We will have to Die one day are you ready to see GOD?

Surah An Nisa Ayah 126 to 155

Translation of Ayahs:

(4:126) Whatever is in the heavens and in the earth belongs to Allah;12 Allah en- compasses everything.

(4:127) They ask you to pronounce laws concerning women,!2 say: ‘Allah pronounces to you concerning them,1 and reminds you of the injunctions which were recited  for you in the Book about female orphans whom you do not give what has been ordained for them1=4 and whom you wish to marry (out of greed)’,5 and the commandments relating to the children who are weak and helpless. Allah directs you to treat the orphans with justice. Allah is well aware of whatever good you do.

(4:128) If 52 a woman fears either ill-treatment or aversion from her husband it is not wrong for the husband and wife to bring about reconciliation among themselves (by compromising on their rights), for settlement is better.158 Man’s soul is always prone to selfishness,12 but if you do good and are God-fearing, then surely Allah is aware of the things you do.1

(4:129) You will not be able to treat your wives with absolute justice not even when you keenly desire to do so. (It suffices in order to follow the Law of Allah that) you incline not wholly to one, leaving the other in suspense. If you act rightly and remain God-fearing, surely Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

(4:130) But if the two separate, out of His plenty Allah will make each dispense with the other. Indeed Allah is All-Bounteous,

(4:131) All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth belongs to Allah. We enjoined upon those who were given the Book before you, and also yourselves, to have fear of Allah. But if you disbelieve, then bear in mind that all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth belongs to Allah. Allah is Self-Sufficient, Most Praiseworthy.

(4:132) And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; and Allah suffices for help and protection.

(4:133) If He wills, He has the full power to remove you, O mankind, and bring in others in your place.

(4:134) He who desires the reward of this world, let him know that with Allah is the reward of this world and also of the World to Come. Allah is All-Hearing, All- Seeing .

(4:135) Believers! Be upholders of justice, and bearers of witness to the truth for the sake of Allah, even though it may either be against yourselves or against your parents and kinsmen, or the rich or the poor: for Allah is more concerned with their well- being than you are. Do not, then, follow your desires lest you keep away from justice. If you twist or turn away from (the truth), know that Allah is well aware of all that you do.

(4:136) Believers! Believe in Allah and His Messenger and in the Book He has revealed to His Messenger, and in the Book, He revealed before. And whoever disbelieves! in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Messengers and in the Last Day has indeed strayed far away.

 (4:137) Allah will neither forgive nor show the right way to those who believed, and then disbelieved, then believed, and again disbelieved, and thenceforth became ever more intense in their disbelief.

(4:138) Give tidings of painful chastisement to the hypocrites.

(4:139) who take the unbelievers for their allies in preference to the believers. Do they seek honor from them!<2whereas honor altogether belongs to Allah alone?

(4:140) Allah has enjoined upon you in the Book that when you hear the signs of Allah being rejected and scoffed at, you will not sit with them until they engage in some other talk, or else you will become like them.12 Know well, Allah will gather the hypocrites and the unbelievers in Hell – all together.

(4:141) These hypocrites watch you closely: if victory is granted to you by Allah, they will say: ‘Were we not with you?’ And were the unbelievers to gain the upper hand, they will say: ‘Did we not have mastery over you, and yet we protected you from the believers?” It is Allah Who will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection, and He will not allow the unbelievers, in any way, to gain an advantage over the believers.

(4:142) Behold, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is they who are being deluded by Him. When they rise to Prayer, they rise reluctantly, and only to be seen by men. They remember Allah but little.

(4:143) They dangle between the one and the other (faith and disbelief) and belong neither to these nor to those completely. And he whom Allah lets go astray, for him you can find no way.

 (4:144) Believers! Do not take the unbelievers as your allies in preference to the believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a clear proof of guilt against yourselves?

(4:145) Surely the hypocrites shall be in the lowest depth of the Fire and you shall find none to come to their help,

(4:146) except those who repent and mend their ways and hold fast to Allah, and make their faith exclusive on Allah. Those people shall be numbered with the believers and Allah will certainly bestow on the believers a great reward.

(4:147) Why should Allah deal chastisement to you if you are grateful! 2 to Him and believe? Allah is All-Appreciative,1 All-Knowing.

(4:148) Allah does not like speaking evil publicly unless one has been wronged. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

(4:149) (Even though you have the right to speak evil if you are wronged), if you keep doing good -whether openly or secretly -or at least pardon the evil (then that is the attribute of Allah). Allah is All-Pardoning and He has all the power to chastise.

(4:150) There are those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and seek to differentiate between Allah and His Messengers, and say: ‘We believe in some and deny others, and seek to strike a way between the two.’

(4:151) It is they, indeed they, who are, beyond all doubt, unbelievers; and for the unbelievers We have prepared a humiliating chastisement.

(4:152) For those who believe in Allah and His Messengers, and do not differentiate between them, We shall certainly give them their reward.12 Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate 

(4:153) The People of the Book now ask of you to have a Book come down on them from heaven;18! indeed they asked of Moses even greater things than this, for they said:

‘Make us see Allah with our own eyes’ – whereupon the thunderbolt suddenly smote them for their wickedness.1% Then they took to worshipping the calf after clear signs had come to them.183 Still, We forgave them, and conferred a manifest commandment upon Moses,

(4:154) and We raised the Mount high above them and took from them a Covenant! (to obey the commandment), and ordered them: ‘Enter the gate in the state  of prostration. And We said to them: ‘Do not violate the law of the Sabbath’, and took from them a firm covenant.

(4:155) (They have incurred Allah’s wrath) for their breaking the covenant, and their rejection of the signs of Allah, and for slaying Prophets without right, and for saying:

‘Our hearts are wrapped up in covers’!% -even though Allah has sealed their hearts because of their unbelief, so that they scarcely believe

Translation & Cometary:

(4:126) Whatever is in the heavens and in the earth belongs to Allah;12 Allah encompasses everything.

150. To submit to God is the best course for man, for it conforms fully to ultimate reality.

Since God is the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies therein, the only right attitude for man is to give up his unlimited freedom and willingly commit himself to serve and obey God.

151. If man will neither submit to God nor stop acting in defiance of Him, he should bear in mind that he can never escape from God’s grip, for His power encompasses him completely. 127

(4:127) They ask you to pronounce laws concerning women,!2 say: ‘Allah pronounces to you concerning them,1 and reminds you of the injunctions which were recited for you in the Book about female orphans whom you do not give what has been ordained for them1=4 and whom you wish to marry (out of greed)’,5 and the commandments relating to the children who are weak and helpless. Allah directs you to treat the orphans with justice. Allah is well aware of whatever good you do.

152. The actual query about women is not spelled out directly. judgment pronounced a little later on in response to that query, however, makes it abundantly clear what the query was.

153. This is not a response to the query itself. Before attending to this, God once again emphasizes that people should implement His directives regarding orphans in general, and orphan girls in particular, as mentioned at the beginning of this surah see (verses 2 ff).

above). This shows the importance of the rights of orphans in the sight of God. The protection of their rights, as we have pointed out, had already been stressed forcefully (see beginning of the surah, (verses 1-14). But that was not deemed sufficient. Hence, when problems of family life came up for discussion, the question of the well-being of orphans automatically arose even before answering the questions people raised.

154. This alludes to (verse 3 of this surah): ‘And if you fear that you might not treat the orphans justly, then marry the women that seem good to you. ‘

155. The words of the text ( ) may be interpreted as: ‘Whom you wish to marry (out of greed)’ and also as ‘Whom you do not wish to marry.’ In explanation of this verse ‘A’ishah states that, in those days, guardians of orphan girls who had any significant inheritance from their parents used to perpetrate many wrongs on their wards. If the girl was both rich and good looking, the guardian desired to marry her and exploit both her attractiveness and wealth without either having to make the bridal-due (mahr) or even having to undertake her maintenance. If the girl was ugly, the guardian would neither marry her nor allow her to get married, for she might thus get a husband who would support her claim to her legitimate rights. (See the commentary of Ibn Kathir on this verse. The tradition is quoted by Ibn Kathir from Bukhari. See also(n. 4 )above -Ed.)

156. The reference here is to the injunctions regarding the protection of the rights of orphans at the beginning of the surah see (verses 1 ff . and 11) ff. above).

(4:128) If52 a woman fears either ill-treatment or aversion from her husband it is not wrong for the husband and wife to bring about reconciliation among themselves (by compromising on their rights), for settlement is better.158 Man’s soul is always prone to selfishness,12 but if you do good and are God-fearing, then surely Allah is aware of the things you do.1

It is to questions such as these that these verses are addressed.

157.Th e actual response to the query begins here. In order to appreciate the response fully one would do well to consider the query itself. In the days of Ignorance a man was free to marry an unlimited number of women, who had virtually no rights. When the preliminary verses of the present surah were revealed (see especially(verse 3) this freedom was circumscribed in two ways. First, the maximum number of wives was fixed at four. Second, justice (that is, equal treatment of wives) was laid down as a necessary condition for marrying more than one. This gives rise to the question of whether a person is obligated by Islam to feel equally towards each of his wives, to love each to an equal degree, and treat them equally even in respect of sexual relationship. Such questions are especially relevant with regard to a husband one of whose wives might be, say, afflicted with either sterility, permanent sickness or who is incapable of sexual intercourse. Does justice demand that if he fails to live up to the standards of equality mentioned above that he should renounce his first wife in order to marry the second? Moreover, where the first wife is disinclined to agree to annulment of the marriage, is it appropriate for the spouses to make a voluntary accord between themselves, according to which the wife, towards whom the husband feels relatively less attracted, voluntarily surrenders some of her rights, prevailing upon her husband not to repudiate the marriage? Would such an act be against the dictates of justice?

158. It is better for the spouses to come to a mutual understanding so that the wife may remain with the same man with whom she has already spent part of her life.

159. The ‘selfishness’ on the part of the wife is that even though she is conscious of the causes which have contributed to her husband’s aversion towards her, she nevertheless expects from him the treatment that a husband accords to the wife that he loves. The ‘selfishness’ of the husband, on the other hand, lies in suppressing her unduly and curtailing her rights to an intolerable extent, merely because she is keen to continue to live with him even though she has lost her attraction for him.

160. Here, too, God urges the male, as He usually does in such matters, to be magnanimous.

God urges a man to treat his wife, who has probably spent a considerable number of years with him as his companion, with kindliness and grace in spite of the aversion that he has come to feel for her. He also urges man to love God, for if He were to deprive him of His loving care and blessing in order to punish him for his shortcomings, what place would he have under the sun?

(4:129) You will not be able to treat your wives with absolute justice not even when you keenly desire to do so. (It suffices in order to follow the Law of Allah that) you incline not wholly to one, leaving the other in suspense. If you act rightly and remain God-fearing, surely Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate. 12

161. This means that it is not possible for a man to accord complete equality of treatment to two or more wives under all circumstances and in all respects. It is possible that one is ugly, the other beautiful; one is old, the other young; one is permanently sick, the other healthy;

one is irritable, the other good-tempered. These and other differences are likely to make a person less attracted to one and more to the other. In such circumstances, the Law does not demand that one should necessarily maintain absolute equality between the wives in respect of love, emotional attachment and sexual relationship. What it does demand is that if a husband does not repudiate the marriage despite aversion for his wife, either because of his own desire or out of consideration for the desire of his wife, he should at least maintain a good relationship short of which his wife begins to feel as if she is without a husband. In such circumstances, while it is natural that a person should prefer one wife to the other, this should not go to the extent that the woman remains, as it were, in a state of suspension, as if she were without a husband at all.

Some people point out that in this verse the Qur’an in one breath stipulates justice as the necessary condition for plurality of wives and in the other breath declares it to be impossible.

On this ground they conclude that the Qur’an has itself revoked the permission to marry more than one wife. There is, however, absolutely no justification for such an inference.

Such an inference would have been justified had the Qur’an merely said that ‘You will not be able to treat your wives with (absolute) justice.’ But this statement has been followed by the directive: ‘ … do not allow yourselves to incline wholly to one, leaving the other in suspense.’ This leaves no grounds at all for the blind followers of Christian Europe to force an interpretation of their liking on the verse.

162. If a man does not deliberately inflict any wrong and tries earnestly to be just in his dealings God will pardon whatever minor shortcomings take place.

(4:130) But if the two separate, out of His plenty Allah will make each dispense with the other. Indeed Allah is All-Bounteous,

(4:131) All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth belongs to Allah. We enjoined upon those who were given the Book before you, and also yourselves, to have fear of Allah. But if you disbelieve, then bear in mind that all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth belongs to Allah. Allah is Self-Sufficient, Most Praiseworthy.

(4:132) And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; and Allah suffices for help and protection.

(4:133) If He wills, He has the full power to remove you, O mankind, and bring in others in your place.

(4:134) He who desires the reward of this world, let him know that with Allah is the reward of this world and also of the World to Come. Allah is All-Hearing, All- Seeing .18

163. In the Qur’an God often rounds off His enunciation of laws by urging people to reform those aspects of family life and social order in which they are generally liable to commit injustice with admonitions designed to create in people the urge to follow those legal injunctions. Since in the preceding verse the believers were asked to treat women and orphans with justice and kindness it was deemed necessary to bring home to them the following points:

First, that people should not entertain the illusion that they have the power to make or mar the destinies of others, that if they were to withdraw their support, people would be left helpless. The fact is that the destinies of all lie in the Hand of God alone and He need not remain dependent upon any single person as the sole instrument for helping any particular creature. The resources of the Lord of the heavens and the earth are limitless and He also knows how to use those resources.

Second, that the followers of the Prophet (peace be on him) ought to heed the admonition that was made to them, just as it was made to the followers of the former Prophets: to fear God in all their actions. They are being told in effect that by following God’s guidance they will secure their own well-being rather than be the source of any benefit to God, that they can do God no harm by disobeying Him, just as it did not lie in the power of the followers of the former Prophets to cause God any harm. The Lord of the Universe does not need people’s obedience. If they disobey He may simply replace them with some other nation, and their dismissal will not diminish the majesty and splendor of His realm in the least.

Third, that God alone has the power to dispense the good of this world as well as that of the Hereafter, to lavish transient benefits as well as abiding felicity. It all depends on a man’s

nature and the extent of his ambition what kind of benefit he seeks from God. If a man is infatuated with the fleeting benefits of this world, and is prepared to sacrifice the benefits of the everlasting life, then God will grant him only the good of this world and he will have no share in the good of the Hereafter. God’s benevolence is like a river which never dries up, a river which is both capable of, and geared to, providing abundant water to all who need their tillage watered. It is short-sighted and unambitious to want one’s fields to be irrigated only once, and to be prepared thereafter to face the prospect of eternal drought. Anyone with breadth of vision would commit himself to submit to God and obey Him, thereby earning the well-being of both worlds.

The section ends with the assertion that God is All-Seeing and All-Hearing. This means that God is fully aware of the actions of His creatures and is unlike those negligent sovereigns who are blind in lavishing their favors. God governs the universe with full knowledge and awareness. He has an eye on the capacities and ambitions of all human beings and knows their qualities exactly. He is fully aware of the purposes to which people devote their efforts and energies. Anyone who ‘willfully decides to be disobedient to God should therefore not cherish hopes of receiving the favors reserved for those who obey Him.

(4:135) Believers! Be upholders of justice, and bearers of witness to truth for the sake of Allah, even though it may either be against yourselves or against your parents and kinsmen, or the rich or the poor: for Allah is more concerned with their well- being than you are. Do not, then, follow your own desires lest you keep away from justice. If you twist or turn away from (the truth), know that Allah is well aware of all that you do.

164. It is not enough for believers to uphold justice themselves: they are expected to be its standard-bearers. They are supposed not merely to practice justice in their own dealings but to strive for its triumph. They have to do all within their power to ensure that injustice is eradicated and replaced by equity and justice. A true believer is required to be the pillar supporting the establishment of right and justice.

165. The testimony of the believers should be solely for the sake of God. Their testimony should not be biased in favor of any of the parties concerned, they should not use any opportunity for personal aggrandizement, and they should not seek to please anyone but God.

(4:136) Believers! Believe in Allah and His Messenger and in the Book He has revealed to His Messenger, and in the Book, He revealed before. And whoever disbelieves! in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Messengers and in the Last Day has indeed strayed far away.

166. To ask believers to believe might at first seem strange. The fact is, however, that belief as used here has two meanings. First, belief denotes that a man has preferred to acknowledge the soundness of true guidance, to distance himself from the fold of those who disbelieve, and to join the camp of the believers. Second, belief denotes faith, a man’s believing in the truth with all his heart, with full earnestness and sincerity. It denotes man’s sincere determination to mold his way of thinking, his taste and temperament, his likes and dislikes, his conduct and character, his friendship and enmity, and the direction of his efforts and striving, in conformity with the creed which he has resolved to embrace. This verse is addressed to all those who are ‘believers’ in the first sense of the term, and they are asked to change themselves into true believers, i.e. believers in the second sense.

167. Kufr has two meanings. One signifies categorical rejection. The other signifies that The pretense of belief even when either one’s heart is not convinced or one’s conduct is flagrantly opposed to the demands of one’s belief. Here the term Kufr conveys both meanings and the verse aims at impressing upon people that whichever kind of Kufr they adopt in respect of the fundamental beliefs of Islam, it will only alienate them from the Truth, and lead them instead to falsehood, and ultimately to their tragic failure and destruction.

(4:137) Allah will neither forgive nor show the right way to those who believed, and then disbelieved, then believed, and again disbelieved, and thenceforth became ever more intense in their disbelief.1%®

168. This refers to those for whom religion is no more than an object of casual entertainment, a toy with which they like to play as long as it suits their desires and fancies. One wave carries them to the fold of Islam and the next away to that of disbelief. Whenever Islam appears to suit their interests they become Muslims; and when the glamorous visage of the god of utility leaps up before their eyes they rush off to worship it. To such people God holds out neither the assurance of forgiveness nor of direction to true guidance. The statement that such people ‘became even more intense in their disbelief refers to those who are not content with not believing themselves, but also try to undermine the faith of others and to persuade them to disbelief, who engage in secret conspiracies as well as overt activities against Islam, and who devote their energies to the struggle aimed at exalting disbelief and degrading the true religion of God. This is a higher degree of disbelief, involving the progressive heaping of crime upon crime. It is obvious that the punishment for this must be greater than for simple disbelief.

(4:138) Give tidings of painful chastisement to the hypocrites.

(4:139) who take the unbelievers for their allies in preference to the believers. Do they seek honor from them!<2whereas honor altogether belongs to Allah alone?

169. The term ‘jzzah denotes a position which is at once exalted and secure. In other words, the term signifies ‘inviolable honor and glory’.

(4:140) Allah has enjoined upon you in the Book that when you hear the signs of Allah being rejected and scoffed at, you will not sit with them until they engage in some other talk, or else you will become like them.12 Know well, Allah will gather the hypocrites and the unbelievers in Hell – all together.

170. A person who professes Islam and yet enjoys the company of those who indulge in blasphemy against God, and who bears with equanimity their scoffing at God and His Messenger, is no different from the unbelievers mentioned here. (For the injunction in this verse, see also (Surah al-An’am 6: 68) below.

(4:141) These hypocrites watch you closely: if victory is granted to you by Allah, they will say: ‘Were we not with you?’ And were the unbelievers to gain the upper hand, they will say: ‘Did we not have mastery over you, and yet we protected you from the believers?” It is Allah Who will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection, and He will not allow the unbelievers, in any way, to gain advantage over the believers.

171. This is typical of the hypocrites of every age. Such people try to avail themselves of all the benefits which can accrue from a verbal profession of Islam and identification with the Islamic community. They also try to secure the advantages to be obtained by associating with the unbelievers, by assuring them in every possible way about themselves that they are not ‘fanatic Muslims’, that their association with the Muslims is only nominal. On the other hand, they never fail to assure the unbelievers that their loyalties and concerns are the same as theirs, that in mental outlook, cultural orientation and taste they are in harmony with them, and that if a decisive conflict between Islam and unbelief were to take place, their weight will certainly be on the side of the latter.

(4:142) Behold, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is they who are being deluded by Him. When they rise to Prayer, they rise reluctantly, and only to be seen by men. They remember Allah but little.12

172. In the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) no one, unless he prayed regularly, could be reckoned as belonging to the Islamic community. We know that secular associations consider the absence of any member from their meetings, without a valid excuse, a sign of lack of interest, and that in the event of continued absence, they cancel his membership. The early Islamic community did the same with those who absented themselves from congregational Prayers. In those days a person’s absence from congregational Prayers was considered a clear indication of his indifference towards Islam: if he absented himself from them repeatedly he was no longer held to be a Muslim. In those days, therefore, even the worst hypocrites had to attend the five daily Prayers in the mosque. What distinguished a true believer from the hypocrite was that the former came to the mosque with devotion, fervor and eagerness, came there well before the appointed time for the Prayer, and did not rush out of the mosque as soon as the Prayer was over. In short, everything about him indicated that his heart was in the Prayer. Whereas the call to the Prayer for the hypocrite seemed like the announcement of an unavoidable calamity. When such a person set off for the mosque, he seemed to do so in spite of himself. He walked as if he were dragging the entire weight of his being. No wonder, then, that as soon as the Prayer was over, he escaped like a prisoner released from jail. His entire demeanor testified that the remembrance of God was not what he really had his heart in.

(4:143) They dangle between the one and the other (faith and disbelief), and belong neither to these nor to those completely. And he whom Allah lets go astray, for him you can find no way.12

173. Here an important fact has been stated about the person who remained unguided to the Truth despite his acquaintance with the Book of God and with the life of His Prophet (peace be on him). He was a person who was so disinclined to the Truth and so infatuated with error that even God let him go forth along the same erroneous direction that he had chosen for himself, a person on whom the door of true guidance had been shut and the way towards error had been made smooth by God. It is virtually beyond the power of human- beings to direct such a person to the Truth.

We may be able to grasp this if we consider the case of man’s livelihood. God controls all the sources of man’s livelihood. Thus, anyone who receives any portion of livelihood receives it from God alone. At the same time, God grants every man livelihood through the means he has himself sought. If a man seeks his livelihood through lawful means and strives accordingly, God opens the door to honest living to him and closes the avenues of dishonest earnings in proportion to his earnestness. On the other hand, there is the person who is bent upon fattening himself on dishonest earnings and strives accordingly. God permits such a person to continue making an unlawful living, and no one has the power to help him secure an honest means of living.

The same applies to man’s belief and conduct in this life. In this respect too, the ultimate control rests with God. No human being can proceed along any path, whether it be good or evil, unless God lets him proceed along it, and bestows upon him the means to do so.

However, it is up to man himself to choose his own path, and after he has made the choice, God will let him proceed along it, and will even pave the way for him. If a person really cares about God, genuinely seeks the truth and earnestly tries to pursue the path charted by God, God permits him to follow his choice, and even provides the means necessary to proceed along his chosen path. On the other hand, God shuts the door of true guidance on the person who chooses error and strives to proceed only along wrong paths, and further enables him to follow the path of his choice. It is beyond the power of any human being to prevent such a person from thinking wrongly, acting wrongly and using up his energies in wrong directions. If a man loses the road to his success and is subsequently deprived of true guidance by God, in whose power does it lie, then, to restore to him his lost treasure?

(4:144) Believers! Do not take the unbelievers as your allies in preference to the believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a clear proof of guilt against yourselves?

(4:145) Surely the hypocrites shall be in the lowest depth of the Fire and you shall find none to come to their help,

(4:146) except those who re-pent and mend their ways and hold fast to Allah and make their faith exclusive to Allah.14 Those people shall be numbered with the believers and Allah will certainly bestow on the believers a great reward.

174. To make one’s faith exclusively to God means to concentrate one’s loyalties, concerns, affections, and adorations on God, and not to allow any attachments to strike such deep roots in one’s heart that one may cease to be capable of sacrificing them for His sake.

(4:147) Why should Allah deal chastisement to you if you are grateful!2 to Him and believe? Allah is All-Appreciative,1 All-Knowing.

175. Shukr denotes an acknowledgement of benefaction and a feeling of gratitude. This verse states if a person does not behave ungratefully towards God then there is no reason why God should punish him.

The attitude of gratefulness to God consists of acknowledging His benefaction in one’s heart, in confessing it in one’s speech and by manifesting it in one’s deeds. It is the sum-total of these which is termed shukr. This attitude requires:

(1) that a person should ascribe the benefaction to its real source, letting no one share in either the gratitude or the acknowledgement of benevolence;

(2) that his heart should be overflowing with love for, and loyalty to, the Benefactor, and that he should have no attachment to His opponents;

(3) that he should obey the Benefactor and should not use His bounties contrary to His directives.

176.The word used here is shakir which we have translated as ‘All-Appreciative’. In the context of the God-man relationship, when the word shukr is used in respect of God, it denotes ‘appreciation of services’. When it is used in respect of man, it denotes his acknowledgement of God’s benefaction and his sense of gratitude to Him. To say that God ‘thanks’ His creatures stresses that God is fully appreciative of the services which His servants have rendered and will recompense them liberally. This contrasts sharply with the attitude of human beings, who are generally slow and uncharitable in appreciating the services rendered to them, and quick and severe in censuring people for their omissions. As for God, He is lenient and prone to overlook man’s omissions. On the contrary, He rewards man manifold for his good deeds.

(4:148) Allah does not like speaking evil publicly unless one has been wronged. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

(4:149) (Even though you have the right to speak evil if you are wronged), if you keep doing good -whether openly or secretly -or at least pardon the evil (then that is the attribute of Allah). Allah is All-Pardoning and He has all the power to chastise.1Z

177. This verse embodies a moral directive of very high value to the Muslims. The hypocrites, the Jews and the polytheists were all bent on placing all kinds of obstacles in the way of the spread of Islam: They eagerly persecuted the Muslims and used all possible means, however malicious, against them. Such an attitude inevitably created anger and resentment. It was in the context of this storm of bitter feelings that God told the Muslims that He did not consider speaking ill of people as praiseworthy. No doubt the Muslims had been wronged, and if a wronged person speaks out against a wrong-doer, he is quite justified in doing so. Even though this is a person’s right, it is more meritorious to continue to do good both in public and in private, and to ignore the misdeeds of others. For one’s ideal should be to try to approximate to God’s way as far as possible. God with whom one wants to be close is lenient and forbearing; He provides sustenance even to the worst criminals and seeks mitigating circumstances in even the most serious offences. In order to become close to God, one ought to be generous in spirit and full of tolerance.

(4:150) There are those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and seek to differentiate between Allah and His Messengers, and say: ‘We believe in some and deny others, and seek to strike a way between the two.’

(4:151) It is they, indeed they, who are, beyond all doubt, unbelievers; and for the unbelievers We have prepared a humiliating chastisement.

178. Insofar as being an unbeliever is concerned, there is no difference between (1) those who believe neither in God nor in the Prophets,

(2) those who believe in God but not in the Prophets, and

(3) those who believe in some Prophets but reject others.

(4:152) For those who believe in Allah and His Messengers, and do not differentiate between them, We shall certainly give them their reward.12 Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate 182

179. This means that only those who acknowledge God to be their sole object of worship and their only sovereign, and who commit themselves to follow all the Prophets, will merit reward for their acts in the Hereafter. What that reward will be depends on the nature and extent of their acts of goodness. Those who do not either acknowledge the exclusive sovereignty of God or who rebelliously reject some Messengers of God and believe only in those whom they choose to, will not be rewarded, for in God’s sight their apparently good acts are essentially not valid.

180. God will be lenient and forgiving in judging the conduct of those who believe in Him and the Prophets.

(4:153) The People of the Book now ask of you to have a Book come down on them from heaven;18! indeed they asked of Moses even greater things than this, for they said: ‘Make us see Allah with our own eyes’ – whereupon the thunderbolt suddenly smote them for their wickedness. Then they took to worshipping the calf after clear signs had come to them.183 Still, We forgave them, and conferred a manifest commandment upon Moses,

181. One of the odd demands which the Jews of Madina made to the Prophet (peace be on him) was that if he wanted them to accept his claim to prophethood he should have them either witness a book descending from the heavens or that each one of them should receive a writ from on high, confirming Muhammad’s prophethood and the absolute necessity of believing in him.

182. The purpose here is not to describe the details of any particular event, but merely to mention, in brief, the crimes of the Jews. Hence passing references are made to the main incidents in the national history of the Jews. The particular event referred to has been mentioned earlier in Surah al-Baqarah. (See Towards Understanding the Qur’an, vol. I, (Surah 2: 55; also n. 71.)

183. ‘Clear signs’ refer here to the signs which people had constantly witnessed from the time of Moses’ appointment to his prophetic office, to the drowning of Pharaoh and the deliverance of the Israelites out of Egypt. It is clear that He Who had secured the deliverance of the Israelites from the clutches of the powerful Egyptian empire was not the calf, but God, the Lord of the Universe. One is simply staggered at the overpowering predisposition of the Jews to error, as evidenced by the fact that at that very juncture in their history when they had experienced the most illustrious signs of God’s power and grace they bowed down before the image of the calf, rather than before God, their Benefactor.

(4:154) and We raised the Mount high above them and took from them a Covenant ! (to obey the commandment), and ordered them: ‘Enter the gate in the state  of prostration.’  And We said to them: ‘Do not violate the law of the Sabbath’, and  took from them a firm covenant.

184. This ‘manifest commandment’ refers to the commandments hichhad been handed over to Moses on tablets. (For a more detailed account of this incident see (Surah al-A’raf 7, verses 143 _ff.).The covenant referred to here is that which had been entered into by the representatives of Israel in the valley of Mount Sinai. For this see (Surah al-Bagarah_ 2: 63 _)and (Surah al-A’raf 7:171.)

185. See Towards Understanding the Qur’an. vol. I, (Surah 2: 58-9 and n. 75). 186. See ibid., (Surah 2: 65 and nn. 82-3).

(4:155) (They have incurred Allah’s wrath) for their breaking the covenant, and their rejection of the signs of Allah, and for slaying Prophets without right, and for saying:

‘Our hearts are wrapped up in covers’!% -even though in fact Allah has sealed their hearts because of their unbelief, so that they scarcely believes

187. This statement of the Jews has already been mentioned in (Surah al-Baqarah 2: 88). In fact, like all ignorant worshippers of falsehood, these people also boasted that their faith in the ideas and prejudices, customs and usages of their forefathers was so firm that they could never be made to forsake them. Whenever the Messengers of God tried to admonish them, they have been told point-blank that no matter what argument or evidence the latter might adduce in support of their message, they would never be prepared to alter their viewpoint. (See Towards Understanding the Qur’an, vol. I, (Surah 2, n. 94.)

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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