of flight from and hatred of Islam) on those who do not believe

 

‘To open someone’s breast to Islam’ means to make him feel fully convinced of the truth of Islam and to remove all his doubts, hesitations, and reluctance.

 

(6:126) even though this way is the straight way of your Lord, and We have distinguished its signs to those who heed to admonition.

 

(6:127) Theirs shall be an abode of peace with their Lord – their Protector in recompense for all they have done.

 

The righteous will enjoy ‘the Abode of Peace’ since there he will be safe from every misfortune and evil.

 

(6:128) And on the Day when He shall muster them all together, He will say (to the jinn): ‘O assembly of the jinn, you have seduced a good many of mankind.’ And their companions from among the humans will say: ‘Our Lord! We did indeed benefit from one another and now have reached the term which You had set for us.’ Thereupon Allah will say: ‘The Fire is now your abode, and therein you shall abide.’ Only those whom Allah wills shall escape the Fire. Surely your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.

 

The term finn here refers to the evil ones among the jinn. This means that they had derived unfair benefit from one another and had served their elfish ends by mutual deception.

Even though God has the right to punish whoever He wishes and to forgive whoever He wishes, His punishing and forgiving will be neither arbitrary nor whimsical. It will rather be founded on absolute knowledge and wisdom. God will forgive those whom He knows not to be responsible for their guilt, and thus not liable to punishment according to His wisdom and justice.

 

(6:129) In this manner, We shall make the wrong-doers friends of each other (in the Hereafter) because they earned (evil together in the world).

 

Just as the wrong-doers had been accomplices in sin and evil during their earthly life, they would remain companions in the Afterlife as well and share its punishment.

 

(6:130) (Then Allah will also ask them): ‘O assembly of jinn and men! Did there not come to you messengers from among yourselves, relating to you My signs, and warning you of the encounter of this your Day (of Judgment)?’ They will say: ‘Yes, we bear witness against ourselves.’ They have been deluded by the life of this world, and they will bear witness against themselves that they had disbelieved.

 

The wrong-doers would confess that even though the Prophets had come, in succession, in order to inform them of the Truth, it was their own fault that they did not respond to their call.

They were deniers of, and disbelievers in, rather than ignorant of the Truth. They acknowledged that! the Truth had been conveyed to them and that they had refused to accept it.

 

(6:131) (They will be made to bear this witness to show that) it is not the way of your Lord to destroy cities unjustly while their people were unaware of the Truth.12

 

God does not want His creatures to have any valid reason to complain that He had left them ignorant of the Right Way, and then convicted them of error. God has forestalled any such grievance by sending Prophets and revealing Holy Books to warn both jinn and human beings. If people continue to falter in spite of God’s arrangements for their guidance, they themselves are to blame for the punishment they will receive, and they have no justification for blaming their misfortune on God.

 

(6:132) Everyone is assigned a degree according to his deed. Your Lord is not heedless of what they do.

 

(6:133) Your Lord is Self-Sufficient, full of compassion. If He wills, He can put you away and cause whomever He wills to succeed you just as He has produced you from the seed of another people.

 

The Qur’anic statement: ‘Your Lord is Self-Sufficient’ signifies that God is in need of nothing from anyone, that none of His interests will be jeopardized by disobedience to Him, and that no benefit will accrue to Him from obedience. Even if all human beings became disobedient, God’s dominion will not shrink. Nor will His dominion expand if everybody were to become obedient and serve and worship Him as they ought to. God is dependent neither upon their show of veneration nor upon their offerings. He lavishes His limitless treasures on human beings and seeks nothing in return.

 

The other statement, namely that ‘Your Lord is full of compassion’, has been made here to emphasize two things. First, that when God urges human beings to follow the Right Way, and asks them not to do anything in conflict with Ultimate Reality, He does not do so because their good behavior benefits Him or their misconduct harms Him. He does so because good conduct is beneficial to man himself, as evil conduct is harmful to him. Hence it is out of sheer benevolence that God urges man to develop righteous conduct, for it will raise him to great heights, and He urges him to avoid evil conduct because it will lead to his own degradation. Second, that God is not unduly stern in judging man. He gets no pleasure from punishing people. He is not on the look-out for slight lapses for which to convict and persecute people. God is highly compassionate towards all His creatures and governs with utmost mercy and benevolence, and the same characterizes His dealings with human beings as well. Hence, He constantly forgives the sins of people. Many disobey, indulge in sins, commit crimes, disregard God’s commands, even though they are nourished by the sustenance He provides. God, nevertheless, continually treats them with forbearance and forgives them. Again and again, He grants them respite in order that they may take heed, understand things properly and reform themselves. Had He been excessively stern, He could even have obliterated them instantly and raised up another people. He could have put an end to humanity and brought into being an altogether different species of creation.

 

(6:134) Surely what you have been promised shall come to pass;12 and you do not have the power to frustrate (Allah).

 

This refers to the Resurrection, hen human beings of every epoch will be raised anew and made to stand before God for final judgment.

 

(6:135) Say (O Muhammad!): ‘O people! Work in your place, and I too am at work. 123 Soon you will know in whose favor the ultimate decision will be. Surely the wrong-doers will not prosper.

 

If people prefer to ignore the Prophet’s admonition and do not recant their misconduct, they are at liberty to follow their chosen path, but they should let the Prophet (peace be on him) follow his. The ultimate results of their conduct will, in due time, become evident to all – to the Prophet (peace be on him) as well as to his opponents.

 

(6:136) They assign to Allah a portion out of the produce and cattle that He has created, saying out of their fancy: ‘This is for Allah’ – so they deem -‘ and this is for the associates (of Allah) whom we have contrived.” Then, the portion assigned to the beings whom they have set up as associates (of Allah) do not reach Allah, but the portion assigned to Allah reaches the beings they set up as associates (of Allah)! 1 Indeed evil is what they decide!

 

There now follows an elucidation of the ‘ignorance’ which those people-insistently clung to, and which they were not prepared to forsake. They are also told about that major ‘wrong’ which, if not abandoned, will bar their way to salvation.

 

They themselves acknowledged that the earth belongs to God and that it is He Who causes the vegetation to grow. They also affirmed that God is the creator of the animals which were yoked to their service. They believed, however, that the grace of God for them was the outcome of the blessing and benediction of the angels, jinn, heavenly stars, spirits of their pious ancestors and so on, who cared for their well-being and were their patrons.

Therefore they used to make a two-fold division of their harvest and livestock offerings. One part was devoted to God in recognition of their gratitude to Him for having granted them farms and animals, while the rest was devoted to the household gods of either their family or tribes in order to ensure their continuing grace and benediction.

 

First, God censures them for this iniquity and asks them – since all those animals were created and had been granted to them by God alone – what justification there is for making offerings to others. Is it not sheer ingratitude to ascribe the acts of benevolence and grace of the true Benefactor to the intercession of others, and to associate them with God in thanksgiving? Second, they are censured indirectly for assigning quite an arbitrary share in their offerings to God, as if they themselves were the law-maker who could ascribe shares to God and others as they wished. To God alone belong all the bounties He has given man, and only His Law should therefore determine what part of those bounties should be offered to Him in thanksgiving and how the remaining should be spent. Hence even if they spend something in the way of Allah, for the poor and the deprived, but according to their own will, that does not deserve to be accepted by Him.

 

This is subtle sarcasm at the trickery to which the polytheists resorted while dividing the offerings between God and the partners whom they had set up with Him. By one device and another they increased the share of the false deities, which only showed that their heart lay with those sham partners of God rather than with Him.

 

It is instructive to recall those tricks. If, while they were apportioning God’s share of cereals and fruits, anything belonging to His share fell out of its place, it used to be added to the portion earmarked for the share of God’s partners. On the contrary, if any part of the, partners’ share fell out or got mixed up with the portion earmarked for God, they were most careful to return it to where it belonged. Whenever they were criticized for this, they had a number of interesting apologies to offer. They said, for instance, that being the Creator, God is Self-Sufficient and hence He does not care if His portion is in some way reduced. As for the ‘partners’, they were not after all self-sufficient and would therefore take them to task for the slightest diminution in their share.

 

In order to grasp what lay at the root of these superstitions, it is essential to know that the portion which these ignorant people earmarked for God was devoted to helping the indigent, the poor, travelers orphans and so on. On the other hand, the portion earmarked or offerings to the partners’ actually went either directly to the coffers of the priestly class or was offered at the shrines and thus ultimately reached the priests and caretakers of those shrines. Over the course of centuries these selfish religious leaders had impressed upon those simple-minded people that there was no harm in God’s share being reduced, but that of God’s dear ones, far from being diminished, should be increased.

 

(6:137) And, likewise, the beings supposed to have a share in Allah’s divinity have made the slaying of their offspring seem lawful to many of those who associate others with Allah in His divinity” so that they may ruin them! and confound them regarding their faith.12 If Allah had so willed, they would not have done that. Leave them alone to persist in their fabrication. 12

 

The word ‘partners’ is now used in a different sense. In this verse the word ‘partners’ denotes those human beings and devils who had legitimized infanticide and even represented it as a commendable act.

The reason for calling such people ‘partners’ is that just as God alone deserves to be worshipped, so He alone has the right to make laws for His creatures and to determine the limits of what is lawful and what is unlawful. Also, just as consecrating acts of devotion to anyone other than God amounts to setting up partners with Him, so to follow man-made laws in the belief that human beings have the right to be their own law-makers amounts to acknowledging others as partners of God. Both these acts amount to setting up partners with Him, irrespective of whether or not man applies the word ‘God’ to those before whom he makes ritual offerings, or to those whose laws he considers to be essentially right and binding for men.

 

It is pertinent to recall that three forms of infanticide were practiced among the Arabs, and the Qur’an alludes to each:

(1) Girls were put to death either to forestall the intrusion of a son-in-law, to prevent them from falling into the hands of enemies in the event of an outbreak of tribal feuding or to stop them from becoming a source of disgrace for any other reason.

(2) Both male and female children were killed if their parents thought they would not be able to support them and that they would thus become an unendurable burden.

(3) Children of both sexes were placed as sacrificial offerings on the altars of the deities in order to gratify them.

The use of the word ‘ruin’ in this verse is significant. It denotes, in the first place, the moral ruination of a people. A man whose callousness and cruelty reach the point where he begins to kill his offspring with his own hands not only becomes bereft of the essence of humanity, but has sunk even lower than the animals. Moreover, this signifies the ruin of a people and of the human race. This is because infanticide necessarily leads to loss of population which is detrimental to the interests of mankind and also of each nation, since it prevents those who could have carried the legacy of a nation from either being born or puts an end to their lives after ,they are born. This rule also signifies the ultimate ruin, i.e. in the Hereafter. For indeed anyone who treats innocent children with such high-handedness, who cold-bloodedly slaughters the essence of his humanity, who acts so sordidly towards the human species as such, and even towards his own people, deserves severe punishment from God.

In the Jahiliyah, the Age of Ignorance, the Arabs both identified themselves with Abraham and Ishmael and were quite convinced that they were indeed followers of Abraham and Ishmael. They therefore considered their religion to be one that had been prescribed by God. The fact, however, was that over the course of centuries a number of innovations had overgrown the religion preached by Abraham and Ishmael. These innovations, which had been introduced by their religious leaders, the tribal chiefs and the elders of noted families, had become hallowed with the passage of time, and were considered an integral part of their original religion. No authentic traces of this original religion, however, existed in the Arab traditions, nor in written sources nor in historical records as such. Hence, when innovations made their inroads into their religious life, they failed to perceive both the innovations and the innovators. This rendered the entire religious tradition of the Arabs unauthentic in the sight of the people of Arabia themselves. They could not assert with conviction which elements were part of the original God-given religion, and which were mere innovations.

Had God not so willed, they could never have kept to their false ways. But God willed that everybody should be allowed to pursue his own choice. Hence, if people do not believe in spite of the Prophet’s admonition, and persist in their false ways, they must be allowed to do as they please. One need not hound such people and pester them into accepting the Truth.

 

(6:138) They say: ‘These animals and these crops are sacrosanct: none may eat of them save those whom we will’ – imposing interdictions of their own contriving. And hey declare  that it is forbidden to burden the backs of certain cattle, and these are the cattle over which they do not pronounce the name of Allah. 12 All these are false fabrications against Allah,“3 and He will soon requite them for all that they fabricate.

 

There was a practice among the people of Arabia whereby they used to consecrate certain animals and farms to certain shrines, and at offerings at certain altars. These consecrated offerings could not be used by everybody. An elaborate code laid down what kind of offering could be used by what kind of people. God not only judges such practices to be polytheistic, but also censures them as man-made innovations. God was the master of all that they had consecrated as offerings to the deities. He had neither encumbered human beings with the need to make any of those offerings and consecrations nor imposed those restrictions on what they might consume. These were the willful inventions of headstrong and rebellious people who attributed to themselves the authority to make laws as they pleased.

 

Traditions indicate that there were certain ritual offerings, and that on certain occasions animals were consecrated for sacrifice at which it was deemed unlawful to pronounce the name of God. It was also prohibited to ride such animals during the Pilgrimage, since at that time the pilgrim pronounced the name of God when he recited the formula: Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk. Every care was taken not to pronounce the name of God at the time of milking, mounting, slaughtering and eating of such animals.

 

Even though those rules had not been laid down by God, people followed them under the false impression that they had been prescribed by Him. They could not adduce any injunction from God in support of such a belief, and all that they could claim was that it was an integral part of their ancestors’ way of life.

 

(6:139) And they say: ‘What is within the bellies of such-and-such cattle is exclusively for our males and is forbidden to our females; but if it be born dead, they all may share in it.’14 He will soon requite them for all that they (falsely) attribute to Allah. He is All-Wise, All-Knowing.

 

One of the provisions of this self-contrived religious code of the Arabs was that the flesh of the young, born of the animals consecrated as offerings to the deities, might be eaten by males but not by females. Persons of both sexes were allowed to eat its flesh if it had died either a natural death or was dead at birth.

 

(6:140) Those who slew their children in folly, without, and forbade the sustenance that Allah has provided them, falsely ascribing that to Allah, are utter losers; they have gone astray, and are certainly not among those guided to the right way.15

 

It is put to them plainly that even though such practices had been introduced by their forefathers, religious guides and outstanding leaders, the fact remained that those practices were inherently unsound. That those practices had come down from their ancestors and venerated elders did not necessarily legitimize them. These callous people had introduced such inhuman customs as infanticide, and, without any justification whatsoever, had prohibited to the creatures of God food and drink which He had created. They had also introduced many innovations themselves, making them part of their religion and ascribing them to God. How could such people be considered either to have attained salvation or to be rightly guided? Even though venerated by them as their ancestors, they were nevertheless misguided and were destined to see the evil consequences of their misdeeds.

 

(6:141) It is He Who has brought into being gardens” – the trellised and un trellised and the palm trees, and crops, all varying in taste, and the olive and pomegranates, all resembling one another and yet so different. Eat of their fruits when they come to fruition and pay His due on the day of harvesting. And do not exceed the proper limits, for He does not love those who exceed the proper limits.

 

The Arabic expression “Jannaatim Ma’rushaatin wa khairu ma’rushatin” signifies two kinds of gardens: first, those consisting of trellised plants and, second, those consisting of trees thath stand on their own.

 

(6:142) And of the cattle (He has reared) some for burden, and some whose flesh you eat and whose skins and hair you use to spread the ground.1 Eat of the sustenance Allah has provided you and do not follow in the footsteps of Satan, for surely he is your open enemy.18

 

The word “Farasha” (which means ‘to spread, to pave, to cover the ground, floor or path’) has been used in the context of cattle either (1) because they are relatively short, and in moving about seem to be touching the ground, (2) because when they are slaughtered, they have to be laid on the ground, or (3) because their skins and hair are used for furnishing purposes.

It becomes clear from the context that God wants to emphasize three things. First the orchards, fields, and cattle are all bounties of God. No one else has made any contribution to them and hence no one is entitled to any share in the thanks that man ought to give Him in return for these bounties. Second, since all those things are bounties of God, one ought to follow the laws of God alone while making use of them. No one else has the right to regulate their use. To acknowledge oneself bound by customs and practices laid down by others than God, and to make offerings out of a feeling of gratitude for beneficence to someone other than God constitute acts of rebellion and amount to following Satan. Third, as God has created all these things for the fulfilment of man’s needs, they should not be unnecessarily suspended from use or be regarded as prohibited. All restrictions on the use of the means of sustenance and other bounties of God based on conjecture or superstition, are not to His liking at all.

 

(6:143) These are eight couples, two from sheep, two from goats. Now ask them: ‘Is it either the two males that Allah has forbidden or the two females, or what the wombs of the two females may contain? Tell me about this on the basis of sure knowledge, if you speak the truth.’112

 

That is, they should come forward with arguments based on sound, reliable knowledge, rather than with arguments that have no authority except that of ancestral tradition, conjecture or superstition.

 

(6:144) And likewise, of camels, there are two, and of oxen, there are two. Ask them: ‘Is it either the two males that He has forbidden or the two females or that which the wombs of the two females may contain?! Or were you present when Allah enjoined this commandment upon you?’ Who, then, would be more unjust than he who

 

fabricates a lie against Allah that he might lead people astray without knowledge. Surely Allah never guides such a wrong-doing folk.

Questions as to whether the male offspring is lawful and the female is unlawful are presented in some detail to show how unreasonable their superstitions are. That the male offspring of an animal should be considered lawful for eating while the female be prohibited,

or vice versa; and that an animal should itself be considered lawful, but not its offspring, is so manifestly unreasonable that common sense simply refuses to accept it, and no intelligent man can ever conceive such absurdities to have been sanctioned by God. Just as the superstitions in vogue among the Arabs were absurd, as the Qur’an stresses, likewise many other nations of the world follow even now irrational dietary restrictions, and believe that food and drink become polluted merely by the touch of some other people.

 

(6:145) Tell them (O Muhammad!): ‘I do not find in what has been revealed to me anything forbidden for anyone who wants to eat unless it is carrion, outpoured blood and the flesh of swine, all of which is unclean; or that which is profane having been slaughtered in a name other than that of Allah.!21 But whosoever is constrained to it by necessity – neither desiring to disobey nor exceeding the limit of necessity your Lord is surely All forgiving, All-Compassionate.

See for this (Surah al-Baqarah 2: 173), (Surah al-Ma’idah 5: 3) and (Surah al-Nahl 16: 115.) The slight difference between this verse and (Surah al-Baqarah 2:173 )is that whereas the latter mentions ‘blood’ as prohibited, the present verse qualifies it with ‘outpoured’, ie. the blood which has flowed as a result of either injuring or slaughtering an animal. This, in fact, constitutes an elucidation of the former injunction rather than the revelation of a different one. Likewise,(Surah al-Ma’idah 5: 3 ) mentions the prohibition of certain other categories – animals strangled or killed by blows, those which have died from either falling or goring, and those devoured by a beast of prey, in addition to the four classes mentioned here. This is not an independent, divergent injunction; it is rather an explanation signifying hat the animals thus killed fall into the category of ‘carrion’. There is a group of Muslim jurists who believe that prohibition is confined to these four   classes of animal food and that the eating of everything else is lawful. This was also the view of ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abbas and ‘A’ishah. Several traditions, however, indicate that the prophet (peace be on him) either told people not to eat certain things or expressed his disapproval at their eating them, for example, domesticated donkeys, beasts with canine teeth and birds with claws. It is for this reason that the majority of jurists do not consider prohibition confined to these four classes but extend it to several others. These jurists disagree, however, on which of those things are unlawful and which are lawful. Abu Hanifah, Malik and Shafi’i, for example, consider domesticated donkeys to be unlawful.

Others argue that the Prophet (peace be on him) forbade them on a special occasion and because of a special reason. To cite another example, the Hanafi jurists hold wild beasts, birds of prey and animals which feed on carrion to be absolutely unlawful, whereas Milik and Awza’i hold birds of prey to be lawful. Layth considers the cat to be lawful. In the same way, Shafi’i considers prohibition to be confined only to those beasts which actually attack man, such as lion, wolf, tiger and so on. In the opinion of another jurist, ‘[krimah, both crow and badger are lawful. Likewise, whereas the Hanafi jurists declare all crawling creatures to be prohibited, Ibn Abi Layla, Malik and Awza’i hold the snake to be lawful.

Upon reflection of these divergent opinions and the arguments adduced in support of them, it becomes clear that categorical prohibition embraces only those four classes mentioned in the Qur’an. As for other types of animal food, regarding which the jurists have expressed a negative view, they seem to carry varying degrees of religious disapprobation. The things whose disapprobation is established by statements of the Prophet (peace be on him) transmitted to us through sound traditions, are relatively close to ‘prohibition’. As for things regarding which them is disagreement among jurists, their religious disapprobation becomes doubtful.

 

Temperamental dislike, however, is quite a different matter. The Law Of God does not force anyone to eat that which is not prohibited. At the same time, the Law does not entitle anybody to exalt his personal likes and dislikes into a criterion of what is lawful and unlawful. No one is justified in reproaching others for consuming lawful things which offend his tastes.

 

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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