Do Yu know There is no God but Allah.

Surah An Nisa Ayah66 to 95

Only Translation

(4:66) Had We enjoined upon them: ‘Slay yourselves’, or ‘Leave your habitations’, very few of them would have done it; yet if they had done as they were admonished, it would have been better for them and would have strengthened them;

(4:67) whereupon We would indeed grant them from Us a mighty reward,

(4:68) and guide them a straightway.

(4:69) And he who obeys Allah and the Messenger -they shall be with those whom Allah has favored prophets, those steadfast in truthfulness”, the martyrs, and the righteous.” How excellent will they be for companions!

(4:70) That is a bounty from Allah, and Allah suffices to know the truth.

(4:71) Believers! Always be on your guard against encounters.1 Then (as circumstance demands) either advance in detachments or advance in a body.

(4:72) Among you there is such who lags behind,“ then if some affliction strikes you, he says: ‘Indeed Allah bestowed His favor upon me that I was not present with them.

(4:73) And if a bounty from Allah is given you, he says – and says as if there never was any affection between you and him – ‘Oh, would that I had been with them, I would have come by a great gain.

(4:74) Let those who seek the life of the Next World in exchange for the life of this world fight in the way of Allah..8We shall grant a mighty reward to whoever fights in the way of Allah, whether he is slain or comes out victorious.

(4:75) How is it that you do not fight in the way of Allah and support of the helpless – men, women, and children -who pray: ‘Our Lord, bring us out of this land whose people are oppressors and appoint for us from Yourself, a protector, and appoint for us from Yourself a helper? 2.

(4:76) Those who have faith fight in the way of Allah, while those who disbelieve fight in the way of taghut (Satan).1Fight, then, against the fellows of Satan. Surely Satan’s strategy is weak.

(4:77) Have you not seen those who were told: ‘Restrain your hands, and establish the Prayer, and pay the Zakah’? But when fighting was enjoined upon them some of them feared men as one should fear Allah, or even more,“ and said: ‘Our Lord, why have Did you order fighting for us? Why did You not grant us a little more respite?’ Say to them: ‘There is little enjoyment in this world. The World to come is much better for the God-fearing. And you shall not be wronged even to the extent of the husk of a date-stone.

(4:78) Wherever you might be, death will overtake you even though you be in massive towers. And when some good happens to them, they say: ‘This is from Allah’; whereas when some misfortune befalls them, they say: ‘This is because of you’.1 Say: ‘All is from Allah.’ What has happened to these people that they seem to understand nothing?

(4:79) Whatever good happens to you is from Allah, and whatever misfortune smites you is because of your action. We have sent you to mankind (O Muhammad!) as a Messenger and Allah are sufficient as a witness.

(4:80) He who obeys the Messenger thereby obeys Allah; as for he who turns away, We have not sent you as a keeper over them!

(4:81) They say (in your presence): ‘We obey, but when they leave your presence a party of them meets by night to plan against what you have said. Allah takes note of all their plots. So, let them alone, and put your trust in Allah. Allah is sufficient as a guardian.

(4:82) Do they not ponder about the Qur’an? Had it been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much inconsistency

(4:83) Whenever they come upon any news bearing upon either security or causing consternation they go about spreading it, whereas if they were to convey it to either the Messenger or to those from among them who are entrusted with authority, it would come to the knowledge of those who are competent to investigate it.12 But for Allah’s bounty and mercy upon you, (weak as you were) all but a few of you would surely have followed Satan.

(4:84) (So, O Messenger!) Fight in the way of Allah -since you are responsible for none except yourself – and rouse the believers to fight, for Allah may well curb the might of the unbelievers. Indeed Allah is strongest in power and most terrible in chastisement.

who intercedes in a good cause shall share in its good result and he who intercedes in an evil cause shall share in its burden.“ Allah watches over everything.

(4:86) When you are greeted with a salutation then return it with a better one, or at least the same.14 Surely Allah takes good count of everything.

(4:87) There is no god but Allah. He will certainly gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection – the Day regarding which there can be no doubt. Whose word can be truer than Allah’s?

(4:88) What has happened to you that you have two minds about the hypocrites even though Allah has reverted them, owing to the sins that they earned ?1z Do you want to lead those to the right way whom Allah let go astray? And he whom Allah lets go astray, for him you can never find a way.

(4:89) They wish that you should disbelieve just as they disbelieved so that you may all be alike. Do not, therefore, take from them allies until they emigrate in the way of Allah, but if they turn their backs (on emigration), seize them and slay them wherever you come upon them. Take none of them for your ally or helper,

(4:90) unless it is such of them who seek refuge with a people who are joined with you by a covenant,2 or those who come to you because their hearts shrink from fighting either against you or against their people. Had Allah so willed, He would certainly have given them power over you and they would have fought against you. If they leave you alone and do not fight against you and offer you peace, then Allah does not permit you to harm them.

(4:91) You will also find others who wish to be secure from you, and secure from their people, but who, whenever they have an opportunity to cause mischief, plunge into it headlong. If such people neither leave you alone nor offer you peace nor restrain their hands from hurting you, then seize them and slay them wherever you come upon them. It is against these that We have granted you a clear sanction.

(4:92) It is not for a believer to slay another believer unless by mistake.122 And he who has slain a believer by mistake, his atonement is to set free from bondage a believing person! and to pay blood money to his heirs,12 unless they forgo it by way of charity.

And if the slain belonged to a hostile people, but was a believer, then the atonement is to set free from bondage a believing person.

(4:93) And he who slays a believer willfully his reward is Hell, where he will abide. Allah’s wrath is against him and He has cast His curse upon him and has prepared for him a great chastisement.

(4:94) Believers! When you go forth in the way of Allah, discern (between friend and foe), and do not say to him who offers you the greeting of peace: ‘You are not a believer.’2¢ If you seek the good of this worldly life, there lies with Allah abundant gain. After all, you too were such before, and then Allah was gracious to you.!2  Discern, then, for Allah is well aware of what you do.

(4:95) Those believers who sit at home, unless they do so out of a disabling injury, are not the equals of those who strive in the way of Allah with their possessions and their lives. Allah has exalted in rank those who strive with their possessions and their lives over those who sit at home; and though to each Allah has promised some good reward, He has preferred those who strive (in the way of Allah) over those who sit at home for a mighty reward.

Translation with Tafheem(Translation)

(4:66) Had We enjoined upon them: ‘Slay yourselves’, or ‘Leave your habitations’, very few of them would have done it; yet if they had done as they were admonished, it would have been better for them and would have strengthened them;

96. As these people are not prepared to endure even minor losses and inconveniences in order to follow the law of God, they can never be expected to make big sacrifices. If asked either to lay down their lives or to give up their homes and families for the sake of the Truth they would fly straight back to unbelief and disobedience.

97. Had these people been able to free themselves of uncertainty, hesitation and ambivalence, and to resolve firmly to follow and obey the Prophet (peace be on him), their lives would have been spared the instability from which they suffer. Their way of thinking, their morals and their practical dealings would all have found permanent and stable foundations, and they would have enjoyed the blessings granted only to those who follow the one straight path with firmness and resolution. For one who is subject to indecision and hesitation, who keeps changing from one direction to another in a state of uncertainty, life is a continuous exercise in futility.

(4:67) whereupon We would indeed grant them from Us a mighty reward, (4:68) and guide them  a straight way.

98. By giving up uncertainty, and deciding with complete faith and conviction to follow the Prophet (peace be on him), the straight path of their endeavors would have opened up before them. They would have been able to perceive the channels into which their energies should be directed so that each step they took would be a step towards the true

(4:69) And he who obeys Allah and the Messenger -they shall be with those whom Allah has favored prophets, those steadfast in truthfulness”, the martyrs, and the righteous.” How excellent will they be for companions!

99. Siddiq denotes someone who is utterly honest, someone whose devotion to truth has reached a very high point. Such a person is always upright and straightforward in his dealings. He supports nothing but right and justice and does so with sincerity. He opposes whatever is contrary to truth and does not waiver in his opposition to falsehood. His life is so unblemished and selfless that even enemies, let alone friends, expect of him unadulterated probity and justice.

The term shahid (pi. Shah ad means ‘witness’. It signifies one who attests to the truth of his faith with his whole life. He who lays down his life fighting for God is called a shahid because by this sacrifice he confirms that his confession of faith was backed by a deep, genuine conviction of its truth and that he valued it above his own life. The term shahid is also applied to those outstandingly honest people who are so trustworthy that their testimony, on any matter, is accepted without hesitation. Salih denotes one whose belief and thinking, motives and intentions, words and deeds, are based on righteousness. In short, he is a person whose life as a whole is oriented to righteousness.

100. He who enjoys, in this world, the company of the kind of people mentioned in this verse, and whom God judges worthy of the same company in the Hereafter is fortunate. The fact is that unless a man’s natural sensitivity has atrophied, the companionship of corrupt and wicked people is a painful punishment even in this transient world, let alone that one should be subjected to the perpetual companionship of such people in the abiding life of the Hereafter. Good people have always longed for the company of like people, both in this world and the Next.

(4:70) That is a bounty from Allah, and Allah suffices to know the truth.

(4:71) Believers! Always be on your guard against encounters.1 Then (as circumstance demands) either advance in detachments or advance in a body.

101. This discourse was revealed after the Battle of Uhud when the tribes living around Madina had been greatly encouraged by the defeat of the Muslims. Thus dangers seemed to surround the Muslims on all sides. Day in and day out news poured in about the hostile intentions of one tribe after another. Reports came in of attacks mounted now in one area, and then in another. The Muslims were, again and again, the victims of treachery. Their preachers were invited to preach and then put to the sword. Beyond Madina, neither their lives nor their property was secure. Consequent ly the Muslims had to prepare themselves for a fierce struggle, for a tremendous, all-out effort to ensure that the Islamic movement would not be crushed.

(4:72) Among you there is such who lags behind,“ then if some affliction strikes you, he says: ‘Indeed Allah bestowed His favor upon me that I was not present with them.

102. Another meaning could be that such persons not only shirk the risks of fighting themselves but also go about spreading demoralization to discourage others from fighting in the name of God.

(4:73) And if a bounty from Allah is given you, he says – and says as if there never was any affection between you and him – ‘Oh, would that I had been with them, I would have come by a great gain.

(4:74) Let those who seek the life of the Next World in exchange for the life of this world fight in the way of Allah..8We shall grant a mighty reward to whoever fights in the way of Allah, whether he is slain or comes out victorious.

103. The point stressed here is that fighting for the cause of God cannot be conducted by people engrossed in the pursuit of worldly benefits. This is the task of those who seek to please God, who have complete faith in Him and the Hereafter, who are prepared to sacrifice all opportunities of worldly success and prosperity, and of all worldly interests, hoping thereby to win God’s good pleasure. Irrespective of what happens in the present world such sacrifices will not be wasted in the Hereafter. Jihad (struggle in the cause of God) is not for those who mainly care for worldly benefits.

(4:75) How is it that you do not fight in the way of Allah and support of the helpless – men, women, and children -who pray: ‘Our Lord, bring us out of this land whose people are oppressors and appoint for us from Yourself, a protector, and appoint for us from Yourself a helper? 2.

104. This refers to those wronged, persecuted men, women and children of Makkah and of the other tribes in Arabia who had embraced Islam, but were able neither to emigrate nor to protect themselves from the wrongs to which they were subjected. These helpless people suffered many forms of persecution and prayed for deliverance from oppression.

(4:76) Those who have faith fight in the way of Allah, while those who disbelieve fight in the way of taghut (Satan).1Fight, then, against the fellows of Satan. Surely Satan’s strategy is weak.1

105. This lays down a clear verdict of God. To fight in the cause of God, to struggle for  his religion shall be established on earth is the task of men of faith, and whoever truly believes can never shirk this duty. To fight in the cause of taghut (authority in defiance of God) in order that the world may be governed by rebels against God is the task of unbelievers in which no the believer can engage himself.

106. Satan and his comrades-in-arms ostensibly undertake tremendous preparations and contrive all kinds of ingenious machinations. True men with faith, however, should not be intimidated either by such preparations or by machinations. For, no matter what they do, they are doomed to fail.

(4:77) Have you not seen those who were told: ‘Restrain your hands, and establish the Prayer, and pay the Zakah’? But when fighting was enjoined upon them some of them feared men as one should fear Allah, or even more,“ and said: ‘Our Lord, why have you order fighting for us? Why did You not grant us a little more respite?’ Say to them: ‘There is little enjoyment in this world. The World to come is much better for the God-fearing. And you shall not be wronged even to the extent of the husk of a date-stone.

107. This verse .can be interpreted in three ways, and each meaning is equally valid: First, that those who now shirked to fight in the cause of God were themselves initially eager to fight. They often approached the Prophet (peace be on him) and said that they were being wronged, beaten, persecuted and abused, that’ their patience was exhausted, and that they wanted permission to fight. They had then been told to be patient and continue to purify their souls by observing Prayers and dispensing Zakah. At that time they had felt disconcerted by this counsel of patience. Later on, some of those very same people were to tremble at the first sight of the enemy and the dangers of warfare.

Second, that they remained highly ‘religious’ as long as they were asked merely to pray and pay Zakah, which entailed no risk to their lives. But as soon as that phase was over and they were asked to expose themselves to danger, they began to shiver with fear.

Third, that in the former times the same people had unsheathed their swords for trivial causes. They had fought for loot and plunder, and engaged in feuds motivated by animal impulses, so much so that feuding had almost become their national pastime. At that time they had been told to abstain from bloodshed and to reform themselves by observing Prayers and dispensing Zakah. When, later on, the same people were told that the time had come for them to fight in the cause of God, those who had shown themselves to be lions while fighting for their selfish causes turned out to be as meek as lambs. The strong hands which had wielded the sword so firmly, and had used it so fiercely for the sake of either personal or tribal honor or for Satan’s sake, became almost paralyzed.

Each of these three meanings applies to a different kind of person, but the actual words of the verse seems to apply equally to all who shirked fighting in the cause of God.

108. Were they to serve the religion of God and spend their energy on that cause, they would surely be rewarded by Him.

(4:78) Wherever you might be, death will overtake you even though you be in massive towers. And when some good happens to them, they say: ‘This is from Allah’; whereas when some misfortune befalls them, they say: ‘This is because of you’.1 Say: ‘All is from Allah.’ What has happened to these people that they seem to understand nothing?

109. When such people encounter success and victory, they attribute it to the grace of God.

They allow themselves to forget that this grace came to them through no one but the Prophet (peace be on him). When they are either beaten or face setbacks because of their own faults and weaknesses they gratuitously exonerate themselves and place the blame squarely on the Prophet (peace be on him).

(4:79) Whatever good happens to you is from Allah, and whatever misfortune smites you is because of your action. We have sent you to mankind (O Muhammad!) as a Messenger and Allah are sufficient as a witness.

(4:80) He who obeys the Messenger thereby obeys Allah; as for he who turns away, We have not sent you as a keeper over them!

110. Such people are responsible for their conduct. It is they rather than the Prophet (peace be on him) who will be censured. The task entrusted to the Prophet (peace be on him) was merely to communicate to them the ordinances and directives of God and he acquitted himself of it very well. It was not his duty to compel them to follow the right way, so that if they failed to follow the teachings communicated to them by the Prophet (peace be on him) the responsibility was entirely theirs. The Prophet (peace be on him) would not be questioned as to why they disobeyed.

(4:81) They say (in your presence): ‘We obey, but when they leave your presence a party of them meets by night to plan against what you have said. Allah takes note of all their plots. So, let them alone, and put your trust in Allah. Allah is sufficient as a guardian.

(4:82) Do they not ponder about the Qur’an? Had it been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much inconsistency

111. The main reason for the attitude of the hypocrites and lukewarm believers was their lack of conviction that the Qur’an came from God. They did not believe that the Prophet (peace be on him) had received the messages and directives that he preached from God Himself. Hence, when they are censured for their hypocritical conduct, they are told that they do not reflect upon the Qur’an. The Qur’an itself is a strong, persuasive testimony too its divine origin. It is inconceivable that any human being should compose discourses on different subjects under different circumstances and different occasions, and that the collection of those discourses should then grow into a coherent, homogeneous and integrated work, no component of which is discordant with the others. It is also inconceivable that such a work would be permeated through and through with a uniform outlook and attitude, a work reflecting a remarkable consistency in the mood and spirit of its Author, and work too mature ever to need revision.

(4:83) Whenever they come upon any news bearing upon either security or causing consternation they go about spreading it, whereas if they were to convey it to either the Messenger or to those from among them who are entrusted with authority, it would come to the knowledge of those who are competent to investigate it.12 But for Allah’s bounty and mercy upon you, (weak as you were) all but a few of you would surely have followed Satan.

112. This was a period of turbulence and upheaval and rumor was rife. Occasionally, baseless and exaggerated reports circulated and seized the whole of Madina and its outlying areas with alarm and consternation. At other times some cunning enemy tried to conceal the dangers threatening the Muslims by spreading soothing reports. An especially keen interest in rumors was taken by those who simply relished anything out of the ordinary, and who did not consider this life-and-death struggle between Islam and Ignorance to be a matter of crucial importance, and who were not aware of the far-reaching consequences of rumor- mongering. As soon as they heard something, they ran about spreading it everywhere. This rebuke is addressed to such people. They are warned against spreading rumors and are directed to convey every report they receive to responsible quarters.

(4:84) (So, O Messenger!) Fight in the way of Allah -since you are responsible for none except yourself – and rouse the believers to fight, for Allah may well curb the might of the unbelievers. Indeed Allah is strongest in power and most terrible in chastisement. Who intercedes in a good cause shall share in its good result and he who intercedes in an evil cause shall share in its burden.“ Allah watches over everything.

113. It is all a matter of choice and luck. One has the opportunity to struggle for the cause of God, and to urge others to strive for it in order to raise the banner of the Truth and be rewarded by God for so doing. Likewise, one also has the opportunity to expand one’s energy trying to create misunderstanding among God’s creatures and to demoralize people in their struggle for His cause thus incurring His chastisement.

(4:86) When you are greeted with a salutation then return it with a better one, or at least the same.14 Surely Allah takes good count of everything.

114. At that time the relations between the Muslims and non-Muslims were strained to the limit. It was feared, therefore, that the Muslims might feel inclined to treat the latter discourteously. They are accordingly asked to pay at least as much respect and consideration to others as is paid to them – and preferably more. Good manners and courtesy are to be matched by the Muslims. The mission entrusted to the Muslims requires them to in excel others in this respect. Harshness, irritability, and bitterness are not becoming in a people whose main function is to preach a message and invite people to it; a people committed to guiding mankind towards righteousness. While harshness and bitterness may at best satisfy one’s injured vanity, they are positively harmful to the cause that one seeks to promote.’

(4:87) There is no god but Allah. He will certainly gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection – the Day regarding which there can be no doubt. Whose word can be truer than Allah’s?

115. Whatever the unbelievers, polytheists, and atheists may do does not impair God’s godhead. That God is the One and Absolute Lord of all is a fact that none can alter. And a The day will come when He will gather together all human beings and will make them see the consequences of their deeds, and no one will be in a position to escape His retribution. God , therefore, does not require His good creatures to maltreat, on His behalf, those who are lost in error. This is the link between the present verse and the one preceding it. The same verse also concludes the theme running through the last twenty verses or so (see verses 71 ff). The present verse outlines that a man can follow whichever course he deems fit, and expend his energy in any direction he likes, but ultimately all men will have to stand before the One True God for His judgment and will see the consequences of their deeds.

(4:88) What has happened to you that you have two minds about the hypocrites even though Allah has reverted them, owing to the sins that they earned ?1z Do you want to lead those to the right way whom Allah let go astray? And he whom Allah lets go astray, for him you can never find a way.

116. The problem of the hypocrites is discussed here. They had outwardly embraced Islam in Makka and in other parts of Arabia, but instead of migrating to the Domain of Islam they continued co-live among their people who were unbelievers, taking part in all their hostile machinations against Islam and the Muslims. It was not easy for the Muslims to decide how to deal with such people. Some were of the opinion that since they professed Islam performed Prayers, fasted, and recited the Qur’an they could not be treated as to unbelievers. Here God pronounces His judgment on this issue.

Unless the following is made clear at this point, the reader is likely to miss the real object of not only this verse but of all those verses in which believers who have failed to migrate are characterized as hypocrites. The fact is that after the Prophet (peace be on him) migrated to Madina the Muslims came to possess a piece of territory where they could fulfill the dictates of their faith. At that time all Muslims who suffered from the pressures and constraints imposed on them by the unbelievers, and who did not enjoy the freedom to practice their religion, were directed to migrate to Madina, the Domain of Islam. It was in these circumstances that all those believers who were in a position to migrate to Madina, but who failed to do so because their hearth and home, kith and kin, and their material interests were dearer to them than Islam, were declared hypocrites. Those who were not really in a position to migrate were reckoned as ‘feeble’ see(_verse 98 below).

It is obvious that Muslims living in non-Islamic territories can be called hypocrites only when the Domain of Islam either extends a general invitation to all of them or at least leaves its doors open to them. In such circumstances, all Muslims who are neither engaged in trying to transform the non-Islamic territory into a Domain of Islam nor inclined to migrate to the latter despite their ability to do so will be deemed, hypocrites. But if the Domain of Islam neither invites them nor even keeps its doors open for them, then they cannot be declared hypocrites merely because they fail to migrate. Such person would be considered hypocrites only if they did something too outrageous to be consistent with true faith.

117. God has returned them whence they came because of their duplicity, their excessive hankering after their material interests, and their preference for the good of this world over that of the Next. Those people had indeed tried to extricate themselves from the grip of unbelief and to advance towards Islam. To be a true Muslim calls for single-mindedness. It requires a willingness to sacrifice all interests and advantages that conflict with the interests of Islam. It requires a faith in the Hereafter strong enough to enable a man to cheerfully sacrifice all worldly advantages for the sake of his eternal happiness. Since those people lacked these qualities they retraced their steps. Could there be any doubt about the stuff they were made of?

(4:89) They wish that you should disbelieve just as they disbelieved so that you may all be alike. Do not, therefore, take from them allies until they emigrate in the way of Allah, but if they turn their backs (on emigration), seize them and slay them wherever you come upon them. Take none of them for your ally or helper,

118. This is the verdict on those hypocritical confessors of faith who belong to a belligerent, non-Muslim nation and actually participate in acts of hostility against the Islamic state.

(4:90) unless it is such of them who seek refuge with a people who are joined with you by a covenant,2 or those who come to you because their hearts shrink from fighting either against you or against their people. Had Allah so willed, He would certainly have given them power over you and they would have fought against you. If they leave you alone and do not fight against you and offer you peace, then Allah does not permit you to harm them.

119. The exception here does not relate to the injunction that they should not be taken as friends and supporters, but to the injunction that the believers should seize and slay them.

What is meant is that if a hypocrite takes shelter among an unbelieving people with whom the Muslims have an agreement he should not be pursued into that territory. It is not permissible for Muslims of the Islamic state to kill a hypocrite in some neutral territory even if he merits execution. This is because of the sanctity of the agreement concluded by the Muslims rather than the sanctity of the hypocrite’s blood.

 (4:91) You will also find others who wish to be secure from you, and secure from their people, but who, whenever they have an opportunity to cause mischief, plunge into it headlong. If such people neither leave you alone nor offer you peace nor restrain their hands from hurting you, then seize them and slay them wherever you come upon them. It is against these that We have granted you a clear sanction.

(4:92) It is not for a believer to slay another believer unless by mistake.122 And he who has slain a believer by mistake, his atonement is to set free from bondage a believing person! and to pay blood money to his heirs,12 unless they forgo it by way of charity. And if the slain belonged to a hostile people, but was a believer, then the atonement is to set free from bondage a believing person.

And if the slain belonged to a (non-Muslim) people with whom you have a covenant, then the atonement is to blood money the blood-money to his heirs and to set free from bondage a believing person.12 But he who cannot (free a slave) should fast for two consecutive months.12 This is the penance ordained by Allah.123 Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

120. The hypocritical confessors of Islam mentioned here are distinct from those whom the Muslims may kill. The reference here is to Muslims who are either residents of the Domain of Islam (Dar al-Islam) or to those who live in the Domain of War or of Unbelief (Dar al- Harb or Dar al-Kufr) but against whom there is no proof of actual participation in the hostile activities with the enemies of Islam. In the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) some  many people had embraced Islam and yet, because of genuine difficulties, were living among tribes hostile to Islam. It occasionally happened that, in attacking a hostile tribe, the Muslims inadvertently killed fellow Muslims living in its midst.

121. Since the person killed was a believer, expiation of the sin required the emancipation of a Muslim slave.

122. The Prophet (peace be on him) had fixed the blood money at either 100 camels, 200 oxen or 2,000 head of cattle. If someone wished to pay this in another form the amount would be determined concerning the market value of the articles mentioned above.

For instance, for those who wished to blood money blood-money in cash, the fixed amount in the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) was 800 dinars (8000 dirhams). In the time of Caliph ‘Umar the amount of blood money was fixed at 1000 golden dinars (12000 silver dirhams). It should be noted, however, that this amount relates to an unintentional rather than a deliberate homicide. (Regarding blood money for unintentional homicide and injury see Abu Da’ud, ‘Diyat’, 14-17; Tirmidhi, ‘Diyat’, 1; Nasa’i, ‘Qasamah’, 34; Ibn Majah, ‘Diyat’, 6; Malik b. Anas, Muwatta’, “Uqul’, 4; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 384 and 450; vol. 2, pp. 178, 183, 186, 217, 224; vol. 4, p. 275. See also Ibn Rushd, Bidayat al-Mujtahid, vol. 2, pp. 401 ff. – Ed.)

123. The legal injunctions embodied in this verse are as follows:

(1) If the victim was a resident of the Domain of Islam (Dar al-Islam) the killer is not only required to pay blood money but also to emancipate a slave by way of expiation.

(2) If the victim was a resident of the Domain of War (Dar al-Harb) the killer is only required to emancipate a slave.

(3) If the victim was a resident of a non-Muslim country that had treaty relations with an Islamic state the killer is required to emancipate a slave and also to pay blood money. The amount of the blood-money, however, depends on the terms stipulated in the treaty between the Muslims and the territory of the victim. (See Jassas, vol. 2, pp. 238 f f. and 240 ff. – Ed.)

124. This means that he should observe fasting uninterrupted for the entire period. If a man breaks his fast for just one day without a legally valid reason he will be required to resume fasting anew.

125. This shows that what has been prescribed is an act of repentance and expiation rather than a penalty inflicted on a criminal. Penalization is essentially devoid of the spirit of repentance and of the urge to self-reform. A penalty is suffered under duress, usually with resentment, and leaves behind repugnance and bitterness. On the contrary, what God wants is that the believer who has committed a sin should wash the stain of it from his soul by supererogatory worship, by acts of charity, and by a meticulous fulfillment of all the duties incumbent upon him. Such a person is required to turn to God in remorse and repentance so that his sin may be pardoned and his soul secured against the recurrence of similar errors.

The word kaffarah signifies that which either covers or hides something. To declare that certain acts of charity constitute kaffarah means that those acts overlay the sin and cover it up, just as stains on a wall are covered up when it is painted.

(4:93) And he who slays a believer willfully his reward is Hell, where he will abide. Allah’s wrath is against him and He has cast His curse upon him and has prepared for him a great chastisement.

(4:94) Believers! When you go forth in the way of Allah, discern (between friend and foe), and do not say to him who offers you the greeting of peace: ‘You are not a believer.’2¢ If you seek the good of this worldly life, there lies with Allah abundant gain. After all, you too were such before, and then Allah was gracious to you.!2  Discern, then, for Allah is well aware of what you do.

126. In the early days of Islam, the greeting as-Salam ‘Alaikum (‘peace be on you) was a distinguishing symbol of the Muslims. When a Muslim greeted another Muslim with this expression it signified that he was a member of the same community, that he was a friend and well-wisher, one who wished peace and security, from whom he need entertain no fear of hostility and towards whom, in return, he should not behave with hostility. The Islamic greeting occupied virtually the same position among Muslims as the passwords used by sentries to distinguish friend from foe. This was particularly important in those days because there were no distinctions in dress, language and so on by which Muslims could be conclusively marked off from their non-Muslim Arab compatriots.

The Muslims also encountered a strange problem on the battlefield. Whenever a Muslim was in danger of being harmed inadvertently by other Muslims during the fighting, he resorted to either the Islamic greeting (as-salam ‘Alaykum) or the Islamic creed There is no god, save Allah’ (ili-JI4y) to indicate that he was their brother-in-faith. The Muslims, however, often suspected this to be merely a ruse of the enemy and therefore sometimes disregarded the utterance of the Islamic greeting or the Islamic creed, and killed such people and seized their belongings as booty. Although whenever the Prophet (peace be on him) came to know of such incidents, he severely reproached the people concerned, it, nevertheless, continued to take place. In the end, God solved the problem by revelation. The purport of the verse is that no one has the right summarily to judge those who profess to be Muslims, and assume them to be lying for fear of their lives. At least two possibilities exist: the claim may either be true or it may be false. The truth can only be ascertained by proper investigation. While it is impossible to investigate a person’s case properly during fighting and this may enable him to save his life by lying, it is equally possible that an innocent, true believer might be put to death by mistake. The error of letting an unbeliever go unpunished is preferable to that of killing a true believer.

127. The Muslims are now told that there was a time when they were scattered among different tribes of unbelievers. They were, therefore, forced to conceal the fact of being Muslims since they feared that they would be subjected to persecution and hardship. In those days, they had nothing else besides their verbal profession to testify to their faith. Later on, sometime before these verses were revealed, God benevolently enabled the Muslims to develop a collective entity of their own and thus to raise the banner of Islam in the face of strong opposition from the unbelievers. That the Muslims should fail to appreciate the hardships which other Muslims were enduring, and which they had endured until not long before, and not to treat them with consideration and forbearance, did not seem an adequate way of thanking God for His benevolence.

(4:95) Those believers who sit at home, unless they do so out of a disabling injury, are not the equals of those who strive in the way of Allah with their possessions and their lives. Allah has exalted in rank those who strive with their possessions and their lives over those who sit at home; and though to each Allah has promised some good reward, He has preferred those who strive (in the way of Allah) over those who sit at home for a mighty reward.

128. “Those who sit at home (i.e. remain passive) does not refer either to those who had been ordered to fight but tried to look for excuses not to fight or to those who were individually obliged to take part in fighting because of the general summons of Jihad (fight in the cause of God) and yet shirked this duty. The reference here is to those who remained engrossed in personal concerns at a time when Jihad had become a collective obligation (fard bi al-kifayah). In the first case the person who fails to fight can only be a hypocrite, and God holds out no good promise for such a person unless there is a good reason, for example, genuine disability. In the second case, however, what is required is the mobilization of a part rather than the entire military strength of the Islamic community. In such cases, if the recognized head (imam) of the Islamic community summons the people to come forward and undertake the expedition concerned, those who respond to that call are reckoned to be of superior merit to those who remain occupied with other pursuits however meritorious.

Fard bi al-kifayah signifies a collective duty of the Muslim community so that if some people carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy, but if no one carries it out all incur collective guilt.

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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