DO YOY ACCEPT BAD AND GOOD THINGS ARE NOT EVEN?

حُرُمًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (المائدة: 96).
جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلاَئِدَ ذَلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (المائدة: 97).
اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (المائدة: 98).
مَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلاَغُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ (المائدة: 99).
قُلْ لاَ يَسْتَوِي الْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكَ كَثْرَةُ الْخَبِيثِ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَا أُولِي الأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (المائدة: 100).
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لاَ تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِنْ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ وَإِنْ تَسْأَلُوا عَنْهَا حِينَ يُنَزَّلُ الْقُرْآنُ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهَا وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ (المائدة: 101).
قَدْ سَأَلَهَا قَوْمٌ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَصْبَحُوا بِهَا كَافِرِينَ (المائدة: 102).
مَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَحِيرَةٍ وَلاَ سَائِبَةٍ وَلاَ وَصِيلَةٍ وَلاَ حَامٍ وَلَكِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ (المائدة: 103).
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ قَالُوا حَسْبُنَا مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ (المائدة: 104).
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا عَلَيْكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ لاَ يَضُرُّكُمْ مَنْ ضَلَّ إِذَا اهْتَدَيْتُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (المائدة: 105).
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا شَهَادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمْ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنَانِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ أَوْ آخَرَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ إِنْ أَنْتُمْ ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَأَصَابَتْكُمْ مُصِيبَةُ الْمَوْتِ تَحْبِسُونَهُمَا مِنْ بَعْدِ الصَّلاَةِ فَيُقْسِمَانِ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ ارْتَبْتُمْ لاَ نَشْتَرِي بِهِ ثَمَنًا وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى وَلاَ نَكْتُمُ شَهَادَةَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا إِذًا لَمِنْ الآثِمِينَ (المائدة: 106).
فَإِنْ عُثِرَ عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا اسْتَحَقَّا إِثْمًا فَآخَرَانِ يَقُومَانِ مَقَامَهُمَا مِنْ الَّذِينَ اسْتَحَقَّ عَلَيْهِمْ الأَوْلَيَانِ فَيُقْسِمَانِ بِاللَّهِ لَشَهَادَتُنَا أَحَقُّ مِنْ شَهَادَتِهِمَا وَمَا اعْتَدَيْنَا إِنَّا إِذًا لَمِنْ الظَّالِمِينَ (المائدة: 107).
ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِالشَّهَادَةِ عَلَى وَجْهِهَا أَوْ يَخَافُوا أَنْ تُرَدَّ أَيْمَانٌ بَعْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْمَعُوا وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ (المائدة: 108).
يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ الرُّسُلَ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَا أُجِبْتُمْ قَالُوا لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ (المائدة: 109).
إِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَاعِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ اذْكُرْ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكَ وَعَلى وَالِدَتِكَ إِذْ أَيَّدتُّكَ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ تُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِي الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلاً وَإِذْ عَلَّمْتُكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَإِذْ تَخْلُقُ مِنْ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ بِإِذْنِي فَتَنفُخُ فِيهَا فَتَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِي وَتُبْرِئُ الأَكْمَهَ وَالأَبْرَصَ بِإِذْنِي وَإِذْ تُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتَى بِإِذْنِي وَإِذْ كَفَفْتُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَنْكَ إِذْ جِئْتَهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ إِنْ هَذَا إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ (المائدة: 110).
وَإِذْ أَوْحَيْتُ إِلَى الْحَوَارِيِّينَ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِي وَبِرَسُولِي قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَاشْهَدْ بِأَنَّنَا مُسْلِمُونَ (المائدة: 111).
إِذْ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ هَلْ يَسْتَطِيعُ رَبُّكَ أَنْ يُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا مَائِدَةً مِنْ السَّمَاءِ قَالَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنْ كُنتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ (المائدة: 112).
قَالُوا نُرِيدُ أَنْ نَأْكُلَ مِنْهَا وَتَطْمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُنَا وَنَعْلَمَ أَنْ قَدْ صَدَقْتَنَا وَنَكُونَ عَلَيْهَا مِنْ الشَّاهِدِينَ (المائدة: 113).
قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا أَنزِلْ عَلَيْنَا مَائِدَةً مِنْ السَّمَاءِ تَكُونُ لَنَا عِيدًا ِلأَوَّلِنَا وَآخِرِنَا وَآيَةً مِنْكَ وَارْزُقْنَا وَأَنْتَ خَيرُ الرَّازِقِينَ (المائدة: 114).
قَالَ اللَّهُ إِنِّي مُنَزِّلُهَا عَلَيْكُمْ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بَعْدُ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنِّي أُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَابًا لاَ أُعَذِّبُهُ أَحَدًا مِنْ الْعَالَمِينَ (المائدة: 115).
وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّي إِلَهَيْنِ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ إِنْ كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ (المائدة: 116).
مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلاَّ مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنْ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا مَا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ فَلَمَّا تَوَفَّيْتَنِي كُنتَ أَنْتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنْتَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ (المائدة: 117).
إِنْ تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ وَإِنْ تَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (المائدة: 118).
قَالَ اللَّهُ هَذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّادِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الأَنهارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ (المائدة: 119).
لِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (المائدة: 120).

 

Al Maidah 176 t0 120 

Only Translation:

(5:76) Say: ‘Do you serve, besides Allah, that which has no power either to harm or benefit you, whereas Allah alone is All-Hearing, All-Knowing?’

 

(5:77) Say: ‘People of the Book! Do not go beyond bounds in your religion at the cost of truth, and do not follow the caprices of the people who fell into an error before, and caused others to go astray, and strayed far away from the right path.

 

(5:78) Those of the Children of Israel who took to unbelief have been cursed by the The tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary, for they rebelled and exceeded the bounds of right.

 

(5:79) They did not forbid each other from committing the abominable deeds they committed.12 Indeed what they did was evil.

 

(5:80) And now you can see many of them taking the unbelievers (instead of the believers) for their allies. Indeed they have prepared evil for themselves. Allah is angry with them, and they shall abide in chastisement.

 

(5:81) For had they truly believed in Allah and the Messenger and what was sent down to him, they would not have taken unbelievers (instead of believers) for their allies.123 But many of them have rebelled against Allah altogether.

 

(5:82) Of all men you will find the Jews and those who associate others with Allah in His divinity is the most hostile to those who believe, and you will surely find that of ail people, they who say: ‘We are Christians’, are closest to feeling affection for those who believe. This is because there are worshipful priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant.

 

(5:83) And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger you see that their eyes overflow with tears because of the Truth that they recognize and they say: ‘Our Lord! We do believe; write us down, therefore, with those who bear witness (to the Truth).

 

(5:84) And why should we not believe in Allah and the Truth which has come down to us when we do fervently desire that our Lord include us among the righteous?’

 

(5:85) So Allah rewarded them for these words with Gardens beneath which rivers flow so that they would abide there forever. Such is the reward of the people who do good.

 

(5:86) Those who disbelieved and gave the lie to Our signs are rightfully the inmates of the Blazing site (hell)

 

 (5:87) Believers! Do not hold as unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful to you, and do not exceed the bounds of right.12 Allah does not love those who transgress the bounds of right.

 

(5:88) And partake of the lawful, good things which Allah has provided you as Allowable and refrain from disobeying Allah in whom you believe.

 

(5:89) Allah does not take you to task for the oaths you utter vainly, but He will certainly take you to task for the oaths you have sworn in earnest. The expiation (for breaking such oaths) is either to feed ten needy persons with more or less the same food as you are wont to give to your families, or to clothe them, or to set free from bondage the neck of one man, and he who does not find the means shall fast for three days. This shall be the expiation for your oaths whenever you have sworn (and broken them.)1°° But do keep your oaths.2 Thus does Allah make clear to you His commandments; maybe you will be grateful.

 

(5:90) Believers! Intoxicants, games of chance, idolatrous sacrifices at altars, and divining arrows? are all abominations, the handiwork of Satan. So turn wholly away from from it that you may attain true success.12

 

(5:91) By intoxicants and games of chance Satan only desires to create enmity and hatred between you and to turn you away from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer. Will you, then, desist?

 

(5:92) Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and beware. But if you turn away, then know well that Our Messenger had merely to deliver the message clearly.

 

(5:93) There will be no blame on those who believe and do righteous deeds for whatever they might have partaken (in the past) as long as they refrain from things prohibited, and persist in their belief and do righteous deeds, and continue to refrain from whatever is forbidden and submit to divine commandments, and persevere in doing good, fearing Allah. Allah loves those who do good.

 

(5:94) Believers! Allah will surely try you with a game that will be within the range of your hands and lances so that He might mark out those who fear Him, even though He is beyond the reach of human perception. A painful chastisement awaits whosoever transgresses after that bounds set by Allah.

 

(5:95) Believers! Do not kill (hunt) game while you are in the state of pilgrim

 

(5:97) Allah has appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, as a means of support for (the collective life of) men, and has caused the holy month (of Pilgrimage), and the animals of sacrificial offering and their distinguishing collars to assist therein.3 This is so that you may know that Allah is aware of all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; and that Allah knows everything.14

 

(5:98) Know well that Allah is severe in retribution, and that Allah is also All- Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

 

(5:99) The Messenger is bound only to deliver the message, whereafter Allah knows Well, all that you disclose and all that you conceal.

 

(5:100) (O Messenger!) Say to them: “The bad things and the good things are not a even though the abundance of the bad things might make you pleased with them.45 Men of understanding, beware of disobeying Allah; then maybe you will attain true success.’

 

(5:101) Believers! Do not ask of the things which, if made manifest to you, would vex you; for, if you should ask about them while the Qur’an is being revealed, they will be made manifest to you. Allah has pardoned whatever happened in the past. He is All-Forgiving, All-Forbearing.

 

(5:102) Indeed some people before you had asked such questions and as a consequence, fell into unbelief.41z  

 

(5:103) Allah has neither appointed (cattle devoted to idols such as) Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah nor Ham;!8but those who disbelieve forge lies against Allah and of them most have no understanding (and therefore succumb to such superstitions).

 

(5:104) When they are asked: ‘Come to what Allah has revealed and come to the Messenger’, they reply: ‘The way of our forefathers suffices us.’ (Will they continue to follow their forefathers) even though their forefathers might have known nothing, and might _ been on the wrong way?

 

(5:105) Believers! Take heed of your own self. If you are rightly guided, the error of he who strays will not harm you.¥2 To Allah will all of you return; then He will let all of you know what you did.

 

(5:106) Believers! When death approaches you, let two men of equity among you act as witnesses when you make your request; or let two of those from others than yourselves act as witnesses if you are on a journey when the affliction of death befalls you.12. Then if any doubt occurs you shall detain both of them (in the mosque) after the Prayer and they shall swear by Allah: ‘We shall neither sell our testimony in return for any gain even though it concerns any near of kin nor shall we conceal our the testimony which we owe to Allah, for then we should become among sinners.”.

 

(5:107) Then if it is discovered later that the two are guilty of such sin, then two others shall stand in their place from among those against whom the two had sinfully deposed, and swear by Allah: ‘Our testimony is truer than the testimony of the other two, and we have not transgressed in our statement; for then indeed we would become wrong-doers.’

 

(5:108) Thus it is more likely that they will either bear the right testimony or else they will at least fear that their oaths may be rebutted by other oaths. Have fear of Allah and pay heed. Allah does not direct the ae to the right way.

 

(5:109) The Day! 2 when Allah will gather together the Messengers! and say: ‘What The answer were you given?’ They will reply: ‘We have no real knowledge of it.14 You alone fully know all that lies beyond the reach of human perception.

 

(5:110) Imagine, then, when Allah will say: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, recall My favor upon you and your mother, and when I strengthened you with the spirit of holiness so that you talked to men in the cradle and also when you became of age; and when I taught you the Book and Wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel, and when by My leave, you fashioned from clay the likeness of a bird and you breathed into it, and by My leave became a bird; you healed, by my leave, the blind from birth and the leprous; and when, by My leave, you caused the dead to come to life. And recall when I restrained the Israelites from you when you came to them with clear proofs whereupon those of them who disbelieved said: “This is nothing but clear magic.”

 

(5:111) And recall when I revealed to the disciples to believe in Me and My Mes- senger, they said: “We do believe, and we bear witness that we indeed are the ones who submit to Allah”!z

 

(5:112) Also recall when the disciples asked Jesus,128 sons of Mary: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, has your Lord the power to send down to us a repast from the heaven?’ Thereupon Jesus said: ‘Fear Allah if you do indeed have faith.’

 

(5:113) They said: ‘We desire to partake of it that our hearts be satisfied and we know that you did speak the truth to us, and that we are its witnesses.

  

(5:114) Jesus, son of Mary, then prayed: ‘O Allah, our Lord, send down to us a repast from the heavens that shall be a festival for the first of us and the last of us, and a sign from You. And provide us with sustenance, for You are the best Provider of sustenance.

 

(5:115) Allah said: ‘I shall indeed send it down to you; then, I shall afflict whoever among you who disbelieves with a chastisement wherewith, I will afflict none in the worlds.

 

(5:116) And imagine when thereafter Allah will say: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to people: “Take me and my mother for gods besides Allah?”2 and he will answer:

“Glory to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right to. Had I said so, You would surely have known it. You know all that is within my mind whereas I do not know what is within Yours. You, indeed You, know fully all that is beyond the reach of human perception.

 

(5:117) I said to them nothing except what You commanded me, that is: ‘Serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ I watched over them as long as I remained among them; and when You did recall me, then You Yourself became the Watcher over them. Indeed, You are a Witness over everything.

 

(5:118) If You chastise them, they are Your servants; and if You forgive them, You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”

 

(5:119) Thereupon Allah will say: ‘This day truthfulness shall profit the truthful. For Them, there are Gardens beneath which rivers flow. There they will abide forever. Allah is well- pleased with them, and are they well-pleased with Allah. That indeed is a mighty triumph.

 

(5:120) To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is in they and He have full power over everything.

 

Translation with explanatory details:

 

(5:76) Say: ‘Do you serve, besides Allah, that which has no power either to harm or benefit you, whereas Allah alone is All-Hearing, All-Knowing?’

 

(5:77) Say: ‘People of the Book! Do not go beyond bounds in your religion at the cost of truth, and do not follow the caprices of the people who fell into an error before, and caused others to go astray, and strayed far away from the right path.

 

  1. This refers to those misguided nations from whom the Christians derived their false beliefs and ways, particularly to the Hellenistic philosophers under the spell of whose ideas the Christians had veered from the straight way they had originally followed. The beliefs of the early followers of the Messiah were mainly in conformity with the reality they had witnessed and conformed to the teachings they had received from their guide and mentor. But they later resorted to an exaggerated veneration of Jesus and interpreted their own beliefs in the light of the philosophical doctrines and superstitious ideas of the neighboring nations. Thus they invented an altogether new religion not even remotely related to the original teachings of the Messiah. In this connection the observations of a Christian theologian, the Reverend Charles Anderson Scott are significant. In a lengthy article entitled ‘Jesus’ Christ’, published in the fourteenth edition of Encyclopedia Britannica, he writes:

there is nothing in these three Gospels to suggest that their writers thought of Jesus as to other than human, a human being specially endowed with the Spirit of God and standing in an unbroken relation to God which justified His being spoken of as the ‘Son of God’. Even Matthew refers to Him as the carpenter’s son and records that after Peter had acknowledged Him as Messiah he ‘took Him aside and began to rebuke Him! (Matthew, xvi. 22). And in Like the two disciples on the way to Emmaus can still speak of Him as a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people! (Luke, xxiv. 19). It is very singular that in spite of the fact that before Mark was composed ‘the Lord’ had become the description of Jesus is common among Christians, He is never so described in the second Gospel (nor yet in the first, though the word is freely used to refer to God). All three relate the Passion of Jesus with a fullness and emphasis of its great significance; for but except the ‘ransom’ passage (Mark, 45) and certain words at the Last Supper, there is no indication of the meaning which was afterward attached to it. It is not even suggested that the death of Jesus had any relation to sin or forgiveness.

A little further on he writes:

That He ranked Himself as a prophet appears from a few passages such as ‘It cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem’. He frequently referred to Himself as the Son of Man; but while this must be the maintained in face of influential opinions to the contrary, the result for our purpose is less important than we might expect, for the possible meanings of the phrase are as numerous as the sources from which it may have been derived. They range from simple ‘man’ through ‘man in his human weakness and the representative ‘Man’ to the supernatural man from heaven foreshadowed in Daniel. If we had to postulate one source and one meaning for the phrase as used by Jesus of Himself, it would probably be found in Psalm I x x x., where the poignant appeal to God for the redemption of Israel runs out on the The hope of a ‘son of man whom thou maddest strong for thyself. The same author adds:

 

Certain words of Peter spoken at the time of Pentecost, ‘A man approved of God’, described Jesus as He was known and regarded by His contemporaries. He was ‘found in fashion as a man’, that is, in all particulars which presented themselves to outward observation He Appeared and behaved like one of the human race. He ‘was made man’. The Gospels leave no room for doubt as to the completeness with which these statements are to be accepted. From them, we learn that Jesus passed through the natural stages of development, physical and mental, that He hungered, thirsted, was weary and slept, that He could be surprised and require information, that He suffered pain and died. He not only did not claim omniscience, He distinctly waived it. This is not to deny that He had insight such as no other ever had, into human nature, into the hearts of men and the purposes and methods of God.

But there is no reason to suppose that He thought of the earth as other than the center of the solar system, of any other than David as the author of the Psalms, or did not share the belief of His age that demons were the cause of disease. Indeed, any claim to omniscience would be not only inconsistent with the whole impression created by the Gospels, it could not be reconciled with the cardinal experiences of the Temptation, of Gethsemane and Calvary.

Unless such experiences were to be utterly unreal, Jesus must have entered into them and passed through them under the ordinary limitations of human knowledge, subject only too such modifications of human knowledge as might be due to prophetic insight or the sure vision of God.

There is still less reason to predicate omnipotence of Jesus. There is no indication that He ever acted independently of God, or as an independent God. Rather does He acknowledge dependence upon God, by His habit of prayer and in such words as ‘this kind Goethe not forth save by prayer’. He even repudiates the ascription to Himself of goodness in the absolute sense in which it belongs to God alone. It is a remarkable testimony to the truly historical character of these Gospels that though they were not finally set down until the Christian Church had begun to look up to the risen Christ as to a Divine Being, the records on the one hand preserve all the evidence of His true humanity and on the other nowhere suggest that He thought of Himself as God.

 

The same author also observes that:

He proclaimed that at and through the Resurrection Jesus had been publicly installed as Son of God with power; and if the phrase has not wholly lost its official Messianic connotation, it certainly includes a reference to the personal Sonship, which Paul elsewhere makes clear by speaking of Him as God’s ‘own Son’ …  It may not be possible to decide whether it was the primitive community or Paul himself who first put full religious content into the title ‘Lord’ as used of Christ. Probably it was the former. But the Apostle undoubtedly adopted the title in its full meaning and did much to make that meaning clear by transferring to ‘the Lord Jesus Christ’ many of the ideas and phrases which in the Old Testament had been specifically assigned to the Lord Jehovah.

God gave unto Him that name that is above every name – the name of “Lord”. At the same time by equating Christ with the Wisdom of God and with the Glory of God, as well as ascribing to Him Sonship in an absolute sense, Paul claimed for Jesus Christ a relation to God which was inherent and unique, ethical and personal, eternal. While, however, Paul in many ways and in many aspects equated Christ with God, he definitely stopped short of speaking of him as ‘God’.

In another article in Encyclopedia Britannica (xiv edition), under the title ‘Christianity’, the Reverend George William Knox writes as follows about the fundamental beliefs of the Church:

Its molds of thought are those of Greek philosophy, and into these were run the Jewish teachings. We have thus a peculiar combination – the religious doctrines of the Bible, as culminating in the person of Jesus, run through the forms of an alien philosophy.

The Doctrine of the Trinity. The Jewish sources furnished the terms Father, Son, and Spirit.

Jesus seldom employed the last term and Paul’s use of it is not altogether clear. Already in Jewish literature had been all but personified (Cf. the Wisdom of Solomon). Thus the material is Jewish, though already doubtless modified by Greek influence: but the problem is Greek; it is not primarily ethical nor even religious, but it is metaphysical. What is the ontological relationship between these three factors? The answer of the Church is given in the Nicene formula, which is characteristically Greek, …

Also significant in this connection are the following passages of another article in Encyclopedia Britannica (xiv edition), entitled ‘Church History’: The recognition of Christ as the incarnation of the Logos was practically universal before the close of the 3rd century, but His deity was still widely denied, and the Arian controversy which distracted the The Church of the 4th century was concerned with the latter question. At the Council of Nicaea in 325 the deity of Christ received official sanction and was given formulation in the original Nicene Creed. Controversy continued for some time, but finally, the Nicene decision was recognized both in East and West as the only orthodox faith. The deity of the Son was believed to carry with it that of the Spirit, who was associated with Father and Son in the baptismal formula and the current symbols, and so the victory of the Nicene Christology meant the recognition of the doctrine of Trinity as part of the orthodox faith. The assertion of the deity of the Son incarnate in Christ raised another problem which constituted the subject of dispute in the Christological controversies of the 4th and following centuries. What is the relation of the divine and human natures in Christ? At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 it was declared that in the person of Christ are united two complete natures, divine and human, which retain after the union all their properties unchanged. This was supplemented at the 3rd Council of Constantinople in 680 by the statement that each of the natures contains a will, so that Christ possesses two wills. The Western Church accepted the decisions of Nicaea, Chalcedon, and Constantinople, and so the doctrines of the Trinity and of the two natures in Christ were handed down as orthodox dogma in West as well as East.

Meanwhile in the Western Church the subject of sin and grace, and the relation of divine and human activity in salvation received special attention; and finally, at the 2nd Council of Orange in 529, after both Plagiarism and semi-Plagiarism had been repudiated, a A moderate form of Augustinianism was adopted, involving the theory that every man as a result of the Fall is in such a condition that he can take no steps in the direction of salvation until he has been renewed by the divine grace given in baptism, and that he cannot continue in the good thus begun except by the constant assistance of that grace, which is mediated only by the Catholic Church.

It is evident from these statements of Christian scholars that it was exaggerated love and veneration of Christ which led the early Christians astray. This exaggeration and the use of expressions such as ‘Lord’ and ‘Son of God’ led to Jesus being invested with divine attributes and to the peculiar Christian notion of redemption, even though these could not be accommodated into the body of the teachings of Christ. When the Christians came to be infected with philosophical doctrines, they did not abandon the original error into which they had fallen but tried to accommodate the errors of their predecessors through apologetics and rational explanations. Thus, instead of returning to the true teachings of Christ, they used logic and philosophy to fabricate one false doctrine after another. It is to this error that the Qur’an calls the Christians’ attention in these verses.

(5:78) Those of the Children of Israel who took to unbelief have been cursed by the The tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary, for they rebelled and exceeded the bounds of right.

 

(5:79) They did not forbid each other from committing the abominable deeds they committed.12 Indeed what they did was evil.

 

102.The corruption of any nation begins with that of a few individuals. If the collective conscience of that nation is alive, the pressure of public opinion keeps those persons in check and prevents the nation as a whole from becoming corrupted. But if instead of censuring such individuals, the nation leaves them free to behave corruptly, the corruption originally confined to a few continues to spread till it engulfs the whole nation. It was this which ultimately caused the degeneration of Israel. (For the curse against Israel in the words of David and Jesus see Psalms 10, 50 and Matthew 23.)

 

(5:80) And now you can see many of them taking the unbelievers (instead of the believers) for their allies. Indeed they have prepared evil for themselves. Allah is angry with them, and they shall abide in chastisement.

 

(5:81) For had they truly believed in Allah and the Messenger and what was sent down to him, they would not have taken unbelievers (instead of believers) for their allies.123 But many of them have rebelled against Allah altogether.

 

 

103. It seems natural that those who believe in God and the Prophets and the Scriptures, compared with the polytheists, would naturally be more sympathetic to those who at least share with them believe in God, in prophethood and in revelation (whatever their disagreements on other religious issues). It was ironic, therefore, that the Jews should openly support the polytheists in the struggle between polytheism and monotheism, and that their sympathies in the conflict between those who rejected prophethood and those who believed in it should lie expressly with the former. Despite all this, they brazenly claimed to be true believers in God, in the Prophets in and the Scriptures.

(5:82) Of all men you will find the Jews and those who associate others with Allah in His divinity is the most hostile to those who believe, and you will surely find that of ail people, they who say: ‘We are Christians’, are closest to feeling affection for those who believe. This is because there are worshipful priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant.

 

(5:83) And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger you see that their eyes overflow with tears because of the Truth that they recognize and they say: ‘Our Lord! We do believe; write us down, therefore, with those who bear witness (to the Truth).

 

(5:84) And why should we not believe in Allah and the Truth which has come down to us when we do fervently desire that our Lord include us among the righteous?’

 

(5:85) So Allah rewarded them for these words with Gardens beneath which rivers flow so that they would abide there forever. Such is the reward of the people who do good.

 

(5:86) Those who disbelieved and gave the lie to Our signs are rightfully the inmates of the Blazing site (hell)

  

(5:87) Believers! Do not hold as unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful to you, and do not exceed the bounds of right.12 Allah does not love those who transgress the bounds of right.

 

104.This verse embodies two directives. The first is that man should not attribute to himself the authority to proclaim things either lawful or unlawful according to his own wishes.

Only that which God has held to be lawful is lawful, and only that which God has declared unlawful is unlawful. If men were to declare certain things either lawful or unlawful on their own authority, they would not be following the law of God but their laws. The second directive is that they should not adopt the course of world-renunciation and abstention from worldly pleasures as the Christian monks, Hindu mendicants, Buddhist bhikshus and illuminist mystics did. Religious-minded and virtuous people have always tended to consider their physical and carnal desires an impediment to spiritual growth.

They have considered suffering, deprivation from worldly pleasures and abstention from the means of worldly sustenance to be acts of goodness and indispensable for achieving proximity to God. Even some of the Companions leaned in this direction. The Prophet (peace be on him) once came to know that some Companions had resolved that they would fast without interruption, that instead of spending the night on their beds they would remain awake praying, that they would consume neither meat nor fat, and would have no (sexual) relations with women. The Prophet (peace be on him) addressed the people on this subject and said: ‘I have not been commanded to do so. Even yourself has rights against you. So, fast on certain days and refrain from fasting on others. Stay awake praying at night and also sleep. Look at me; 1 sleep as well as stay awake (praying); sometimes I fast and sometimes I don’t. I consume meat as well as fat. Whosoever dislikes my way does not belong to me.’ He then added: ‘What has happened to people that they have prohibited for themselves women, good food, perfumes, sleep and the pleasures of the world, whereas I  have not taught you to become monks and priests. In my religion, there is neither abstention from women nor meat, neither seclusion nor withdrawal.

 

For a self-control, my religion has fasting. As for monasticism, all its benefits can be derived from jihad (struggle in the way of God). Serve God and associate none with Him. Perform Hajj and ‘Umrah, establish Prayers, dispense Zakah and observe the fasts of Ramadan. Those who were destroyed before you were destroyed because they were severe with themselves, and when they became severe with themselves God became severe with them as well. It is the remnants of such people who you see in the oratories and hermitages of monks.’ (Ibn Kathir, vol. 2, pp. 626 and 628-9 – Ed.)

 

There are traditions to the effect that the Prophet (peace be on him) once came to know that one of his Companions was always so preoccupied with worship and devotion that he did not approach his wife for long periods. The Prophet (peace be on him) called for him and directed him to go to his wife. On being told that he was fasting, the Prophet (peace be on him) asked him to break the fast and proceed to his wife. During the reign of ‘Umar, a lady once complained that her husband fasted all day and prayed all night and had no relations with her. ‘Umar appointed the famous Successor (Tabi’1), Ka’b b. Thawr al-Azdi to look into the matter. He issued the judgment that the husband had the right to spend three nights in Prayer if he so wished, but every fourth night was the right of his wife. (Fiqh al- Sunnah, vol. 2, p. 164 – Ed.)

105.’Do not exceed the bounds of right’ has a broad significance. To hold the things which are lawful to be unlawful, and to shun the things declared by God to be clean as if they were unclean, is in itself an act of wrongful excess. It should be remembered, at the same time, that extravagant indulgence even in clean things is an act of wrongful excess. Likewise, to overstep the limits of the permissible is also an act of wrongful excess. God disapproves of all three kinds of excess.

 

(5:88) And partake of the lawful, good things which Allah has provided you as Allowable and refrain from disobeying Allah in whom you believe.

 

(5:89) Allah does not take you to task for the oaths you utter vainly, but He will certainly take you to task for the oaths you have sworn in earnest. The expiation (for breaking such oaths) is either to feed ten needy persons with more or less the same food as you are wont to give to your families, or to clothe them, or to set free from bondage the neck of one man, and he who does not find the means shall fast for three days. This shall be the expiation for your oaths whenever you have sworn (and broken them.)1°° But do keep your oaths.2 Thus does Allah make clear to you His commandments; maybe you will be grateful.

 

106.Since some people had taken an oath prohibiting for themselves the things which He had permitted, God laid down this injunction regarding oaths made inadvertently. The injunction makes it unnecessary to feel bound by the terms of inadvertent oaths, and for which one will not be reproached by God. And if a person had deliberately made an oath which entails sin he should not abide by his oath and should expiate it (see Towards Understanding the Qur’an, vol. I, (Surah 2,nn. 243-4); for expiation see (Surah 4, n. 125) above.

 

107.To be mindful of one’s oaths has several meanings. First, one should make proper use of oaths and should not employ them either frivolously or sinfully. Second, when a person takes an oath, he should take care not to forget it lest he be led to break it. Third, when a man deliberately takes an oath regarding something sound in itself he should pay the penalty if he happens to violate it.

 

(5:90) Believers! Intoxicants, games of chance, idolatrous sacrifices at altars, and divining arrows? are all abominations, the handiwork of Satan. So turn wholly away from from it that you may attain true success.12

108.F or ‘altars’ and divination by arrows see (nn.12 )and 14 )above. For games of chance see (n. 14) above.

While divination by arrow-shooting essentially constitutes a game of chance there is Nevertheless, a certain difference between the two, since divination by arrow-shooting, in addition to being a game of chance is also tainted with polytheistic beliefs and superstitions.

As for games of chance, this expression is applied to those games and acts in which accidental factors are considered the criteria for acquisition, fortune-making and the division of goods and property.

 

109.In this verse four things are categorically prohibited:

(1) Intoxicants;

(2) Games of chance;

(3) Places consecrated for the worship of anyone else besides God, and altars for either

sacrifices or offerings in the name of others than God; and

(4) Polytheistic divination by arrow-shooting.

 

The last three items have already been explained. (See Towards Understanding the Qur’an, vol. L( Surah 2: 219, n. 235 )and (Surah 5: 3, n. 14 above). Two injunctions had already been revealed concerning the prohibition of intoxicants See (Surahs 2: 219 )and(4: 43). Before the revelation of the last injunction, the Prophet (peace be on him) had warned the people that intoxicants were highly displeasing to God. Hinting at the possibility of their being prohibited, he advised people to dispose of intoxicants if they had any. A little later on the present verse was revealed and the Prophet (peace be on him) then proclaimed that those who had intoxicants should neither consume nor sell them, but rather destroy them.

Intoxicating liquors were poured into the streets of Madina. When asked if such liquor might be offered to the Jews as a gift the Prophet (peace be on him) replied in the negative and said: ‘He Who has prohibited it has also required it not to be given away as a gift.’ Some people inquired whether it was permitted to make vinegar out of such liquor. The Prophet (peace be on him) told them not to do so, but to throw it away instead. Another person asked insistently whether or not an intoxicant could be used as medicine. The Prophet (peace be on him) replied that far from being a remedy for any malady it was in itself a malady. Others sought permission to consume intoxicating liquor on the plea that they lived in a very cold region and had to work very hard, that the people of that region habitually drank intoxicants to combat exhaustion and cold. The Prophet (peace be on him) inquired if the drink concerned did cause intoxication. On being told that it did, he said that they should abstain from it. They pointed out that the people of their region would not accept this, to which the Prophet (peace be on him) replied that they should fight them.

It is reported by ‘Abdallah’ Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet (peace be on him) said: ‘God has cursed khuamr (wine) and him who drinks it, him who provides it to others and him who buys or sells it, him who squeezes (the grapes) into wine and him who causes others to squeeze grapes (in order to make wine), him who carries it and him to whom it is carried.’ (See Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, p. 97; vol. 1, p. 316; Abu Da’ud, ‘Ashribah’, 2 – Ed.)

 

According to another tradition, the Prophet (peace be on him) instructed not to eat at the table where intoxicating drinks were being taken. In the beginning, the Prophet (peace be on him) even forbade the use of vessels in which intoxicating drinks had either been made or served. Later on, when the prohibition of drinks was completely observed the Prophet (peace be on him) withdrew the interdiction regarding the use of these vessels. (Gee Abu Da’ud, ‘At’imah’, 18; Tirmidhi, ‘Adab’, 43; Darimi, ‘Ashribah’, 15; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 20; vol. 3, p. 339 – Ed.) Though the word khamr in Arabic means literally ‘the drink made from grapes’, it was also used figuratively for intoxicating liquors made from wheat, barley, raisins, dates, and honey. The Prophet (peace be on him) applied the prohibition of wine to all intoxicants. In this regard, we find categorical statements from the Prophet (peace

be on him) embodied in traditions: ‘Every intoxicant is khamr, and every intoxicant is prohibited.’

‘Every drink which causes intoxication is prohibited.’ ‘I forbid everything which intoxicates.’

In a Friday sermon ‘Umar defined khamr in the following manner: ‘Whatever takes hold of the mind is khamr.’ (See Bukhari, ‘Wudu”, 71; ‘Maghazi’, 60, ‘Ashribah’, 4,10, ‘Adab’, 8, ‘Ahkam’, 22; Muslim, ‘Ashribah’, 67-9; Abu Da’ud, ‘Ashribah’, 5, 71; Ibn Majah, ‘Ashribah’, 9,

13, 14; Darimi, ‘Ashribah’, 8, 9; Muwatta’, ‘Dahaya’, 8; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 274, 289, 350; vol. 2, pp. 16, 158, 171, 185, 429, 501; vol. 3, pp. 63, 66, 112, 119, 361; vol. 4, pp. 41, 416; vol. 6, pp. 36, 71, 72, 97, 131, 190 and 226 – Ed.)

 

The Prophet (peace be on him) also enunciated the following principle: ‘If anything causes intoxication when used in large quantity, even a small quantity of it is prohibited.’ ‘If a large quantity of something causes intoxication, to drink even a palmful of it is prohibited.’ (See Abu Da’ud, ‘Ashribah’, 5; Ibn Majah, ‘Ashribah’, 10; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 167, 179 and vol. 3, p. 343 – Ed.)

 

In the time of the Prophet (peace be on him), no specific punishment had been laid down for drinking. A person caught drunk would be struck with shoes, fists, and whips made of twisted cloth and palm sticks. The maximum number of lashes to which any culprit was subjected was forty. In the time of Abu Bakr, the punishment continued to be forty lashes. In the time of ‘Umar the punishment initially remained at forty lashes also, but when he saw people persist in drinking he fixed the punishment at eighty lashes after consulting the Companions. This was considered the prescribed legal punishment for drinking by Malik and Abu Hanifah, and even by Shafi’i according to one tradition. But Ahmad b. Hanbal, and, according to a variant tradition, Shafi’i, considered the punishment to consist of forty lashes, and ‘Ali is reported to have preferred this opinion.

According to Islamic Law, it is the bounden duty of an Islamic government to enforce this prohibition. In the time of ‘Umar the shop of a member of the Thagif tribe, by the name of Ruwayshid was burnt down because he carried on the sale of liquor. On another occasion, a whole hamlet was set on fire because it had become a center of illegal traffic in liquor.

 

(5:91) By intoxicants and games of chance Satan only desires to create enmity and hatred between you and to turn you away from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer. Will you, then, desist?

 

(5:92) Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and beware. But if you turn away, then know well that Our Messenger had merely to deliver the message clearly.

 

(5:93) There will be no blame on those who believe and do righteous deeds for whatever they might have partaken (in the past) as long as they refrain from things prohibited, and persist in their belief and do righteous deeds, and continue to refrain from whatever is forbidden and submit to divine commandments, and persevere in doing good, fearing Allah. Allah loves those who do good.

 

(5:94) Believers! Allah will surely try you with a game that will be within the range of your hands and lances so that He might mark out those who fear Him, even though He is beyond the reach of human perception. A painful chastisement awaits whosoever transgresses after that bounds set by Allah.

 

(5:95) Believers! Do not kill (hunt) game while you are in the state of pilgrim sanctity.u2 Whoever of you kills it wilfully there shall be a recompense, the like of what he has killed in cattle – as shall be judged by two men of equity among you – to be brought to the Ka’bah as an offering, or as an expiation of the feeding of the needy, or is equivalent to fasting so that he may taste the grievousness of his deed.

Allah has pardoned whatever has passed, but Allah will exact a penalty from him who repeats it. Allah is All-Mighty. He is fully capable of exacting penalties.

 

110.When a person is in the state of pilgrim sanctity (ihram) it is prohibited for him both to hunt and to assist in hunting animals. Indeed, even if an animal has been hunted for him by

someone else he may not eat it. However, if someone hunts an animal for himself and makes a gift of it to such a person, there is no harm in his eating it. There is an exception to this injunction and that is about harmful animals. Snakes, scorpions, mad dogs and other such animals which cause injury to man may be killed even by one in the state of ihram. (See Bukhari, ‘Talaq’, 24; ‘Sayd’, 2; Abu Da’ud, ‘Manasik’, 40, 41; Tirmidhi, ‘Hajj’, 27; ‘Sayd’, 26 – Ed.)

 

 

11.It would also be ‘two men of equity (Surah al-Ma’idah 5: 95) to judge the number of persons, one should feed or the number of days one should fast by way of expiation for killing a certain animal.

 

(5:96) The game of the water and eating thereof2 are permitted to you as a provision for you (who are settled) and for those on a journey, but to hunt on land while you are in the state of Pilgrim sanctity is forbidden for you. Beware, then, of disobeying Allah to Whom you shall all be mustered.

 

 

112.Since one often runs out of provisions during a voyage and is left with no alternative but to catch sea creatures, fishing in the sea has been made lawful.

 

(5:97) Allah has appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, as a means of support for (the collective life of) men, and has caused the holy month (of Pilgrimage), and the animals of sacrificial offering and their distinguishing collars to assist therein.3 This is so that you may know that Allah is aware of all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; and that Allah knows everything.14

 

 

113.In Arabia, the Ka’bah was not merely a sacred place of worship. Thanks to its central position and its sanctity, it nurtured the economic and cultural life of the whole peninsula.

Since the entire populace was drawn towards the Ka’bah for the performance of Hajj and ‘Umrah, their coming together brought about a measure of unity in the life of the Arabs which was otherwise rent with disunity. This enabled the people of various regions and tribes to establish social and cultural ties among themselves. Moreover, the security which reigned in the vicinity of the Ka’bah provided an impetus to creative literary activity, with the result that in the fairs held in the sacred territory, poets placed their poetic compositions before the audience, trying to excel one another. This led to the growth and flowering of their language and literature. Thanks, again, to the peace and security which reigned in the sacred territory, it became a major center of trade and commerce. Moreover, since certain months of the year were regarded as sacred months in which there could be no bloodshed, the Arabs enjoyed peace and security for about a quarter of the year. It was during this period that caravans moved in freedom and with ease from one end of the peninsula to the other. The custom of consecrating animals for sacrifice, marked off from others by the collars around their necks, also facilitated the movement of caravans, for whenever the Arabs saw those animals with their collars signifying consecration for they bent, they-bent their heads in reverence and no predatory tribe dared to molest them.

 

114.Were they to consider even the social and economic aspects of the life of their people, the existing arrangements would provide them with clear testimony to the fact that God has deep and thorough knowledge of the interests and requirements of His creatures, and that He can ensure immensely beneficial effects on many sectors of human life by just one single commandment. During the several centuries of anarchy and disorder which preceded the the advent of the Prophet (peace be on him), the Arabs were themselves unaware of their own interests and seemed bent upon self-destruction. God, however, was aware of their needs and requirements and by merely investing the Ka’bah with a central position in Arabia He ensured their national survival. Even if they disregarded innumerable other facts and reflected on this alone they would become convinced that the injunctions revealed by God were conducive to their well-being, and underlying them were a great many benefits and advantages for them which they themselves could neither have grasped nor achieved by their contriving.

 

(5:98) Know well that Allah is severe in retribution, and that Allah is also All- Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

 

(5:99) The Messenger is bound only to deliver the message, whereafter Allah knows

Well, all that you disclose and all that you conceal.

 

(5:100) (O Messenger!) Say to them: “The bad things and the good things are not a even though the abundance of the bad things might make you pleased with

them.45 Men of understanding, beware of disobeying Allah; then maybe you will attain true success.’

 

115.This verse enunciates a standard of evaluation and judgment quite distinct from the standards employed by superficial people. For the latter, for instance, a hundred dollars are worth more than five dollars, since a hundred is more than five. But, according to this verse, if those hundred dollars have been earned in a manner entailing the disobedience of God the entire amount becomes unclean. If, on the contrary, a man earns five dollars while obeying God then this amount is clean; and anything which is unclean, whatever its quantity, cannot be worth that which is clean. A drop of perfume is more valuable than a heap of filth; a palmful of clean water is much more valuable than a huge cauldron brimming with urine. A truly wise person should therefore necessarily be content with whatever he acquires by clean, permissible means, however small and humble its quantity may be. He should not reach out for what is prohibited, however large in quantity and glittering in appearance.

 

(5:101) Believers! Do not ask of the things which, if made manifest to you, would vex you; for, if you should ask about them while the Qur’an is being revealed, they will be made manifest to you. Allah has pardoned whatever happened in the past. He is All-Forgiving, All-Forbearing.

 

116.People used to ask the Prophet (peace be on him) many questions which were of no practical relevance to either religious or day-to-day affairs. Once, for instance, a person asked the Prophet (peace be on him) in the presence of a crowd: ‘Who is my real father?’ Likewise, many people used to ask unnecessary questions about legal matters. By these uncalled for inquiries they sought knowledge of matters which had for good reasons, been deliberately left undetermined by the Law-giver. In the Qur’an, for example. The pilgrimage had been declared obligatory. A person who became aware of this came to the Prophet (peace be on him) and inquired: ‘Has it been made obligatory to perform it every year?’ To this the Prophet (peace be on him) made no reply. When he inquired for the second time the Prophet (peace be on him) again stayed silent. On being asked for the third time, he said: ‘Pity on you! Had I uttered “Yes” in reply to your question, it would have become obligatory to perform it every year. And then you would not have been able to observe it and would have been guilty of disobedience.’ (See Bukhari, ‘Rigaq!, 22; ‘Zakah’, 53; I’tisam’, 3; ‘Adab’, 6; Muslim, ‘Aqdiyah’, 10, 11, 13, 14; Darimi, ‘Rigqaq’, 38; Muwatta’, ‘Kalam’, 20; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 327, 360, 367; vol. 4, pp. 246, 249, 250, 251, 255 – Ed.)

 

The Prophet (peace be on him) discouraged people from being over-inquisitive and unnecessarily curious about every question. We find in the Hadith the following saying from the Prophet (peace be on him): ‘The worst criminal among the Muslims is the one who inquired about something which had not been made unlawful, and then it was declared so, because of his inquiry.’ (Bukhari, I’tisam’, 3; Muslim, Fada’il’, 132, 133; Abu Da’ud, ‘Sunnah’,6 – Ed.) According to another tradition the Prophet (peace be on him) said: ‘God has imposed upon you certain obligations, do not neglect them; He has imposed certain prohibitions, do not violate them; He has imposed certain limits, do not even approach them; and He has remained silent about certain matters – and has not done so out of forgetfulness – do not pursue them.’ (See Towards Understanding the Qur’an, vol. I, (Surah 2, n. 110 – Ed.) In both these traditions, an important fact has been called to our attention. In matters where the Law-giver has chosen to lay down certain injunctions only broadly, without any elaborate details, or quantitative specifications, He has done so not because of neglect or forgetfulness. Such seeming omissions are deliberate, and the reason thereof is that He does not desire to place limitations upon people, but prefers to allow them latitude and ease in following His commandments. Now some people make unnecessary inquiries, cause elaborately prescribed, inflexibly determined and restrictive regulations to be added to the Law. Some others, in cases where such details are in no way deducible from the text, resort to analogical reasoning, thereby turning a broad general rule into an elaborate law full of restrictive details, and an unspecified into a specified rule. Both sorts of people put Muslims in great danger. For, in the area of belief, the more detailed the doctrines to which people are required to subscribe, the more problematic it becomes to do so. Likewise, in legal matters, the greater the restriction, the greater the likelihood of violation.

 

(5:102) Indeed some people before you had asked such questions and as a consequence, fell into unbelief.41z

 

117.Some people first indulged in hair-splitting arguments about their laws and dogma, and thereby wove a great web of creedal elaborations and legal minutiae. Then they became enmeshed in this same web and thus became guilty of dogmatic errors and the violation of their religious laws. The people referred to here are the Jews, and the Muslims who followed in their footsteps and left no stone unturned, despite the warnings contained in the Qur’an and in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him).

(5:103) Allah has neither appointed (cattle devoted to idols such as) Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah nor Ham;!8but those who disbelieve forge lies against Allah and of them most have no understanding (and therefore succumb to such superstitions).

 

 

118.Just as, in the Indian subcontinent, cows, oxen, and goats are set free after being consecrated either to God or some idol or shrine or some saintly person and just as people consider it prohibited either to put them to work, to slaughter them, or to derive any another kind of benefit from them, so the Arabs of the Jahiliyah period also let loose certain animals after consecrating them. Such animals were variously named.

Bahira was the name of a female camel that had already borne five young, the last of which was a male. The practice was to slit the ear of such a camel and then let her loose.

Thereafter no one could ride her, use her milk, slaughter her, or shear her hair. She was entitled to graze and drink water wherever she liked.

Sa’ibah was the name of either a male or female camel which had been let loose after consecration as a mark of gratitude in fulfillment of a vow taken for either the recovery from some ailment or delivery from some danger. In the same way, the female camel which had borne ten times, and each time a female, was also let loose.

Wasilah. If the first kid born to a goat was a male, it was slaughtered in the name of the deities; but if it was a female, it was kept by the owners for themselves. If twins were born and one of them was a male and the other a female goat, the male was not slaughtered but rather let loose in the name of the deities. This male goat was called wasilah.

Ham. If the young of camels in the second degree of descent had become worthy of riding they were let loose. Likewise, if ten offspring had been borne by a female camel she was also let loose and called ham.

 

(5:104) When they are asked: ‘Come to what Allah has revealed and come to the Messenger’, they reply: ‘The way of our forefathers suffices us.’ (Will they continue to follow their forefathers) even though their forefathers might have known nothing, and might _ been on the wrong way?

 

(5:105) Believers! Take heed of your own self. If you are rightly guided, the error of he who strays will not harm you.¥2 To Allah will all of you return; then He will let all of you know what you did.

 

119.What is stressed here is that rather than occupying himself unduly with examining faults in the belief and conduct of others, a man should pay greater attention to a critical examination of his conduct. His primary concern should be with his faith and conduct. If a man is himself obedient to God, observes his duties to Him and to His creatures including his duty to promote what is good and forbid what is evil, and lives according to the dictates of righteousness and honesty, he has fulfilled his obligation and if others persist either in false beliefs or in moral corruption their errors cannot harm him.

This verse in no way means that a man should care only for his salvation and should remain unconcerned with the reform of others. Abu Bakr removed this misconception in one of his sermons when he remarked: ‘You recite this verse but interpret it erroneously. I have heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) say that when people see corruption but do not try to change it; and when they see a wrong-doer commit wrong but do not prevent him from doing so, it is not unlikely that God’s chastisement will seize them all. By God, it is incumbent upon you that you bid what is good and forbid what is evil or else God will grant domination upon you to those who are the worst among you. They will greatly chastise you and then when your righteous ones pray to God, their prayers will not be answered.’

 

(5:106) Believers! When death approaches you, let two men of equity among you act as witnesses when you make your request; or let two of those from others than yourselves act as witnesses if you are on a journey when the affliction of death befalls you.12. Then if any doubt occurs you shall detain both of them (in the mosque) after the Prayer and they shall swear by Allah: ‘We shall neither sell our testimony in return for any gain even though it concerns any near of kin nor shall we conceal our the testimony which we owe to Allah, for then we should become among sinners.”.

 

120.That is pious, straightforward, and trustworthy Muslims.

That is, non-Muslims – Ed.

 

121.This shows that the testimony of non-Muslim witnesses in cases involving Muslims is appropriate only when no Muslim is available as a witness.

 

(5:107) Then if it is discovered later that the two are guilty of such sin, then two others shall stand in their place from among those against whom the two had sinfully deposed, and swear by Allah: ‘Our testimony is truer than the testimony of the other two, and we have not transgressed in our statement; for then indeed we would become wrong-doers.’

 

(5:108) Thus it is more likely that they will either bear the right testimony or else they will at least fear that their oaths may be rebutted by other oaths. Have fear of Allah and pay heed. Allah does not direct the ae to the right way.

 

(5:109) The Day! 2 when Allah will gather together the Messengers! and say: ‘What The answer were you given?’ They will reply: ‘We have no real knowledge of it.14 You alone fully know all that lies beyond the reach of human perception.

 

122.This refers to the Day of Judgment.

123.The reference here is to the response of the world to the call of the Prophets.

 

124.This reply indicates that the Prophets would say that their knowledge was confined to that limited, outward response which they had encountered during their lifetimes. The true reaction to their call at various places and in different forms would only be known completely to God Himself.

(5:110) Imagine, then, when Allah will say: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, recall My favor upon you and your mother, and when I strengthened you with the spirit of holiness so that you talked to men in the cradle and also when you became of age; and when I taught you the Book and Wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel, and when by My leave, you fashioned from clay the likeness of a bird and you breathed into it, and by My leave became a bird; you healed, by my leave, the blind from birth and the leprous; and when, by My leave, you caused the dead to come to life. And recall when I restrained the Israelites from you when you came to them with clear proofs whereupon those of them who disbelieved said: “This is nothing but clear magic.”

 

125.The initial question would be addressed to all Prophets as such. Then each of them would be called upon to bear witness separately, as stated in several places in the Qur’an. In this connection the question that will be addressed to Jesus is specifically mentioned here.

126.That is, with God’s command Jesus brought people to live from the state of death.

 

(5:111) And recall when I revealed to the disciples to believe in Me and My Mes- senger, they said: “We do believe, and we bear witness that we indeed are the ones who submit to Allah”!z

 

127.Jesus is being told that the faith of the disciples in him was also the result of God’s grace and succor, for he, himself, did not have the power to produce even one man of faith in that land of disbelief. It is also made clear that the true religion of the disciples of Jesus was Islam.

 

(5:112) Also recall when the disciples asked Jesus,128 sons of Mary: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, has your Lord the power to send down to us a repast from the heaven?’ Thereupon Jesus said: ‘Fear Allah if you do indeed have faith.’

 

128.Since the disciples have been mentioned here, the continuity of the subject is interrupted momentarily in order to introduce another incident connected with the disciples. This clearly shows that those who had been directly instructed by Jesus considered him merely a human being and a slave of God; they had no conception of their master either being God or a partner of God or the son of God. Jesus had, rather, presented himself to them as a slave of God with no claims to divine authority.

One might feel inclined here to raise the question: What is the occasion for this parenthetical interjection in a conversation that is to take place on the Day of Judgment? This parenthesis, in my opinion, is not, in fact, part of such a conversation, but rather forms part of a discussion in this world regarding a conversation that will take place on the Day of Judgment. The conversation that will take place on the Day of Judgment is mentioned here precisely in order that the Christians may derive a lesson from it and direct themselves to the right way.

Hence, the mention of this incident regarding the disciples – even though it seems to interrupt the continuity of narration – is in no sense out of place. That is, are Muslims – Ed.

 

(5:113) They said: ‘We desire to partake of it that our hearts be satisfied and we know that you did speak the truth to us, and that we are its witnesses.

  

(5:114) Jesus, son of Mary, then prayed: ‘O Allah, our Lord, send down to us a repast from the heavens that shall be a festival for the first of us and the last of us, and a sign from You. And provide us with sustenance, for You are the best Provider of sustenance.

 

(5:115) Allah said: ‘I shall indeed send it down to you; then, I shall afflict whoever among you who disbelieves with a chastisement wherewith, I will afflict none in the worlds.

 

129.The Qur’an is silent on the question of whether this meal was sent down in response to this prayer. There is also no other authoritative basis to help us arrive at a clear conclusion.

It is possible that the repast was sent down. It is also possible that the disciples withdrew their prayer after hearing the stern warning in response to it.

 

(5:116) And imagine when thereafter Allah will say: ‘Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to people: “Take me and my mother for gods besides Allah?”2 and he will answer:

“Glory to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right to. Had I said so, You would surely have known it. You know all that is within my mind whereas I do not know what is within Yours. You, indeed You, know fully all that is beyond the reach of human perception.

 

130,The Christians were not content merely with deifying Jesus and the Holy Spirit. They even turned Mary, the mother of Jesus, into a full-fledged object of worship. The Bible does not contain even the remotest suggestion that Mary was in any way either divine or superhuman. During the first three centuries after the Messiah, such a concept was totally alien to Christian thinking. Towards the end of the third century of the Christian era, however, some theologians of Alexandria employed, for the first time, the expression ‘Mother of God! in connection with Mary. Subsequently, belief in Mary’s divinity and the practice of Mariolatry began to spread among Christians. Even then, however, the Church was not prepared to accord official approval to this belief and denounced the Mariolaters as heretics. It was not until the Council of Ephesus in 431 that the Church officially used the expression ‘Mother of God’ for Mary. The result was that Mariolatry began to spread fast within the Church itself, so much so that, by the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, Mary had become so important a deity that she obscured even the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Statues of Mary adorned the cathedrals. She became the object of rites and worship.

People addressed their prayers to her. She was regarded as the one who responded to people’s supplications, who heeded people’s grievances and complaints, who relieved them in and distress, who provided support and succor to the helpless. For a devout Christian there could be no greater source of comfort and inner strength than the belief that he enjoyed the support and patronage of the ‘Mother of God’. In the preamble of his code, Justinian had declared Mary to be the defender and supporter of his empire, and his general, Marses, sought Mary’s guidance on the battlefield. Heraclius, a contemporary of the Prophet (peace be on him), had a picture of Mary on his standard and he was confident that by her grace the standard would never be lowered. Several centuries later the Protestants argued strongly against Mariolatry during the movement which led to the Reformation. The Roman Catholic Church has, nevertheless, managed so far to cling to Mariolatry in one form or another.

 

(5:117) I said to them nothing except what You commanded me, that is: ‘Serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ I watched over them as long as I remained among them; and when You did recall me, then You Yourself became the Watcher over them. Indeed, You are a Witness over everything.

 

(5:118) If You chastise them, they are Your servants; and if You forgive them, You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”

 

 

(5:119) Thereupon Allah will say: ‘This day truthfulness shall profit the truthful. For Them, there are Gardens beneath which rivers flow. There they will abide forever. Allah is well- pleased with them, and are they well-pleased with Allah. That indeed is a mighty triumph.

 

(5:120) To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is in they and He have full power over everything.

 

 

 

Published
Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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