Search Heaven AL-BAQRAH

AYAH 36 to 45

SURAH Al-BAQARAH AYAH 36 t0 45

(2:36) But Satan caused both of them to deflect from obeying Our command by tempting them to the tree and brought them out of the state they were in, and We said:

“Get down all of you; henceforth, each of you is an enemy of the other, and on earth you

 shall have your abode and your livelihood for an appointed time.”

50. This means that Satan is the enemy of man, and vice versa. That Satan is the enemy, of

man is obvious enough, for he tries to drive him off the course of obedience to God and leads him to perdition, but one might wonder how the man could be referred to as the enemy of Satan. The fact is that man’s essential humanity makes this enmity incumbent upon him.

Man, however, is often deceived by Satan and befriends him owing to the temptations that he holds out to him. This kind of friendship does not mean that the basic, irreconcilable clash of interests between man and Satan has been resolved. It only means that one of the two (Satan) has defeated and successfully trapped the other (man).

(2:37) Thereupon Adam learned from his Lord some words and repented® and his Lord accepted his repentance for He is Much-Relenting, Most Compassionate.

51. This means that when Adam became conscious of his act of sin and wanted to return from his state of disobedience to that of obedience, and when he tried to seek remission for his sin from God, he was unable to find the words to use in his prayer to God. In His Mercy God taught him the words with which he could pray.

The word tawbah denotes ‘to come back, to turn towards someone. Tawbah, on the part of man, signifies that he has given up his attitude of disobedience and has returned to submission and obedience to God. The same word used in respect of God means that He has mercifully turned towards His repentant servant so that the latter has once more become an object of His compassionate attention.

52. The Qur’an refutes the doctrine that certain consequences necessarily follow from sins and that man must in all cases bear them. This is one of the most misleading doctrines to have been invented by human imagination. If it were true it would mean that a sinner

would never have the opportunity to have his repentance accepted. It is a mechanistic view

of reward and punishment and thus prevents and discourages the sinner from trying to

improve.

The Qur’an, on the contrary, tells the man that reward for good actions and punishment for bad ones rests entirely with God. The reward that one receives for good acts is not the natural consequence of those acts; it is rather due to the grace and benevolence of God and it is entirely up to Him to reward one or not. Likewise, punishment for evil deeds is not a natural and unalterable consequence of man’s acts. God has full authority to punish man for his sin as well as to pardon him.

God’s grace and mercy, however, are interrelated with His wisdom. Since He is wise, He does not use His power arbitrarily. Hence, whenever God rewards a man for his good acts, he does so because the good was done with purity of intention and for the sake of pleasing God. And if God refuses to accept an act of apparent goodness, He does so because that act had merely the form or appearance of goodness, and was not motivated by the desire to please God. In the same way, God punishes man for those sins which he commits with rebellious boldness, and which whet his appetite for more rather than lead him to repentance.

Similarly, in His mercy, God pardons those sins which are followed by genuine repentance and readiness on the part of the sinner to reform himself. There is no need for the criminal to despair of God’s grace and mercy, no matter how great a criminal he is. Nor is there any reason for even the most rabid disbeliever to despair, provided he recognizes his error, repents of his disobedience and is ready to replace his former disobedience with obedience.

(2:38) We said: “Get you down from here,® all of you, and guidance shall come to you

from Me: then, whoever will follow My guidance need have no fear, nor shall they grieve.

53. The reiteration of this statement is significant. We have been told above that Adam repented and that his repentance was accepted by God. This means that the stain of sin was washed away and therefore no stain remained on the contrary, God not only accepted Adam’s repentance but also honored him by end dowing him with prophet hood so that he might be able to direct his children correctly.

The repetition of the order to leave Paradise and go down to earth is aimed at driving home the point that earth was not created as a place of punishment for man. On the contrary, man was put on earth to serve as God’s vicegerent there. It was only to test man and thereafter to equip him for the performance of God’s viceregency that man was placed temporarily in Paradise. See also(n. 48 above.)

(2:39) But those who refuse to accept this (guidance) and reject Our Signs as false are destined for the Fire where they shall abide forever.”

54. Ayat is the plural of ayah which means a ‘sign’ or ‘token’ which directs one to something important. In the Qur’an, this word is used in four different senses. Sometimes it denotes a sign or indication. In certain other places, the phenomena of the universe are called the ayah (signs) of God, for the reality to which the phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances. At times the miracles performed by the Prophets are also termed ayah since they show that the Prophets were envoys of the Sovereign of the universe. Lastly, individual units of the Book of God are also called ayah because they point to the ultimate reality and

because the substantive contents of the Book of God, its phraseology, its style, its inimitable

literary excellence are clear tokens of the attributes of the Author of the Book. The sense in which the word ayah has been used in a particular verse becomes evident from the context of its occurrence.

55. This is a permanent directive from God to mankind that is valid from the beginning of life until the Day of Judgment. It is this which has been mentioned earlier as God’s covenant see (n. 31 above).

It is not for man to prescribe the way of life that his fellow human beings should follow.

In his double capacity as the subject and vicegerent of God, man is required to follow the way of life prescribed by his Lord. There are only two means of access to this way: either by direct revelation from God or by following one to whom God has revealed guidance.

Nothing else can direct man to the way that enjoys God’s approval and good pleasure.

Resorting to any other means in quest of salvation is not only fundamentally mistaken but tantamount to rebellion.

The story of the creation of Adam and the origin of the human species occurs seven times in the Qur’an, once in the verses just mentioned. For other references see (7: 11 ff), (15: 26 ff) (17: 61 ff)., (18: 50), (20: 116 ff)., (38:71 ff). The story also occurs in the Bible in Genesis 1, 2

and 3. A comparative reading of the Qur’anic and Biblical versions will enable the perceptive reader to detect the differences between the two.

The dialogue between God and the angels at the time of the creation of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud. This account lacks the spiritual significance underlying the

Qur’anic version. Indeed, the Talmudic version additionally contains the following oddity:

when the angels ask why men are being created, God replies that they are being created so those good people may be born among them. God refrains from mentioning the bad people

lest the angels disapprove of the creation of man! (See Paul Isaac Hershon, Talmudic Miscellany, London, 1880, pp. 294

(2:40) Children of Israel!5¢ Recall My favor which I had bestowed on you and fulfill your covenant with Me and I shall fulfill My covenant with you, and fear Me alone.

56. ‘Israel’ means the slave of God. This was the title conferred on Jacob (Ya’qub) by God Himself. He was the son of Isaac and the grandson of Abraham. His progeny are styled the ‘Children of Israel’. Turning to the Qur’anic text itself, it is noteworthy that the foregoing verses have been in the nature of introductory remarks addressed to all mankind. From the present section up to and including the fourteenth (verses 40 discourse, the reader should be particularly aware of the following purposes:

The first purpose of this discourse is to invite those followers of the earlier Prophets who still had some element of righteousness and goodness to believe in the Truth reached by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him) and to join hands in promoting the mission he championed. In these sections, they are told that the Qur’an and the Prophet are bearers of the same message and mission preached by the earlier Prophets and Scriptures.

The earlier communities were entrusted with the Truth so that, as well as following it  themselves, they might call others towards it and try to persuade them to follow it.

But instead of directing the world in the light of this truth, they failed to follow the Divine Guidance and sank into degeneracy. Their history and their contemporary religious and moral  condition bore out this degeneration.

They are also told that God has once again entrusted the same Truth to one of His servants and has appointed him to carry out the same mission as that of the earlier Prophets and their followers. What the Prophet has brought is, therefore, neither new nor foreign; it is their very own, and they are asked to accept it as such. A new group of people has then arisen with the same mission they had, but which they failed to carry out. It is their duty to support these people.

The second purpose of this discourse is to leave no reasonable justification for the negative Jewish attitude towards Islam, and to expose fully the true state of the religious and moral life of the Jews. This discourse makes it clear that the religion preached by the Prophet was the same as that preached by the Prophets of Israel. So far as the fundamentals are concerned, nothing in the Qur’an differs from the teachings of the Torah. It is also established that the Jews failed glaringly to follow the guidance entrusted to them, even as they had failed to live up to the  position of leadership in which they had been placed. This point is established by reference to  events of irrefutable authenticity. Moreover, how the Jews resorted to conspiracies and underhand machinations designed to

create doubts and misgivings, the mischievous manner in which they engaged in discussions, the acts of trickery in which they indulged in willful opposition to the Truth, and the vile tactics  which they employed to frustrate the mission of the Prophet, were all brought into sharp relief to establish that their formal, legalistic piety was a sham. What lay behind it was bigotry, chauvinism, and self-aggrandizement rather than an honest search for and commitment to the Truth. The plain fact was that they did not want goodness to flourish.

This candid criticism of the Jews had several salutary effects. On the one hand, it made the situation clear to the good elements among the Jews. On the other, it destroyed the religious and moral standing of the Jews among the people of Madina, and the pagans of Arabia as a whole. Moreover, it undermined the morale of the Jews to such an extent that from then on they could not oppose Islam with a firmness born of strong inner conviction.

Third, the message addressed in the earlier sections to mankind as a whole is here elucidated regarding a particular people. The example of the Jews is cited to show the tragic end that overtakes a people when it spurns Divine Guidance. The reason for choosing the Children of Israel as an example is that they alone, out of all the nations, constituted for four thousand years the continual embodiment of a tragedy from which many lessons could be learned. The vicissitudes of fortune which visit a people, depending on whether they follow or refrain from following Divine Guidance, were all conspicuous in the history of this nation. Fourth, this discourse is designed to warn the followers of Muhammad (peace be on him) to avoid the same pitfalls as the followers of the earlier Prophets. While explaining the requirements of the true faith, it specifies the moral weaknesses, the false concepts of religion, and the numerous errors in religious belief and practice which had made inroads among the Jews. The purpose is to enable Muslims to see their true path clearly and to avoid false ones. While studying the Qur’anic criticism of the Jews and Christians, Muslims should remember the Tradition from the Prophet in which he warned them that they would so closely follow the ways of the earlier religious communities that if the latter had entered a lizard’s burrow, so would the Muslims. The Prophet was asked: ‘Do you mean the Christians and Jews,

O messenger of God?’ The Prophet replied: ‘Who else?’ (See Bukhari, ‘Itisam’, 14; Muslim, “Ilm’, 6 – Ed.) This was not merely an expression of reproof. Thanks to the peculiar discernment and insight with which the Prophet was endowed, he knew how corruption encroaches upon the lives of the followers of the Prophets, and the different forms it assumes.

(2:41) And believe in the Book which I have revealed and which confirms the Scripture you already have, and be not foremost among its deniers. Do not sell My signs for a trifling gain, Zand beware of My wrath.

57. ‘Trifling gain’ refers to the worldly benefits for the sake of which they were rejecting God’s directives. Whatever one may gain in exchange for the Truth, be it all the treasure in the world, is trifling; the Truth is of supreme value.

(2:42) Do not confound Truth by overlaying it with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the Truth.3

58. For the proper understanding of this verse we need to recall that in the time of the Prophet the Jews of Arabia were more learned than the Arabs. There were some Jewish scholars of Arabia whose fame had spread even beyond the confines of that land. For this reason, the Arabs tended to be intellectually overawed by them. In addition, the influence of the Jews had become pervasive and profound under the pomp and pageantry of their religious rites, and the magical crafts and feats of exorcism for which they were famous. The people of Madina, in particular, were greatly under the spell of the Jews.

by a better educated, more refined, and more conspicuously religious group.

It was natural in such circumstances that, when the Prophet began to preach his message, the ignorant Arabs should approach the Jews and ask their opinion of the Prophet and his teachings, particularly as the Jews also believed in prophets and Scriptures. We find that this was often made by the Makkans, and continued to be addressed to the Jews after the Prophet arrived in Madina.

In reply to this query, however, the Jewish religious scholars never told the candid truth. They couldn’t say that the doctrine of monotheism preached by Muhammad (saw)was incorrect, that there was an error in his teachings regarding the Prophets, the Divine Scriptures, the angels, and the Next Life, and that there was an error in the principles of moral conduct which the Prophet propounded. At the same time, however, they were not prepared to make a straightforward affirmation of the truth of his teachings. In short, they neither categorically denied the Truth nor were prepared to accept it with open hearts.

Instead, they tried to plant insidious doubts in the minds of everybody who enquired about the Prophet and his mission. They sought to create one misgiving after another,

disseminated new slanders and tried to engage people’s minds in all kinds of hypothetical problems to keep them in a state of doubt and uncertainty. They also tried to raise controversial issues which might keep people, including the followers of the Prophet, entangled in sterile debate. It is this attitude of the Jews to which the Qur’an alludes when it asks them not to overlay the truth with falsehood, not to suppress and conceal it by resorting to false propaganda and mischievous campaigns of the lander, and not to attempt to deceive the world by mixing truth with falsehood.

(2:43) Establish Prayer and dispense Zakah (the Purifying Alms) and bow in worship with those who bow.

59. Prayer and Purifying Alms (Zakah) have always been among the most important pillars of the Islamic faith. Like other Prophets, the Prophets of Israel laid great stress upon them.

The Jews had, however, become very negligent about these duties. Congregational Prayer had all but ceased among them; in fact, a great majority of the Jews did not perform Prayers

even individually. They had also not only ceased to pay Purifying Alms, but some had even gone so far as to make their living out of interest.

(2:44) Do you enjoin righteousness on people and forget your selves even though you recite the Scripture? Have you no sense?

(2:45) And resort to patience and Prayer for help. Truly Prayer is burdensome for all

except the devout,

60. That is, if they feel difficulty in keeping to righteousness, the remedy lies in resorting to

Prayer and patience. From these two attributes, they will derive the strength needed to follow their chosen course.

The literal meaning of ‘saber’ is to exercise restraint, to keep oneself tied down. It denotes the

willpower, the firm resolve, and the control over animal desires which enables man to advance along the path of his choice – the path that satisfies his heart and conscience – in

utter disregard of the temptations within, and all obstacles and opposition without. The purpose of this directive is to urge man to develop this quality and to reinforce it from the outside by employing Prayer.

(2:46) who realize that ultimately they will have to meet their Lord and that to Him they are destined to return.

61. This means that Prayer is an insufferable encumbrance and affliction for the man who tends not to want to obey, God and to believe in the Afterlife. For the man who, of his violation, has to stand before God after death, it is failure to perform the Prayer, rather than its performance, that becomes intolerable.

Published
Categorized as quran

By Tariq Saleem

I am a student of Quran and keen to make dawah for inviting peoples to save there selves from hellfire. This life is very short then the eternal life after death every body has to think about it and do some research to walk on a true path.

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