want Peace of mind and life?

Surah Baqarah Ayah 181 to 195

(2:181) Then if anyone alters the will after hearing it, this sin shall be upon them who alter. Surely Allah is ne All-Knowing.

(2:182) He who suspects that the testator has committed an error or injustice and then brings about a settlement among the parties concerned incurs no sin. Surely Allah is Much-Forgiving, Most Compassionate.

(2:183) Believers! Fasting is enjoined upon you, as it was enjoined upon those before you, that you become God-fearing.1

183. Like most other injunctions of Islam those relating to fasting were revealed gradually.

In the beginning the Prophet (peace be on him) had instructed the Muslims to fast three days in every month, though this was not obligatory. When the injunction in the present verse was later revealed in 2 A.H., a degree of relaxation was introduced: it was stipulated that those who did not fast despite their capacity to endure it were obliged to feed one poor person as an expiation for each day of obligatory fasting missed see (verse 184). Another injunction was revealed later see (verse 185) and here the relaxation in respect of able- bodied persons was revoked. However, for the sick, the traveller, the pregnant, the breast- feeding women and the aged who could not endure fasting, the relaxation was retained.

(See Bukhari, ‘Tafsir al-Qur’an’, 25; Tirmidhi, ‘Sawm’, 21; Nasai, ‘Siyam’, 51, 62, 64; Ibn Majah,’Siyam’, 12; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 104; vol. 4, pp. 347 and 418; vol. 5, p. 29 -Ed.)

(2:184) Fasting is for a fixed number of days, and if one of you be sick, or if one of you be on a journey, you will fast the same number of other days later on. For those who are capable of fasting (but still do not fast) there is a redemption: feeding a needy man for each day missed. Whoever voluntarily does more good than is required, will find it better for him; and that you should fast is better for you, if you only know.18

184. This act of extra merit could either be feeding more than the one person required or both fasting and feeding the poor.

185. Here ends the early injunction with regard to fasting which was revealed in 2 A.H. prior to the Battle of Badr. The verses that follow were revealed about one year later and are linked with the preceding verses since they deal with the same subject.

(2:185) During the month of Ramadan the Qur’an was sent down as a guidance to the people with Clear Signs of the true guidance and as the Criterion (between right and wrong). So those of you who live to see that month should fast it, and whoever is sick or on a journey should fast the same number of other days instead. Allah wants ease and not hardship for you so that you may complete the number of days required,1s magnify Allah for what He has guided you to, and give thanks to Him.1:7

186. Whether a person should or should not fast while on a journey is left to individual discretion. We find that among the Companions who accompanied the Prophet on journeys some fasted whereas others did not; none objected to the conduct of another.

The Prophet himself did not always fast when travelling. On one journey a person was so overwhelmed by hunger that he collapsed; the Prophet disapproved when he learned that the man had been fasting. During wars the Prophet used to prevent people from fasting so that they would not lack energy for the fight. It has been reported by ‘Umar that two military expeditions took place in the month of Ramadan. The first was the Battle of Badr and the second the conquest of Makkah.

On both occasions the Companions abstained from fasting, and, according to Ibn ‘Umar, on the occasion of the conquest of Makka the Prophet proclaimed that people should not fast since it was a day of fighting. In other Traditions the Prophet is reported to have said that people should not fast when they had drawn close to the enemy, since abstention from fasting would lead to greater strength. (See Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 329, and vol. 5, pp. 205 and 209: Darimi, ‘Sawm’, 41; Muslim, ‘Siyarn’, 92; Nasai, ‘Siyam’, 47; Bukhari, ‘Maghazi’, 71; Muslim, ‘Siyam’, 102; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, pp. 21, 35, 46; Tirmidhi, ‘Sawm’, 18, Nasa’i. ‘Siyam’, 52; Bukhari , ‘Jihad’, 29; Muslim, ‘Siyam’, 98; Abu Da’ud, ‘Sawm!’ 42; Muslim, ‘Siyam’, 102, 103, 105; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad vol. 2, 99; Tirmidhi, : ‘Sawm’, 19 – Ed.)

The duration of a journey for which it becomes permissible for a person to abstain from fasting is not absolutely clear from any statement of the Prophet, (cf. relevant Traditions Abu Da’ud, ‘Sawm’, 46, 47; Nasai , ‘Siyam’, 54, 55; Malik, Muaatta’, ‘Siyam’, 21, 27 – Ed.) In addition the practice of the Companions was not uniform. It would seem that any journey which is commonly regarded as such, and which is attended by the circumstances generally associated with travelling, should be deemed sufficient justification for not fasting.

Jurists agree that one does not have to fast on the day of commencing a journey; one may eat either at the point of departure or after the actual journey has commenced. Either course is sanctioned by the practice of the Companions. Jurists, however, are not agreed as to whether or not the residents of a city under attack may abstain from fasting even though they are not actually travelling. Ibn Tamiya favor’s the permissibility of abstention from fasting and supports his view with vcry forceful arguments.

187. This indicates that fasting need not be confined, exclusively, to Ramadan. For those who fail to fast during that month owing to some legitimate reason God has kept the door of compensation open during other months of the year so that they need not be deprived of the opportunity to express their gratitude to Him for His great bounty, in revealing the Qur’an.

It should he noted here that fasting in Ramadan has not only been declared an act of

worship and devotion and a means to nourish piety but has also been characterized as an act of gratefulness to God for His great bounty of true guidance in the form of the Qur’an. In fact, the best way of expressing gratitude for someone’s bounty or benevolence is to prepare oneself, to the best of one’s ability, to achieve the purpose for which that bounty has been bestowed.

The Qur’an has been revealed so that we may know the way that leads to God’s good pleasure, follow that way ourselves and direct the world along it. Fasting is an excellent means by which to prepare ourselves for shouldering this task. Hence fasting during the month of the revelation of the Qur’an is more than an act of worship and more than an excellent course of moral training; it is also an appropriate form for the expression of our thankfulness to God for the bounty of the Qur’an.

(2:186) (O Muhammad), when My servants ask you about Me, tell them I am quite near; I hear and answer the call of the caller whenever he calls Me. Let them listen to My call and believe in Me;188 perhaps they will be guided aright.1%2

188. Even though people can neither see God nor subject Him to any other form of sense perception this should not make them feel that God is remote from them. On the contrary, He is so close to each and every person that whenever any person so wishes he can communicate with his Lord. So much so that God hears and responds even to the prayers which remain within the innermost recesses of the heart.

People exhaust themselves by approaching false and powerless beings whom they foolishly fancy to be their deities but who have neither the power to hear nor to grant their prayers.

But God, the omnipotent Lord and the absolute Master of this vast universe, Who wields all power and authority, is so close to human beings that they can always approach him without the intercession of any intermediaries, and can put to Him their prayers and requests.

189. This announcement of God’s closeness to man may open his eyes to the Truth, may turn him to the right way wherein lies his success and well-being.

(2:187) It has been made lawful for you to go into your wives during the night of the fast. They are your garment, and you are theirs.12

Allah knows that you used to betray yourselves and He mercifully relented and pardoned you. So you may now associate intimately with your wives and benefit from the enjoyment Allah has made lawful for you, and eat and drink!” at night until you can discern the white streak of dawn against the blackness of the night;12 then (give up all that and) complete your fasting until night sets in. But do not associate intimately with your wives during the period when you are on retreat in the mosques.1% These are the bounds set by Allah; do not, then, even draw near them.12

Thus does Allah make His Signs clear to mankind that they may stay away from evil.

190. Just as nothing intervenes between a person’s body and his clothes, so nothing can intervene between a man and his wife; it is a relationship of inalienable intimacy.

191. Although there was no categorical ordinance in the early days prohibiting sexual intercourse between husband and wife during the nights of Ramadan, people generally assumed that this was not permissible.

Despite the feeling that their action was either not permitted or was at least disapproved of, they did at times approach their wives. Such a betrayal of conscience can encourage a sinful disposition. God, therefore, first reproaches them with their lack of integrity, for this is what was objectionable. As for the act itself, God makes it clear that it is quite permissible. Henceforth they might engage in sexual intercourse as a perfectly lawful act unencumbered by feelings of guilt.

192. In this connection, too, there was a misapprehension at first. Some thought that eating and drinking were absolutely prohibited after the performance of the ‘Isha’ (Night) Prayer.

Others thought that one could eat and drink so long as one had not fallen asleep, but that if one had it was not permissible to eat on reawakening. These were people’s own fancies and often caused great inconvenience. This verse seeks to remove all such misconceptions. It clearly lays down the duration of the fast: from dawn until sunset. Between sunset and dawn it is permissible to eat, to drink, and to indulge in the legitimate gratification of sexual desires. At the same time the Prophet introduced the pre-fasting repast, recommending a good meal just before dawn.

193. In fixing the time of obligatory rites, Islam has been mindful that these timings should be so clear and simple that people, at all stages of development, should be able to follow them. This is why Islam bases its timing on conspicuous natural phenomena and not on the clock.

Some people object that this principle of timing is untenable in areas close to the poles, where night and day each last for about six months. This objection is based on a very superficial knowledge of geography.

In point of fact, neither day nor night lasts for six months in those areas – not in the sense in which people living near the Equator conceive of night and day. The signs of morning and evening appear at the poles with unfailing regularity and it is on this basis that people time their sleeping and waking, their professional work, their play, and recreation.

Even in the days before watches were common, the people of countries like Finland, Norway, and Greenland used to fix the hours of the day and night by means of various signs that appeared on the horizon. Just as those signs helped them to determine their schedules in other matters, so they should enable them to time their various Prayers, the pre-fast meal and the breaking of the fast.

194. ‘Complete your fasting until night sets in’ means that the time of fasting ends with nightfall, i.e. sunset marks the breaking of the fast. The precise time of the end of the pre-dawn repast is when a lean strip of aurora appears at the eastern end of the horizon and begins to grow. The time to break one’s fast starts when the darkness of night seems to have begun to appear over the eastern horizon.

In our own time, some people have adopted an attitude of extreme caution with regard to the time of both the end and start of fasting. The Law has not fixed these schedules with rigid precision. If a person wakes up just at the crack of dawn it is proper for him to eat and drink hastily.

According to a Tradition the Prophet said: ‘If anyone of you hears the call for [the morning] Prayer while he is eating he should not stop immediately, but should finish eating to the extent of his bare need.’ (Abu Da’ud. Siyam’, 14 – Ed.) Similarly, one need not wait for the light of day to disappear fully before breaking the fast. The Prophet, for instance,used to ask Bilil to bring him something to drink as soon as the sun had set. Bilal expressed his astonishment, pointing out that the light of day could still be observed. To this the Prophet replied that the time of fasting came to an end when the darkness of night began to rise from the east. (Muslim, ‘Siyam’, 10; Abu Da’ud, ‘Siyam’, 15; etc. – Ed.)

195. ‘On retreat in the mosque’ refers to the religious practice of spending the last ten days of Ramadan in the mosque, consecrating this time to the remembrance of God. In this state, known as i’tikaf, one may go out of the mosque only for the absolutely necessary requirements of life, but one must stay away from gratifying one’s sexual desire.

196. The directive here is neither to exceed nor draw near the limits set by God. This means that it is dangerous for a man to skirt the boundaries of disobedience; prudence demands that one should keep some distance from these lest one’s steps inadvertent lead one to cross them. The same principle has been enunciated in a Tradition in which the Prophet said:

‘Even sovereign has an enclosed pasture and the enclosed pasture of God consists of His prohibitions. So, whosoever keeps grazing around that pasture is likely to fall into it.’

(Bukhari, ‘Iman’, 36; ‘Buyu”, 3; Muslim, ‘Musagah’, 107; Abu Da’d, ‘Buyu”, 3; Tirmidhi, ‘Buyu”, 1; Nasa’i, ‘Buyu?, 3; ‘Ashribah’, 50; Ibn Majah, ‘Fitan’, 14 – Ed.)

It is a pity that many people. who are not conversant with the spirit of the Shari’ah (Islamic law), insist on using these boundaries to the limits. Many religious scholars exert themselves in finding out arguments to justify this attitude, and a point is thus reached where only a hair’s breadth separates obedience from disobedience.

Consequently many people fall prey to disobedience, even to downright error and wrong-doing. For once a man arrives at this point he is seldom capable of discerning between right and wrong, and maintaining the absolute self-control needed to keep within the lawful limits.

(2:188) Do not usurp one another’s possessions by false means, nor proffer your possessions to the authorities so that you may sinfully and knowingly usurp a portion of another’s possessions.1%

197. One meaning of this verse is that people should not try to seek illegitimate benefits by bribing magistrates. Another meaning is that when a person is aware that the property, he claims rightfully belongs to someone else, he should not file a judicial petition either because the other party lacks the evidence to support their case or because by trickery and cunning the petitioner can usurp that property. It is possible that the judicial authority would decide the case in favor of the false claimant on the basis of the formal strength of the claim, but as this judicial verdict would merely be the result of the chicanery to which the claimant had resorted he would not become its rightful owner. In spite of the judgment of the court, the property would remain unlawful for him in the sight of God. It has been reported in a Tradition that the Prophet said: ‘l am merely a human being and you bring to me your disputes. It is possible that some of you will be more impressive in argument than others, so that 1 may give judgment in favor of one on the basis of what 1 hear. Beware that if 1 award to someone what belongs to his brother, I will have assigned to him a lump of Fire.’

(2:189) People question you concerning the phases of the moon. Say: “They are signs to determine time for the sake of people and for the Pilgrimage.” Also tell them: “True righteousness is not that you enter your houses from the back; righteousness lies in fearing Allah. So, enter your houses by their doors, and fear Allah that you might attain true success.” 12

198. The waxing and waning of the moon has attracted men’s attentions throughout the ages and all kinds of fanciful ideas, superstitions and rituals have been, and are still today, associated with it. The moon was considered the basis of good and bad omens. Certain dates were considered auspicious and others inauspicious for starting journeys, for beginning new tasks, for weddings and so on on the ground that the rising and setting of the moon, its waxing and waning and its eclipse affect human destiny. The Arabs too had their share of such superstitions. It was therefore natural that enquiries regarding such matters should be addressed to the Prophet.

In response, God says that the waxing and waning of the moon is nothing more than a physical phenomenon. By its appearance in the firmament, the moon enables man to divide his year and it can thus be considered nature’s own calendar.

Particular reference is made to Hajj because it occupied the position of the highest importance in the religious, cultural and economic life of the Arabs. Four months of the year were specified since they were the months of major and minor Pilgrimage (Hajj and ‘Ummah). During these months there was to be no warfare and the routes were completely safe for traveling. Thanks to the peace and tranquility thus established, trade and commerce prospered.

199. One superstitious custom of the Arabs was that once they entered the state of consecration for Pilgrimage they did not enter their houses by the door. Instead, they either leapt over the walls from the rear or climbed through windows which they had specially erected for that purpose. On returning from journeys, too, they entered their houses from the rear. In this verse this superstitious custom is denounced, as are all superstitious customs; it is pointed out that the essence of moral excellence consists of fearing God and abstaining from disobeying His commands. Those meaningless customs by which people felt bound, out of blind adherence to the traditions of their forefathers, and which had no effect at all on man’s ultimate destiny, had nothing to do with moral excellence.

(2:190) Fight in the way of Allah2” against those who fight against you but do not transgress,2 for Allah does not love transgressors.

200. The believers are asked to fight those who hindered their efforts in the cause of God, and acted with hostility towards them merely because they sought to fashion human life

according to the revealed guidance of God. Earlier, when they were weak and scattered, the Muslims were asked merely to preach and be patient with the wrongful repression meted out to them by their opponents. However, now that a small city state had been established in Madina they were commanded for the first time to unsheathe their swords against those who had resorted to armed hostility against their movement of reform. It was some time after this injunction that the Battle of Badr took place, to be followed by several other battles.

201. The believers are told that material interests should not be the motivation for their fighting, that they should not take up arms against those who were not in opposition to the true faith, that they should not resort to unscrupulous methods or to the indiscriminate killing and pillage which characterized the wars of the pre-Islamic era, the Age of Ignorance.

The excesses alluded to in this verse are acts such as taking up arms against women and children, the old and the injured, mutilation of the dead bodies of the enemy, uncalled-for devastation through the destruction of fields and livestock, and other similar acts of injustice and brutality. In the Hadith, all these acts have been prohibited. The real intent of the verse is to stress that force should be used only when its use is unavoidable, and only to the extent

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By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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