Are you among those who say: “Our Lord, grant us what is good in this world ?

Al-Quran Ayah 191 to 210

(2:191) Kill them whenever you confront them and drive them out from where they drove you out. (For though killing is sinful) wrongful persecution is even worse than killing.22 Do not fight against them near the Holy Mosque unless they fight against you; but if they fight against you kill them, for that is the reward of such unbelievers.

Ref:202. Here the word fitnah is used in the sense of ‘persecution’. It refers to a situation whereby either a person or a group is subjected to harassment and intimidation for having accepted, as true, a set of ideas contrary to those currently held, and for striving to effect reforms in the existing order of society by preaching what is good and condemning what is wrong. Such a situation must be changed, if need be, by the force of arms.

Bloodshed is bad, but when one group of people imposes its ideology and forcibly prevents others from accepting the truth, then it becomes guilty of an even more serious crime. In such circumstances, it is perfectly legitimate to remove that oppressive group by the force of arms.

(2:192) Then if they desist, know well that Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Compassionate.2%

203. God, on whom the believers have faith, is forgiving and ready to pardon even the worst criminals and sinners after they have renounced their arrogant defiance towards Him. It is suggested that this attribute of God should be reflected in the behavior of the believers as well.

As the saying goes: ‘Mold your morals according to the attributes of God.’ Hence, Whenever the believers have to resort to armed conflict, they should do so not for the sake of quenching their thirst for vengeance but in the cause of God’s religion. Their conflict with any group should last only as long as that group resists the cause of God. As soon as it gives up this resistance hostility should cease.

(2:193) Keep on fighting against them until mischief ends and the way prescribed by Allah prevails.24 But if they desist, then know that hostility is directed only against the wrong-doers.2%

204. Here the term fitnah is used in a different sense from the one in which it was used above see(verse 191). It is evident from the context that fitnah refers here to the state of affairs wherein the object of obedience is someone other than God. Hence the purpose of a believer’s fighting is that this fitnah should cease and obedience should be consecrated to God alone.

An investigation of the usages of the word din (which occurs in this verse) reveals that the core of its meaning is obedience. In its technical usage, the word refers to that system of life which arises as a result of a person recognizing someone as his Lord and Sovereign and committing himself to following his commands and ordinances. This explanation of the word din makes it quite clear that when some human beings establish their godhead and absolute dominance over others, this state of affairs is one of fitnah. Islam seeks to put an end to this and replace it by a state of affairs in which people live in obedience to the laws of God alone.

205. What is meant here by ‘desisting’ is not the abandonment of unbelief and polytheism on the part of the unbelievers but rather their desistance from active hostility to the religion enjoined by God. The unbeliever, the polytheist, the atheist, has each been, empowered to hold on to his beliefs and to worship who and whatever he wishes. In order to deliver these people from their error, Muslims are required to counsel them and tell them where their good lies. But Muslims ought not to try to achieve this purpose by resorting to force.

At the same time, these misguided people have no right to either enforce the false laws of their own contriving instead of the laws of God or to drive the people of God to bondage of others than God. In order to put an end to this fitnah, both persuasion and force be used, whenever and to the extent to which each of the two is needed, and a true believer will not rest until the unbelievers give up this fitnah.

The statement that hostility is meant only against wrong-doers seems to imply that when the true system of life replaces the false one, ordinary people should be granted a general amnesty. At the same time, however, it would be justifiable to punish those who exceeded all limits in their hostility to the Truth, at the time when they held the reins of power.

Yet in dealing with such people, it becomes the true believers, after they have one final victory, to adopt a general attitude of forgiveness and tolerance towards the vanquished rather than subject them to revenge for the wrongs they committed in the past. Those criminals whose records were exceptionally bad could, however, be punished. The Prophet (peace be on him), availed himself of this permission in respect of some notorious enemies whose hostility had exceeded all limits, even though pardon and forgiveness behaved none more than him.

Thus ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’avt and Nadr b. Harith from among the captives of the Battle of Badr were put to death and when a general amnesty, was proclaimed after the conquest of Makka four out of seventeen persons were executed. (See Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, p. 644 and vol.

2, pp. 409 ff. – Ed.) These acts were based on the permission to put to the sword those who have been conspicuously ruthless in their hostility to Islam and the Muslims.

(2:194) The sacred month for the sacred month; sanctities should be respected alike (by all concerned). Thus, if someone has attacked you, attack him just as he attacked you, and fear Allah and remain conscious that Allah is with those who guard against violating the bounds set by Him.2

206. From the time of Abraham three months – Dhu al-Qa’dah, Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram – were consecrated for Hajj, and the month of Rajab was consecrated for ‘Umrah. For the duration of these four months warfare, killing and pillage were prohibited so that people could perform Pilgrimage and return home safely. For this reason these months were called the ‘sacred months’.

The purpose of the verse is to stress that if the unbelievers respect the sanctity of the sacred months, the Muslims should do the same. If, however, they violate this sanctity and subject the Muslims to aggression, then the Muslims are also entitled to retribution even during the ‘sacred months’. The permission mentioned here was called forth by the introduction of nasi’, a practice which had been introduced by the Arabs in order to have an advantage over others in their battles and raids. The manner in which the Arabs used nasi’ was such that whenever they wished either to start a conflict in order to satisfy their vendetta or to loot and plunder they carried out their raid in one of the sacred months and then later on tried to compensate for this violation by treating one of the non-sacred months as a sacred month.

The Muslims were, therefore, concerned as to what they should do in case the unbelievers resorted to this artifice and surprised them by an attack in one of the recognized sacred months. The verse refers to this problem.

(2:195) Spend in the Way of Allah and do not cast yourselves into destruction with your own hands;22 do good, for Allah loves those who do good.28

207. ‘To spend in the way of Allah’ signifies financial sacrifice in order to establish God’s religion. Not to make any financial sacrifice but to be inclined, instead, to hold personal interests dear to one’s heart will lead to one’s ruin both in this world and in the Next. Allah will set the unbelievers to dominate over you in this world and condemn you in the Next world.

208. The root of the word ihsan is HSN, which means doing something in a goodly manner.

One standard of conduct is merely to perform the task entrusted to one. The other and higher standard is to perform that task in a wholesome manner, to devote all one’s capacities and resources to its fulfilment, to do one’s duty with all one’s heart. The first standard is that of ordinary obedience for which it is enough that a man should fear God.

The other and higher standard is that of Ihsan (moral and spiritual excellence) for which it is necessary that one should have a strong love for God and a profound attachment to Him.

(2:196) Complete Hajj and ‘Umrah for Allah. And if you are prevented from doing so, then make the offering which is available to you, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its appointed place.212

If any of you should have to shave your head before that because of illness, or injury to the head, then you should make redemption by fasting, or almsgiving, or ritual sacrifice.211 And when you are secure,2!2 then he who avails of ‘Umrah before the time of Hajj shall give the offering he can afford; and if he cannot afford the offering, he shall fast for three days during Hajj and for seven days after he returns home; that is, ten days in all. This privilege is for those whose families do not live near the Holy Mosque.23 Guard against violating these ordinances of Allah and be mindful that Allah is severe in chastisement.

209. If any obstruction prevents a person from proceeding with the Pilgrimage and he is forced to stay behind, he should make a sacrificial offering to God of whatever is available – for example, either a camel, a cow, a goat or a sheep

210. The statement: ‘until the offering reaches its appointed place’ has been variously interpreted by the jurists. The Hanafi jurists consider this to signify the area which lies within the boundaries of the Haram. In their view this injunction means that if a man has been prevented from Pilgrimage he ought to send to the Haram either the animal itself or the money to purchase it, and have a sacrificial offering made on his behalf. According to Malik and al-Shafi’i this verse enjoins one to perform a sacrifice at the very spot where one is prevented from going any further. (See also Qurtubi’s commentary on the verse – Ed.) The injunction regarding ‘shaving the head’ means that one may not have one’s hair cut until a sacrificial offering has been made.

211. According to the Hadith, in such a situation the Prophet (peace be on him) ordered

three days of fasting, or the feeding of six poor people, or the slaughter of one sheep or goat. (See Bukhari, ‘Maghazi’, 35; Muslim, ‘Hajj’, 83 – Ed.)

212. This refers to the change in the situation when the obstacle to proceeding with the Pilgrimage has been removed. Since, in those days, the circumstances which most commonly prevented people from proceeding with their Pilgrimage was the danger of armed attack from tribes hostile to Islam, the removal of that circumstance is described by the words: ‘when you are secure’. ‘To become secure’ refers not only to the removal of the danger of armed attack but to the removal of all such dangers.

213. In pre-Islamic Arabia it was considered a serious sin to perform Hajj and ‘Umrah in one and the same journey. According to the self-made law of the pre-Islamic Arabs, each of these Pilgrimages required a separate journey. God declared this law void for those coming from abroad and who were granted the privilege of performing both types of pilgrimage in thesame journey.

This privilege, however, was not extended to those living in the environs of Makka, within the migat, since it is not difficult for them to proceed separately for the major and minor Pilgrimages.

‘Then you who take advantage of ‘Umrah before the time of Hajj’ means that a person may perform ‘Umrah (minor Pilgrimage) and then may interrupt the state of consecration (ihram)

and free himself of the prohibitions and limitations incumbent upon him in that state. Later, when the time for the Hajj (major Pilgrimage) arrives, he should once again assume the state of consecration (ihram).

(2:197) The months of Hajj are well known. Whoever intends to perform Pilgrimage in these months shall abstain from sensual indulgence,24 wicked conduct25 and quarrelling;2#* and whatever good you do, Allah knows it. Take your provisions for the Pilgrimage; but, in truth, the best provision is piety. Men of understanding, beware of disobeying Me.2!z

214. In the state of consecration (ihram) the husband and wife are required to refrain not only from sexual intercourse but also from lascivious conversation (and, for that matter, from any act which either stems from or is likely to stimulate sexual desire – Ed).

215. Even though all sinful acts are evil, the sinfulness of such acts is aggravated when they are committed in the state of consecration (ihram).

216. In this state it is not even permitted to rebuke one’s servant.

217. In the pre-Islamic Age of Ignorance it was considered an act of gross worldliness for anyone to carry provisions while on the Pilgrimage. A pious man was expected to go to the House of God without any worldly goods. This is conception is removed here and it is pointed out that abstention from carrying provisions is not necessarily an act of righteousness. True righteousness lies in the fear of God, in abstaining from violating His commands, and in leading a pure and decent life. If a pilgrim’s conduct is not good and he resorts to wickedness the mere fact of not carrying provisions, thus parading his detachment from worldly goods, will do him no good. For his wickedness he will suffer humiliation both in the sight of God and man, and his action will be a execration of the religious duty for which he undertook the journey. On the other hand, if a person’s heart is full of the fear of God, and his moral conduct is good, he will be exalted by God and will be held in high esteem by human beings on his return from the Pilgrimage, regardless of the amount of provisions he carried.

(2:198) It is no offence for you to seek the bounty of your Lord during Pilgrimage.28 When you hasten back from [Arafat then remember Allah at al- Mash[ar al-Haram (i.e. al-Muzdalifah), and remember Him in the manner He has directed you, for before this you were surely in error.22

218. This was another misconception entertained by the pre-Islamic Arabs. They considered it objectionable to do anything relating to one’s livelihood during the Pilgrimage. In their view earning one’s living was an act of pure worldliness and hence it was bad to indulge in it while engaged in the performance of a religious duty. The Qur’an refutes this and expounds the view that if a person strives to earn his living while observing fully the laws of God his action is tantamount to seeking God’s grace and bounty. See(_62: 10 – Ed.)It is no sin if a man sets out to seek God’s good pleasure and during the same journey tries to combine that purpose with the quest for permissible worldly benefits.

219. The Muslims were asked to give up all those polytheistic and pagan practices that had arisen among the Arabs during the Age of Ignorance and which ran alongside the worship of God thereby adulterating the latter. They were required to consecrate their worship and adoration to God alone according to the guidance He had now revealed through the Prophet.

(2:199) Then press on even as others press on and implore Allah’s forgiveness;222 Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.

220. Since the time of Abraham and Ishmael the recognized practice of the Arabs with regard to Hajj was that on the 9th, Dhu al-Hijjah, they went from Mina to ‘Arafat, returning on the morning of the 10th to stay at Muzdalifah. Later, as the priestly monopoly of the Quraysh became well established, they claimed that it was below their dignity to go to ‘Arafat with the ordinary people of Arabia. As a mark of what they called their distinction, they went to Muzdalifah only (without going to ‘Arafat) and returned from there, leaving it to the commoners to go to ‘Arafat. Subsequently Banu Khuza’ah, Banu Kananah and those tribes which were linked by marriage with the Quraysh acquired the same privilege.

Eventually, the status of the tribes allied to the Quraysh came to be considered higher than that of the ordinary Arabs, and these tribes too abandoned the practice of going to ‘Arafat.

It is this pride and vainglory which the present verse seeks to undermine. It is addressed to the Quraysh and the tribes associated with them either through marriage or alliance, and to all those who might be inclined to claim for themselves special privileges and distinctions in the future. Such people are asked to go to the place to which all others go, to stay with them, to return with them and to seek pardon from God for the fact that they violated the way of Abraham.

(2:200) And when you have performed your rites remember Allah as you remember your fathers; or remember Him even more. There are some (among those that remember Allah) who say: “Our Lord, grant us what is good in this world;” such shall have no share in the Hereafter.

221. After the Hajj the Arabs used to hold rallies at Mind. At these rallies people from different tribes proudly narrated the achievements of their forefathers and indulged in much extravagant self-praise. Here they are asked to renounce all such things and devote the time which they formerly spent on trivialities to remembering and celebrating God.

Dhikr refers to the remembrance of God at Mina.

(2:201) There are others who say: “Our Lord, grant us what is good in this world and what is good in the World to Come, and protect us from the chastisement of the Fire.”

 (2:202) They shall have a portion from what they earned; Allah is quick in reckoning.

(2:203) And remember Allah through the appointed days. It is no sin for him who hastens off and returns in two days, and it is no sin for him who delays the return22 provided he has spent the days in piety. Beware of disobeying Allah and know well that to Him you all shall be mustered.

222. Whether a person returned on the 12th or on the 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah from Mina to Makka during the day of tashriq (i.e. from the 10th to 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah) was immaterial.

What was of real importance was not the number of days spent at Mina but the intensity of one’s devotion to God during the period of one’s stay.

(2:204) Among people there is a kind whose sayings on the affairs of the world fascinate you: he calls Allah again and again to bear testimony to his sincerity;223 yet he is most fierce in enmity.24

223. Such a person tends to claim again and again that he was merely a well-wisher and was simply striving to uphold what is true and right, and to promote the welfare of the people rather than doing things for the sake of personal aggrandizement.

224. The words aladd al-khisam mean ‘the most fierce in enmity’. This would apply to someone who concentrates all his energies on opposing truth, and who resorts to whatever falsehood, dishonesty, treachery and breach of faith he thinks necessary to achieve his ends.

(2:205) Whenever he attains authority, he goes about the earth spreading mischief and laying to waste crops and human life, even though Allah (whose testimony he invokes) does not love mischief.

225. The expression idha tawalla can be translated in two ways. First, in the manner of our translation of the text. It can also be translated to make the verse mean that when such people return from sweet and apparently genuine talk, they engage in arrogant and destructive action.

 (2:206) Whenever he is told: “Fear Allah,” his vainglory seizes him in his sin. So Hell shall suffice for him; what a wretched resting place!

(2:207) On the other hand, among men there is a kind who dedicates his life seeking to please Allah; Allah is Immensely Kind to such devoted servants.

(2:208) Believers! Enter wholly into Islam2 and do not follow in the footsteps of Satan for he is your open enemy.

226. God demands that man should submit, without reservation, the whole of his being to His will. Man’s outlook, intellectual pursuits, behavior, interaction with other people and modes of endeavor should all be completely subordinate to Islam. God does not accept the splitting up of human life into separate compartments, some governed by the teachings of Islam and others exempt.

(2:209) And if you stumble in spite of the clear instructions which have come to you, then know well that Allah is Most Mighty, Most Wise.2Z

227. The point is that God has enormous power and knows well how to punish criminals.

(2:210) Are those people (who are not following the Right Path in spite of admonition and instruction) waiting for Allah to come to them in canopies of clouds with a retinue of angels and settle the matter finally?28 To Allah shall all matters ultimately be referred.

228. These words are indicative of an important fact. Man’s test lies in showing whether he accepts reality even cannot he cannot perceive it directly through his senses; and whether, after having accepted it, he has the required moral stamina to obey God even though he is endowed with the capacity to disobey Him. In sending the Prophets, in revealing the Scriptures, indeed, even in performing miracles, God has always taken care to leave scope for testing man’s power of judgment and his moral stamina. He has never disclosed reality to such a degree that man would be inevitably compelled to accept it.

For if that were done, nothing would remain to be tested and the very idea of man’s success or failure would be meaningless.

It is pointed out, therefore, that people should not keep waiting for God and the angels – the devoted servants of His realm – to appear before them. If that were to happen, it would mark the end of everything and there would be no occasion left for man to decide anything.

To believe and to bow in submission and obedience to God are of value only so long as the reality is presented in such a way as to make its rejection possible.

For, if the Truth were to be fully disclosed and if men were to see with their own eyes God on His Throne of Majesty with the entire universe acting according to His command, what would be the worth of their faith and obedience? If all these things were physically observable not even the most stubborn unbelievers and the worst sinners would dare either to disbelieve or disobey.

Acceptance of faith and obedience has value only as long as there remains a veil over reality. The moment when the reality is totally unveiled would mark the end of the period granted to man to decide, and of the testing period for him. It would, in fact, be the Day of Judgment.

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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