Are You Deaf and Dumb?

Al-Baqarah Ayah No 156 to 180

disown them as they have disowned us?”

 (2:166) At that moment those who have been followed will disown their followers, and they will see the chastisement, and their resources will be cut asunder.

 (2:167) And the followers will then say: “Oh if only we might return again, we would disown them as they have disowned us?” 1 Thus Allah will show them their works in a manner causing them bitter regrets. Never will they come out of the Fire.

165. Here the particular reference is made to the dismal end of those so-called religious leaders who mislead people, and of their gullible followers who fall easy prey to their deception.

This has been done in order to warn the Muslims to beware of the errors which misled former nations and to impress upon them the need to develop the capacity to distinguish between true and spurious leaders so as to avoid being led by the latter.

(2:168) O, people! Eat the lawful and pure things on earth and follow not in the footsteps of Satan.1 For surely he is your open enemy;

166. The demand made here is that they should violate all those taboos in matters of food and drink which have their basis in superstitious beliefs or irrational usages.

(2:169) he only commands you to do evil and commit acts of indecency and to ascribe to Allah the things concerning which you have no knowledge (that He really is there source) .167

167. The notion that all superstitious customs and taboos are God-given religious teachings is an example of satanic deception, pure and simple, since there is no evidence whatsoever to suggest that they are from God.

(2:170) And when they are told: “Follow what Allah has revealed,” they say: “No, we shall follow what we found our forefathers adhering to.”1°8 What! Even if their forefathers were devoid of understanding and right guidance?

168. The only possible argument and justification for these taboos was that they had been sanctified by the practice of their forefathers from whom they had allegedly come down generation after generation. Fickle-minded as they were, they deemed this argument to be sufficiently persuasive.

(2:171) Those who have refused to follow the Way of Allah resemble cattle; when the The shepherd calls them they hear nothing except shouting and crying;!@ they are deaf, dumb and blind, and so they understand nothing.

169. This parable has two aspects. On the one hand, it suggests that these people are like herds of irrational animals, dumb cattle, that always follow their herdsmen, moving on as they hear their calls without understanding what they mean. (Thus these people follow their leaders even though they do not grasp where it is they are being led to – Ed.) On the other hand, it also suggests that when the Truth is preached to them they show such insensitivity to it that one may as well be addressing animals who merely comprehend sounds but are incapable of understanding their meaning. The expression lends itself to both interpretations.

(2:172) Believers! Eat of the pure things wherewith We have provided you for sustenance and give thanks to Allah!if it is Him that you serve.

170. The believers are told that if by having believed they have committed themselves to follow the Law of God as they claim then they should abandon all taboos and prohibitions imposed by the pundits and priests, by the rabbis and church fathers, by the monks and recluses, and by their own forefathers. Although they were required to abstain from whatever had been prohibited by God, they ought to feel no compunction with regard to consuming all that He had permitted. This has also been alluded to in the saying of the Prophet reported in a Tradition in the following words: ‘Whoever prays in our manner, turns towards our qiblah (in Prayer), and eats (the flesh) of our slaughtered (animals), that

person is Muslim. (Bukhari, ‘K. al-Salah’, 28; ‘K. al-Adahi’, 12; Muslim, ‘K. al-Adahi’, 6; Nasai,

‘K. al-Iman’, 9; ‘K. al-Dahaya’, 17 – Ed.) This means that in spite of praying and facing

towards the qiblah, a person is not fully assimilated into Islam as long as he maintains the

pre-Islamic taboos in matters of eating and drinking and holds on to the fetters of

superstition forged by the victims of Ignorance. A person’s adherence to these taboos is

indicative of the fact that the poison of Ignorance continues to flow in his veins.

(2:173) He has made unlawful to you only carrion and blood and the flesh of swine and that over which there has been pronounced the name of anyone other than Allah’s.12 But he who is constrained (to eat of them) – and he neither covets them nor exceeds the indispensable limit incurs no sin: Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.!2

171. This applies to the flesh of an animal slaughtered in the name of anything and anyone other than God as well as to the food prepared as an offering to someone other than God alone is the master of everything – of the animal whose flesh we consume as well as of every other kind of food – and it is He Who has mercifully provided us with them. Hence, if it is appropriate to pronounce any name as an expression of gratitude, of consecration, it can only be the name of God. To use anyone else’s name means that we believe that there is some other being either instead of or in addition to God which deserves to be acknowledged as our Lord and Benefactor.

172. This verse grants permission to use prohibited things with three stipulations. First, one must be in a state of extreme compulsion, for example, being gravely ill or being so hungry and thirsty that one’s very life is in danger, and a prohibited thing is all that is available to save one’s life. Second, the person concerned should have no inclination to violate the Law of God. Third, in consuming the prohibited thing one should not exceed the limits of bare necessity. If a few bites or a few drops are enough to save one’s life, one ought not to go beyond the absolute minimum.

(2:174) Those who conceal anything of the Book revealed by Allah and sell it away for a trifling gain are merely filling their bellies with Fire.12 Allah will neither address them on the Day of Resurrection, nor shall He pronounce them “pure” 14 A painful chastisement lies in store for them.

173. This means that the blame for the growth of whole new codes consisting of superstitions, perverted customs, and unjustifiable taboos lay squarely on the shoulders of those religious scholars who had knowledge of the Scriptures but failed to transmit their knowledge to the common people. Moreover, later, when erroneous practices began to spread among them they remained mute spectators of this drama. Indeed, some of them kept willfully silent about these matters thinking that their interests would be better served if the Scripture remained a sealed book and its injunctions were kept beyond the access of the common people.

174. This is a refutation of the false claims made by their religious leaders and a clarification of the misconceptions regarding their positions and privileges which these leaders had been spreading among the common people. They spared no efforts to give the impression that they were sacred beings and that anyone who attached himself to them would necessarily earn God’s forgiveness through their intercession. Here God is telling them that He takes no notice of people who are unworthy to intercede for themselves, let alone able to intercede for others.

(2:175) They are the ones who bought error in exchange for true guidance, and chastisement in exchange for forgiveness. How patient they are in enduring the Fire!

(2:176) This is so because Allah revealed the Book with the Truth, but those who disagreed concerning the Book veered far away from the Truth.

(2:177) Righteousness does not consist in turning your faces towards the east or towards the west;!2 true righteousness consists in believing in Allah and the Last Day, the angels, the Book and the Prophets, and in giving away one’s property in love of Him to one’s kinsmen, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer, and to those who ask for help, and in freeing the necks of slaves, and in establishing Prayer and dispensing the Zakah. True righteousness is attained by those who are faithful to their promise once they have made it and by those who remain steadfast in adversity and affliction and at the time of battle (between Truth and falsehood). Such are the truthful ones; such are the God-fearing.

175. Turning one’s face towards the east or the west is mentioned here only by way of illustration. The actual purpose of the verse is to emphasize that the observance of certain outward religious rites, the performance of certain formal religious acts out of conformism, and the manifestation of certain familiar forms of piety do not constitute that essential righteousness which alone carries weight with God and earns His recognition and approval.

(2:178) Believers! Retribution is prescribed for you in cases of killing:1% if a freeman is guilty then the freeman; if a slave is guilty then the slave; if a female is guilty, then thefemale.1Z

But if something of a murderer’s guilt is remitted by his brother! this should be adhered to in fairness,12 and payment be made in a goodly manner. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord, and for him who commits excess after that 8 there is a painful chastisement.

176. Retribution, that is, blood revenge, is based on the principle that what a person has done to others ought to be done to him. This does not mean that the murderer should be put to death in exactly the same manner as he killed but that the murderer should be subjected to the same act, i.e. killing, as that to which he subjected his victim.

177. In pre-Islamic Arabia people tried to take blood revenge upon the murderer’s family and tribe, and the retaliation corresponded to the value placed on the blood of the victim.

Their desire for revenge was not quenched merely by putting the murderer to death. They preferred to put to death tens and even hundreds of people to avenge the one life they had lost. If a respected member of their tribe was killed by an ordinary member of another, it was not deemed enough to put to death the actual murderer. They preferred to kill a man of the murderer’s tribe equal in standing to the victim, and even several members of the murderer’s tribe. However, if the victim was a man of humble standing from another tribe, and the murderer from their tribe happened to be a man of high standing, they were unwilling to permit the execution of the murderer.

This attitude is not confined to the Ignorance of that bygone age. Even today those nations that are supposedly the most civilized will often proclaim, officially and quite brazenly, that if one of their citizens is killed they will execute scores of the killer’s compatriots. In addition we Often hear that to avenge the murder of one person a large number of hostages belonging to a subject nation have been shot dead. One of the ‘civilized’ nations of the present century subjected the whole Egyptian nation to blood revenge because one of their officials, Sir Lee Stack, was killed by an Egyptian. The courts of justice of these so-called civilized nations have been known to refrain from passing the death sentence on convicted homicides when they happened to be members of the ruling nation while their victims belonged to the subject nation. It is iniquities such as these that God seeks to end by means of the directive contained in this verse. What God says here is that the killer ought to be put to death irrespective of his status and that of the victim.

178. The very use of the word ‘brother’ in this context suggests that as a general rule one ought to incline towards leniency. Despite the bitterness felt towards someone who has shed the blood of, say, one’s father, the murderer is still one’s brother by virtue of being a member of the human family. Hence if one who has been wronged can overcome the vengeful spirit aroused by his erring brother’s deed, this attitude of forgiveness will be worthy of his humanity.

This verse also makes it clear that according to the Islamic penal law the question of homicide can be settled by the mutual consent of the two parties. It is the prerogative of the

heirs of the victim to forgive the murderer, and if it is exercised not even a judge has the power to insist on carrying out the death sentence. In such a case, however, as the following verse mentions, the murderer will be made to pay blood money.

179. The term ma’ruf occurs quite frequently in the Qur’an. It refers to conduct which is reckoned fair and equitable by the generality of disinterested people. The generally accepted usages and customs of life are called ‘urf and ma’ruf in Islamic terminology, and they are considered valid in all those matters not specifically regulated by the Shar’iah.

180. Excess might consist of trying to avenge the blood of the murdered man even after his heirs have settled the matter and received blood money or of efforts on the part of the murderer to delay the payment of blood money thus repaying the heirs of the victim with ingratitude for their kindness and goodwill.

(2:179) People of understanding, there is life for you in retribution!® that you may guard yourselves against violating the Law.

181. This refutes another notion of Ignorance, a notion ingrained in the minds of many people, both past and present. On the one hand there are some people who, entrenched in Ignorance, tend to exceed the limits of moderation in revenge. At the other end of the spectrum stand those who are opposed in principle to the concept of executing a murderer.

They have conducted such intense, world-wide propaganda against the death penalty that it has become abhorrent to many people. In fact the impact of this propaganda has been so great that in many countries the death penalty has been abolished altogether.

The Qur’an, however, addresses itself on this question to wise and intelligent people and cautions them against such immoderate leniency by proclaiming that the survival of human society rests on the application of the death penalty for homicide. A society which holds inviolable the lives of those who disregard the sanctity of human life is in fact rearing snakes and serpents. To save the life of one murderer is to risk the lives of many innocent human beings.

(2:180) It is decreed that when death approaches, those of you who leave behind property shall bequeath equitably to parents and kinsmen. This is an obligation on the God-fearing.1%

182. This injunction relates to a period of time when no rules had been laid down for the distribution of inheritance. Thus everyone was required to make testamentary disposal of their property so as to ensure that no disputes arose in the family and no legitimate claimant to inheritance was deprived of his due share. Later when God revealed a set of laws regarding the distribution of inheritance see (Qur’an 4: 11 ff.), the Prophet elucidated further the laws relating to testamentary disposition and inheritance by expounding two rules.

First, that no person can make any will regarding his estate in favor of any of his legal heirs. Their portions were laid down in the Qur’an and neither increase nor decrease in this was permissible, nor could any heir be disinherited, nor anything willed in favor of any heir over and above his legal portion. (See the Tradition: ‘There may be no will in favor of the heir.’ See Abu Da’ud, ‘Al-Wasaya’, 6; Tirmidhi, ‘Al-Wasaya’, 5; Nasa’i, ‘Al-Wasaya’, 5; Ibn Majah, ‘Al-Wasaya’, 5 – Ed.)

Second, that testamentary disposition might be made to the extent of one third of the estate, but no more. (See Bukhari, ‘Al-Wasaya’, 2 and 3; Muslim, ‘Al-Wasiyah’, 5-10; Abu Da’ud, ‘Al- Wasaya’, 2 – Ed.)

The purpose underlying these explanatory directives of the Prophet seems to be that at least two-thirds of the estate should be left aside to be distributed among the legal heirs according to the Qur’anic rules, and that a will could be made in respect of the whole or part of the remaining one-third. This could be made in favor of either relatives, whether close or distant, who are not legal heirs, or others not related by the blood-tie but who are deserving of assistance. Likewise, a will could be made in favor of charitable causes which are found worthy of support.

In later times people began to regard this directive regarding testamentary disposal as a recommendation only. The result was that this rule fell largely into disuse. It is significant, however, that the Qur’an mentions it as ‘an obligation on the God-fearing’. Were Muslims to make this injunction an operative institution no trace would remain of the problems which agitate their minds respecting the Islamic law of inheritance , for example grandchildren whose parents had predeceased their paternal or maternal grandparents and who, under Islamic law, were not entitled to inherit from their grandparents. (The author suggests that re-activating the Qur’anic directive on testamentary disposal is the answer to this and

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Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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